Browsing by Subject "model simulation"

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  • Rankinen, Katri; Turtola, Eila; Lemola, Riitta; Futter, Martyn; Cano Bernal, José Enrique (Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021)
    Water 2021, 13(4), 450
    Increased nutrient loading causes deterioration of receiving surface waters in areas of intensive agriculture. While nitrate and particulate phosphorus load can be efficiently controlled by reducing tillage frequency and increasing vegetation cover, many field studies have shown simultaneously increased loading of bioavailable phosphorus. In the latest phase of the Rural Programme of EU agri-environmental measures, the highest potential to reduce the nutrient loading to receiving waters were the maximum limits for fertilization of arable crops and retaining plant cover on fields with, e.g., no-till methods and uncultivated nature management fields. Due to the latter two measures, the area of vegetation cover has increased since 1995, suggesting clear effects on nutrient loading in the catchment scale as well. We modeled the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen loads to waters and additionally tested the performance of the dynamic, process-based INCA-P (Integrated Nutrients in Catchments—Phosphorus) model to simulate P dynamics in an agricultural catchment. We concluded that INCA-P was able to simulate both fast (immediate) and slow (non-immediate) processes that influence P loading from catchments. Based on our model simulations, it was also evident that no-till methods had increased bioavailable P load to receiving waters, even though total P and total N loading were reduced.
  • Wang, Qing-Wei; Pieriste, Marta; Liu, Chenggang; Kenta, Tanaka; Robson, Thomas Matthew; Kurokawa, Hiroko (2021)
    Litter decomposition determines carbon (C) backflow to the atmosphere and ecosystem nutrient cycling. Although sunlight provides the indispensable energy for terrestrial biogeochemical processes, the role of photodegradation in decomposition has been relatively neglected in productive mesic ecosystems. To quantify the effects of this variation, we conducted a factorial experiment in the understorey of a temperate deciduous forest and an adjacent gap, using spectral-attenuation-filter treatments. Exposure to the full spectrum of sunlight increased decay rates by nearly 120% and the effect of blue light contributed 75% of this increase. Scaled-up to the whole forest ecosystem, this translates to 13% loss of leaf-litter C through photodegradation over the year of our study for a scenario of 20% gap. Irrespective of the spectral composition, herbaceous and shrub litter lost mass faster than tree litter, with photodegradation contributing the most to surface litter decomposition in forest canopy gaps. Across species, the initial litter lignin and polyphenolic contents predicted photodegradation by blue light and ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation, respectively. We concluded that photodegradation, modulated by litter quality, is an important driver of decomposition, not just in arid areas, but also in mesic ecosystems such as temperate deciduous forests following gap opening.