Browsing by Subject "mixed methods"

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  • Pulido Rodriguez, Cristina M.; Ovseiko, Pavel; Palomar, Marta Font; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Ramis, Mimar (2021)
    In the digital era, social media has become a space for the socialization and interaction of citizens, who are using social networks to express themselves and to discuss scientific advances with citizens from all over the world. Researchers are aware of this reality and are increasingly using social media as a source of data to explore citizens' voices. In this context, the methods followed by researchers are mainly based on the content analysis using manual, automated or combined tools. The aim of this article is to share a protocol for Social Media Analytics that includes a Communicative Content Analysis (CCA). This protocol has been designed for the Horizon 2020 project Allinteract, and it includes the social impact in social media methodology. The novel contribution of this protocol is the detailed elaboration of methods and procedures to capture emerging realities in citizen engagement in science in social media using a Communicative Content Analysis (CCA) based on the contributions of Communicative Methodology (CM).
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Kauppinen, Vera; Juhola, Sirkku; Setten, Gunhild; Lein, Haakon (2020)
    Despite a notable increase in the literature on community resilience, the notion of 'community' remains underproblematised. This is evident within flood risk management (FRM) literature, in which the understanding and roles of communities may be acknowledged but seldom discussed in any detail. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how community networks are configured by different actors, whose roles and responsibilities span spatial scales within the context of FRM. Accordingly, the authors analyse findings from semi-structured interviews, policy documents, and household surveys from two flood prone areas in Finnish Lapland. The analysis reveals that the ways in which authorities, civil society, and informal actors take on multiple roles are intertwined and form different types of networks. By implication, the configuration of community is fuzzy, elusive and situated, and not confined to a fixed spatiality. The authors discuss the implications of the complex nature of community for FRM specifically, and for community resilience more broadly. They conclude that an analysis of different actors across scales contributes to an understanding of the configuration of community, including community resilience, and how the meaning of community takes shape according to the differing aims of FRM in combination with differing geographical settings.
  • Anttila, Henrika; Sullanmaa, Jenni; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2021)
    Even if pursuing a doctorate is both emotionally challenging and rewarding, empirical research focusing on doctoral students' academic emotions is limited. Therefore, in this study we have contributed to bridging the gap in the research on the doctoral experience by mapping the emotional landscape of doctoral experience. In addition, we have shed light on potential invariants and socio-cultural characteristics of the emotional landscape by doing a cross-country comparison between Danish and Finnish doctoral students. A total of 272 doctoral students (Danish: 145, Finnish: 127) from the field of humanities and social sciences responded to the Cross-cultural Doctoral Experience Survey. The data were both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, using a mixed methods approach. The results showed that the doctoral students experienced a wide range of both positive and negative emotions embedded in various activities of the doctoral experience, including supervision, scholarly community, doctoral research, development as a scholar and structures and resources. The results revealed some associations between the emotions that were experienced as well as differences between the countries.
  • Mattern, Emilie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The coronavirus outbreak disrupted life around the globe in 2020, which led to the suspension of face-to-face teaching. Based on previous research, it is clear that student participation in face-to-face lectures has a positive impact on their academic performance. Now, however, we find ourselves in a situation where it is not even physically possible to attend lectures. This raises the question of how distance education has affected the level of students’ academic performance and how do students experience distance education. The aim of this mixed methods study is first to quantitatively identify the effect of distance education on the level of students’ academic performance when compared to the results of normal course implementation. The results were obtained by examining the exam results and the course assignment results of a total of 728 students over a three-year period from the same course, two of which were implemented normally and one remotely due to the coronavirus outbreak. The preliminary analysis of the first phase raised the need to examine these results in more depth through qualitative analysis. The aim of the qualitative analysis is to find out how students experienced distance education in the Quantitative research methods 1 course. This second phase of the study consisted of eight students, whose exam results were also reviewed in the first phase of the study. Staying true to the mixed methods’ Explanatory Sequential Design, the final phase of the study sought to explain the results of the quantitative phase with the help of the qualitative results. In other words the students’ experiences sought to explain the fluctuation of the level of students’ academic performace. The quantitative part of the study showed that distance education had a positive effect on the level of students’ academic performance. A statistically significant positive correlation was found when examining the overall exam grade, the exam question scores regarding the lectures and exercises, and the course assignment results. The qualitative part of the study showed that students associated both positive and negative experiences regarding distance education. Positive experiences were related to the utilization of lecture recordings, the choices of the lecturer, and the benefits of a distance exam, while negative experiences were related to a lack of interaction, challenges in organizing one’s own work, and IT related probelms. This study shows that it is in the interest of both students and the university to provide lecture recordings regardless of how the course is organized.
  • Sorvoja, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää saksalaisen klassisen musiikin kaupallisen radiokanavan, Klassik Radion, toimintaa sosiaalisen median mobiilisovellus Instagramissa. Toimintaa tarkastellaan kolmesta eri näkökulmasta: ensiksi Klassik Radion, toiseksi radiokanavan Instagram-sisällön ja kolmanneksi Klassik Radion 18–34-vuotiaiden Instagram-seuraajien näkökulmasta. Laajemmin tutkielma pyrkii selvittämään sosiaalisen median mahdollisuuksia siinä, miten nuoria voitaisiin saada klassisen musiikin ja sitä tarjoavien radiokanavien kuulijoiksi. Tutkielma hyödyntää ns. ”Mixed Methods”, eli sekä kvalitatiivisia että kvantitatiivisia tutkimusmenetelmiä. Analyysin pohjana käytetään sisältöanalyysiä ja tavallisimpia tilastoanalyysin käsitteitä. Tutkittavaa dataa on neljänlaista: Klassik Radion CCO:n (Chief Content Officer) asiantuntijahaastattelu, Klassik Radion sosiaalisen median yleisohjeet (Social Media Guidelines), 50 peräkkäin julkaistua Instagram-postausta aikavälillä 21.5.–9.7.2020 sekä Klassik Radion 18–34-vuotiaille Instagram-seuraajille kohdennetun kyselytutkimuksen vastaukset. Tutkielman tulokset osoittivat, että 18–34-vuotiaiden keskuudessa on kiinnostusta klassista musiikkia kohtaan. Niiden instituutioiden, jotka tarjoavat kuulijoille klassista musiikkia, tulisi osata vastata tähän tarpeeseen. Klassik Radio ei tutkimuksen perusteella tavoitteellisesti pyri laajentamaan kohderyhmäänsä tähän ikäryhmään kuuluviin henkilöihin. Heidän Instagram-tilinsä toimii tunnettuuden lisäämisen välineenä ja yhteytenä kuulijoihin. Instagram-postausten sisältötutkimuksessa selvisi, että Klassik Radio julkaisee tilillään pääsääntöisesti mainontaa ohjelmatarjontaansa liittyen. Kyselytutkimuksen tulokset näyttivät, että 18–34-vuotiaat pitävät Klassik Radion Instagram-sisältöä mielenkiintoisena ja toivovat radiokanavalta lisää tietoa klassisesta musiikista sekä informatiivisessa että hauskassa muodossa.
  • Slotte-Kock, Susanna (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009)
    Economics and Society
    Multiple Perspectives on Networks: Conceptual Development, Application and Integration in an Entrepreneurial Context. The purpose of this thesis is to enhance cross-fertilization between three different approaches to network research. The business network approach may contribute in terms of how relationships are created, developed and how tie content changes within ties, not only between them. The social network approach adds to the discussion by offering concepts of structural change on a network level. The network approach in entrepreneurship contributes by emphasizing network content, governance and structure as a way of understanding and capturing networks. This is discussed in the conceptual articles, Articles 2 and 3. The ultimate purpose of this thesis is to develop a theoretical and empirical understanding of network development processes. This is fulfilled by presenting a theoretical framework, which offers multiple views on process as a developmental outcome. The framework implies that change ought to be captured both within and among relationships over time in the firm as well as in the network. Consequently, changes in structure and interaction taking place simultaneously need to be included when doing research on network development. The connection between micro and macro levels is also stressed. Therefore, the entrepreneur or firm level needs to be implemented together with the network level. The surrounding environment impacts firm and network development and vice versa and hence needs to be integrated. Further, it is necessary to view network development not only as a way forward but to include both progression and regression as inevitable parts of the process. Finally, both stability and change should be taken into account as part of network development. Empirical results in Article 1 show support for a positive impact of networks on SME internationalization. Article 4 compares networks of novice, serial and portfolio entrepreneurs but the empirical results show little support for differences in the networks by type of entrepreneur. The results demonstrate that network interaction and structure is not directly impacted by type of entrepreneur involved. It indicates instead that network structure and interaction is more impacted by the development phase of the firm. This in turn is in line with the theoretical implications, stating that the development of the network and the firm impacts each other, as they co-evolve.
  • Kääriä, Mira (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objectives. The objective of this study was to develop a Easy to Read Survey of character strengths to be used with intensive special education students. With this survey and interviews this study examined the beliefs concerning strengths that the intensive special needs youth had. Theoretically this study is based on positive psychology and the VIA-philosophy of character strengths. The research done in the field of character strengths education in the context of intensive special education has been scarce. Assessment tools of character strengths suitable for Finnish intensive special education students have not been available. Character strengths education is one way to approach teaching intensive special education students focusing on their strong areas instead of their weaknesses. With this approach the learning environment of these students can be modified to better notice the student's individual qualities. By doing this, we can take another small step towards an inclusive school and society. Methods. This study utilized a mixed methods approach, and both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. The first phase of the study included the modification of the survey of character strengths to answer to the needs of intensive special education students. In the second phase of the study the Easy to Read character strengths survey was piloted in an intensive special needs class. Eight youth aged 12-14 years participated in the piloting and interviews. One special needs class teacher and three classroom assistants that worked with the students were also asked to evaluate the character strengths of the eight students. In the qualitative analysis, the interview data was analysed using a narrative approach, and different types of beliefs concerning strengths were sought from the interview narratives. In the quantitative analysis, the data describing the youth's character strengths that was collected from three different sources (the survey, the adults' evaluation and the students' self-evaluation) was compared. Finally, the result of the narrative analysis and the quantitative analysis were combined, when the narrative belief types connection to the coherence of the results of the survey and the conformity of the different evaluations was examined. Results and conclusions. The analysis of the narratives found three types of beliefs concerning strengths. These types differed in how the youth saw the meaning of the character strengths in their lives, and what kind of situations the students thought the strengths were needed in. The quantitative analysis found, that when the beliefs were more personal, the different evaluations of the students' strengths were more consistent. Overall, the result of the study showed, that the Easy to Read survey of character strengths identified some of the signature strengths of the intensive special education youth. However, the modified and shortened survey is not equal to the original VIA-survey in accuracy. Nevertheless, the results of this study show that the Easy to Read survey of character strengths is a useful tool in assessing the character strengths of intensive special education youth.
  • Rissanen, Minka (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Objectives. Research ethics is an essential part of good science and the craftsmanship of trained professionals. However, there are only few studies about teaching and learning research ethics in universities. In the context of Finnish universities, the research is non-existent. The objective of this study was to examine students' research ethics skills and perceptions, and how university appears as a learning environment from the students' perspective. The objective was also to recognise possible developmental needs in education. The concept of ethical sensitivity represented the research ethics skills of students. Methods. The study utilised a mixed methods approach. The population consisted of psychology and educational science students in University of Helsinki. Students (N=87) responded to a questionnaire examining whether students' empathy, organisational and professional socialisation, and experiences on the department's ethical climate have a relationship with their sensitivity in research ethics issues. Three vignettes were composed for measuring sensitivity in research ethics issues. The informants' task was to recognise the ethical issues embedded in the vignettes. Also the relationship between students' age, field of study, progression in studies, and sensitivity in research ethics issues was examined. Six students, who were also respondents of the questionnaire, were interviewed. The frame of the interviews was created on the grounds of the quantitative results. The interviews were analysed thematically. Results and conclusions. According to principal component analysis, the measure of socialisation did not consist of the same dimensions than the original measure (organisational socialisation and professional socialisation). The Finnish data produced two new components: socialisation to the values of the field and the department, and socialisation to the practices of the field and the department. The latter component predicted sensitivity to ethical issues in research (?=.287, p=.023, R2=.09) in the regression model. Other variables did not have the same relation. The six students interviewed represented two different student clusters based on their socialisation in cluster analysis. Those students who reported a high level of socialisation to the values and the practices of the field and the department emphasised research ethics as certain practices, whereas those students who did not report a high level of socialisation emphasised the relativity of values and the importance of questioning existing norms. The findings suggest that in order for students to commit themselves to ethical research practices, they need to figure out the value basis of those practices. For teaching research ethics this implies that practical guidelines and realistic examples will have to be underpinned with thorough discussions about the underlying values and their consequences. This way the development of the students to responsible and ethical subjects can be assisted successfully.
  • Määttä, Saku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Given the rise in prevalence of stress, lack of time management skills and prolonged graduations among university students, promoting student’s well-being and study practices has become very important. While psychological flexibility a.k.a. dealing with all kinds of emotions and being present in the moment has proven to increase sense of well-being and lower stress among working adults, it has not been widely explored in the university context. Along with psychological flexibility, organised studying has been found to be an important factor in relation to academic achievement, study progress and well-being among university students. The purpose of this study is to explore development of psychological flexibility and organised studying in relation to stress, well-being and studying. Total of 106 university students took part in a web-based course aimed at promoting university students’ well-being, stress management skills, psychological flexibility and organised studying. Development of the items were measured by self-report questionnaires in the beginning and in the end of the course. Additionally, a learning report (n=86) was conducted by the students at the end of the course where the students reflected on their development regarding general well-being, studying and learning during the course. Student’s scores improved quantitatively across all the measured dimensions during the course. Mean scores on psychological flexibility, organised studying and sense of well-being increased and the scores regarding stress reduced. The results are in line with the qualitative analysis, in which students report that they learned to organise their studying and use skills related to psychological flexibility in various ways in studying context. The results imply that a web-based course which is aimed to improve student’s psychological flexibility and organised studying would also improve the student’s sense of well-being and reduce stress in their studies.
  • Ojamäki, Aurora (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    In the last few years, no extensive research has been done on schools' morning assembly practices. The last larger study was done in 1989. Since then, the Finnish school legislation and the Finnish National Curriculum have both changed significantly. The Basic Education Decree obligates the Finnish schools to have morning assemblies as a part of every school day. It states: "A day's work must be started with a brief morning assembly." This study had two main goals. The first goal of this study was to gather specific and intensive information on three schools' morning assembly practices. The tradition in Finland is to have both shared morning assemblies where the whole school gathers together, and each class' own morning assemblies. This study focuses on both types of morning assemblies. The second goal was to examine what the teachers of these three schools found to be the main purpose of morning assemblies, how meaningful they found morning assemblies, and what they thought about religious morning assemblies. This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was conducted in two schools ("school 1" and "school 2") in November-December 2015 using questionnaires to examine the morning assembly practices. In the second phase of this study, in October 2016, the material was gathered from "school 3" also using questionnaires. Two teachers were interviewed from each school; six teachers in total. The respondents to the questionnaires were teachers and classroom assistants. A mixed methods –strategy was used to analyse the results of this study. The material gathered by questionnaires was organized in Microsoft Excel; percentages were used to express the results. The interview material was analysed using thematic analysis. According to the results, in all three schools it was usually the teacher who organized the class' own morning assemblies. In "school 1" morning assemblies were usually held in the class room every day. In "school 2" only 66,7% of respondents answered that they had morning assemblies every day in the classroom, and in "school 3", only 60 % of the respondents answered that they held morning assemblies every day. According to the respondents, shared morning assemblies were held at least once a month in "school 1". In "school 2", shared morning assemblies were not held as often. In "school 3", shared morning assemblies were held multiple times in a month, but some of them were held via the tannoy. In all the schools the Evangelical Lutheran Church had a significant role in the shared morning assemblies; more so in schools 1 and 2. The teachers found the class' own morning assemblies to have a lot of social importance. According to the teachers, both them and especially their pupils liked to share things about their lives during the morning assemblies. The teachers also stated that morning assemblies were especially important for pupils with special needs; they need a lot of structure in their schooldays, and that is what morning assemblies can provide. According to the interviewed teachers, the shared morning assemblies helped to create a sense of community in the schools. Most interviewees had positive or neutral reactions towards religious morning assemblies, although some teachers were worried about the pupils who don't participate in the religious morning assemblies; the interviewees thought that those pupils miss out on the sense of community. The religious morning assemblies were also thought to be too difficult to understand for the pupils. Most of the interviewees were somewhat open to the idea of other religions' (than the Evangelical Lutheran Church) representatives to hold morning assemblies, but none of the interviewees had themselves considered that option before the interview.
  • Kivijarvi, Antti; Aaltonen, Sanna; Välimäki, Vesa (2019)
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of online group activities alongside one-to-one offline counselling in youth work targeted toward young adults not in employment or education. The study examines the feasibility of moderated anonymous online group (MAOG) discussions from a comprehensive standpoint, with reference to the perspectives of end-users, service providers and further research. The paper is based on a two-arm, quasi-experimental and mixed methods study. To this end, the data consists of group interviews with young adults and youth workers arranged at the beginning of the study, baseline and follow-up interviews, online discussion threads, as well as evaluations of the online group activities. The piloted intervention was most acceptable to young adults who suffered from loneliness and had difficulties in joining face-to-face groups. Most youth work professionals considered the pilot viable. Finally, several modifications are suggested prior to implementing an experimental setting to study the effectiveness of the intervention.
  • Vihma, Peeter; Toikka, Arho (2021)
    Despite the reported success of introducing collaborative governance to the field of Estonian forest policy, conflicts over regulations escalated to an unprecedented extent in 2017. We analyze the institutional design and process of collaborative governance in this area in order to understand the reasons behind the failure of this governance arrangement. Our empirical analysis is based on a mixed methods approach combining network analysis with qualitative analysis of interview data. Our analysis reveals that the collaborative institutions were unable to generate shared understanding of the mission and the ground rules of decision-making, provided uneven facilitation, failed to build trust, and thus were unable to establish an arena conducive to learning. We further stress the role of network methods in capturing adequate information from an institutional setting involving multiple participants.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Tuukka; Eranti, Veikko; Kukkonen, Anna (2022)
    We argue that 'topics' of topic models can be used as a useful proxy for frames if (1) frames are operationalized as connections between concepts; (2) theme-specific data are used; and (3) topics are validated in terms of frame analysis. Demonstrating this, we analyse 12 climate change frames used by NGOs, governments and experts in Indian and US media, gathered by topic modeling. We contribute methodologically to topic modeling in the social sciences and frame analysis of public debates, and empirically to research on climate change media debates.
  • Hinkka, K; Aalto, L; Toikka, T (Kela, 2015)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 134
    Työpaikkaan integroitunutta varhaiskuntoutusta pidetään keinona pidentää työuria. Kelan työhönkuntoutuksen kehittämishankkeen tarkoitus on tuottaa työikäisille uudenlaisia moniammatillisia kuntoutusmalleja, joita voidaan soveltaa harkinnanvaraisessa ja ammatillisessa kuntoutuksessa. Tässä raportissa esitetään tulokset viiden uuden kuntoutusmallin arviointitutkimuksesta. Neljä niistä kohdistui vakiintuneisiin työsuhteisiin ja yksi yrittäjille. Tutkimus tehtiin mallien kehittämistyön päätyttyä, kun kukin laitos (Avire, ODL, Petrea, Peurunka, Verve) toteutti valmista malliaan (HYPRO, JYRI, KOKONAISKUNTO, MODULO, TUUKKA) vielä kolmella kuntoutujaryhmällä. Tutkimuksessa arvioitiin kuntoutusmallien kehittämisideoiden toteutettavuutta ja toimivuutta eri toimijoiden näkökulmasta sekä kartoitettiin alustavasti kokemuksia mallien vaikutuksista. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin monimenetelmäistä tutkimusotetta ja sekä laadullisia että kvantitatiivisia aineistoja. Kuntoutujilta kerättiin tietoja kyselylomakkeilla ja kuntoutusrekistereistä. Muutosmittarina käytettiin terveyteen liittyvän elämänlaadun mittaria (RAND-36) ja omaa arviota työssä selviytymisestä. Teemahaastatteluin kerättiin tietoa kuntoutujien esimiehiltä, työterveyshenkilöstöltä, kuntoutuksen toteuttajilta ja Kelan toimihenkilöiltä. Mallit olivat keskenään erilaisia pituuden, jaksotuksen ja kuntoutuksen lakiperusteen suhteen. Sisällölliset painopisteet vaihtelivat, samoin yksilö- ja ryhmäosuuksien määrä. Kaikissa malleissa kokeiltiin uusia työpaikkayhteistyön ja työkytkentöjen muotoja. Kehittämisideat kohdistuivat eri vaiheisiin kuntoutusprosessissa. Eri toimijatahot arvioivat kuntoutuksen hyödyttäneen etupäässä kuntoutujaa, mutta osa esimiehistä oli hyötynyt niistä myös esimiestyössään. Kuntoutujat olivat valtaosin tyytyväisiä omaan kuntoutusprosessiinsa ja malliinsa. Muutokset koetussa työssä selviytymisessä vaihtelivat malleittain suuresti: kuntoutujien työssä selviytyminen parani parhaimmillaan kaikilla ja vähimmillään yhdellä kymmenestä.