Browsing by Subject "modernization"

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  • Lainto, Jana (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    During the mid-19th century, Sweden was almost a completely unknown country in the Czech Lands due to the geographical distance and the lack of historical relations, aside of the Thirty Years’ War. However, from the 1860’s onwards, there was a visible increase of Czech interest in foreign countries, including Sweden. The objective of this thesis is to analyze how the portrayal of Sweden developed between 1848 and 1914. This is done by analyzing of the general reasons behind the increase of interest in foreign countries and with an in-depth look at the increase of Czech interest towards Sweden. The method used in the thesis is historical research, which critically analyzes primary sources, such as travelogues, articles in newspapers and magazines, and historical fiction published between years 1848 and 1914. The primary sources are compared to each other in order to establish similar and ambivalent themes in the portrayal of Sweden. The general interest in foreign countries is explained as a consequence of an overall modernization process, which started already during the last third of the 18th century and influenced industrial, political, social and cultural developments in the Czech Lands during the 19th century. The increase of interest in Sweden was initially the result of the overall interest in foreign countries from the 1860’s onwards, but which later developed into a genuine interest by the Czech intelligentsia. The research of primary sources shows that there was no homogenous portrayal of Sweden, but two different perspectives of how Sweden was portrayed in the Czech printed sources. The first one, the traditional one, connects Sweden mainly to the Swedish invasion of the Czech Lands during the Thirty Years’ War. This theme appears in a great number of historical novels, where Swedes are portrayed predominantly in a negative way. The second perspective developed through travelogues, written by Czech tourists and travelers who visited Sweden. The Thirty Years’ War is presented as something that happened a long time ago and which has nothing to do with the contemporary Swedes, praised for their friendliness, kindness, neatness and manners. By the beginning of the 20th century, the portrayals of ruthless, looting warriors coexisted with the modern portrayal of Sweden, which presented Swedes as “the French of the North,” with great advancements in the fields of engineering, women’s rights, arts and literature and children’s education.
  • Salminen, Esa (2006)
    The study is about language use in three commercial, youth-oriented radio stations in Lusaka, the capital of the Republic of Zambia. The study analyses the speech style of Zambian radio presenters and disc jockeys aged between 20 and 35, and the functions and meanings of this speech style, that approximates Black American youth speech. The study is based on analysis of radio recordings, interviews with radio presenters and radio listeners, as well as ethnographic observation data, coupled with statistical demographic and economic data. The ethnographic material was gathered during a three year period between June 2002 and July 2005, the recordings and interviews mostly during the last six months of this period. The main finding of the study is that speech style for the 'radio speech community' is a form of social capital, and it is used to gain upward social mobility and employment, but also sought for as an end in itself, as a building block of a modernistic identity. The study shows how the social group of the radio presenters is in a unique position in Zambia: its members are able to use verbal talent and an identity-building project as a means of subsistence in an impoverished economical context. This finding is compared with other studies on modernisation, namely in historical Europe and contemporary Congo (Brazzaville). The main theoretical sources for the study consist of sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology, in the works of Charles Briggs, Erwing Goffman, William Labov and John Gumperz; as well as social and anthropological theorists, of which the main ones cited in the study are Pierre Bourdieu, Jonathan Friedman, Mike Featherstone and Peter Burke. Other sources include census statistics, education policy papers of the Government of the Republic of Zambia and the United Nations Human Development Report.
  • Brandtberg, Ronnie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Re-engineering can be described as a process for updating an existing system in order to meet new requirements. Restructuring and refactoring are activities that can be performed as a part of the re-engineering process. Supporting new requirements like migrating to new frameworks, new environments and architectural styles is essential for preservation of quality attributes like maintainability and evolvability. Many larger legacy systems slowly deteriorate over time in quality and adding new functionality becomes increasingly difficult and costly as technical debt accumulates. To modernize a legacy system and improve the cost effectiveness of implementing new features a re-engineering process is often needed. The alternative is to develop a completely new system but this can often lead to loss of years of accumulated functionality and be too expensive. Re-engineering strategies can be specialized and solve specific needs like cloud migration or be more generic in nature supporting several kinds of needs. Different approaches are suitable for different kinds of source and target systems. The choice of a re-engineering strategy is also influenced by organisational and business factors. The re-engineering of a highly tailored legacy system in a small organisation is different from re-engineering a scalable system in a large organisation. Generic and flexible solutions are well suited for especially smaller organisations with complex systems. The re-engineering strategy Renaissance was applied in a case study at Roima Intelligence Oy in order to find out if such a strategy is realistically usable, useful and valuable for a smaller organization. The results show that a re-engineering strategy is possible to be used with low overhead in order to prioritize different parts of the system and determining a suitable modernization plan. Renaissance was also shown to add value especially in the form of deeper understanding of the system and a structured way to evaluate different options for modernization. This is achieved through assessing the system from different views taking into account especially business and technical aspects. A lesson learned about Renaissance is that determining an optimal scope for the system assessment is challenging. The results are applicable for other organisations dealing with complex legacy systems with constrained resources. Limitations of the study are that the number of different kinds of re-engineering strategies discussed is small and more suitable strategies than Renaissance could be discovered with a systematic mapping study. The amount of experts participating in the process itself as well as the evaluation was also low, introducing some uncertainty to the validity of the results. Further research is needed in order to determine how specialized and generic re-engineering strategies compare in terms of needed resources and added value.
  • Jussila, Jonna (2000)
    The licentiate thesis studies young people's opinions on religion and God in the world, which is said to underline the meaning of relativism. The corpus is collected from the Helsingin Sanomat 'youngsters' opinion' column from 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Writings concerning religion are studied in the light of contemporary sociology and the sociology of religion. What has happened to religion in the process of modernization? Can theories of modernization interpret young people successfully? The corpus is mainly based on tough argumentation between religious and non-religious writers. Additionally, the writings of the 'open minded', and youngsters who 'have their own religion' have contributed important features to the corpus. The research questions focus on the substance of the argumentation: what are the arguments which youngsters use to support and refute religion like? I am also interested in the nature of privatised religion: does it exist in the writings and how can it be described from the point of view of selected sociologists? The approach to the study can be called 'society-analytical'. Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman, Gianni Vattimo, Thomas Luckmann and Harvie Ferguson are examples of theorists who function as 'research lences' in the study. Writings have been classified and components arising out of them are discovered and understood through the spectrum of the chosen theories. Writings are considered as youngsters' cultural speak about religion. On the other hand, colourful and powerful stories are expected to tell something new about the subject 'modern world and religion'. Wide modernization theory meets the most intimate views of youngsters concerning the changes in the world around us. The study shows how conflicting are the signals that contemporary culture can offer in matters religious. 'Movement' stems from many directions. Young writers opposing religion accuse religious writers of irrationality, lack of autonomy and intolerance. They think that in the contemporary context, autonomy can lead to a world of justice and tolerance. Religion has become incapable of sustaining the ends of good values. Religion is also experienced as something opposed to youth culture. It means abandoning the teenagers' way of life. The metaphors connected with religious people reflect this: weakness, oldness, and immaturity are seen to describe them well. On the other hand, seen through the eyes of other youngsters, the contemporary relative culture is experienced as anxious and meaningless. Many young writers have found the solution in traditional religion. Their writings work as descriptions of returning to the 'metaphysical ground'. When the world of choice appeared to be unbearable, the 'digging' of old religion has started. Christianity still has the function of bringing a sense of meaning to existence. Religion also plays a new role in the life of the young. Instead of dogmatism, the idea of rebuilt private religion lies in its ability to bring a sense of dimension, richness and exoticness to young people's life.
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (2017)
    This article analyses post-Soviet reforms in Russia, and treats them as an example of 'authoritarian modernization', which were implemented to achieve a high level of socioeconomic development by focusing on rapid economic growth while neglecting political democratization. It discusses the arguments in favour of authoritarian modernization as such, and the dilemmas, challenges, and constraints in its implementation which became evident during the period of 1990-2010s. A special emphasis is made on the poor quality of the Russian state against the background of its relatively low international integration. The rent-seeking nature of the state together with the formation and further entrenchment of an electorally authoritarian regime provide negative incentives for the implementation of authoritarian modernization. The article considers a number of contradictions associated with such a project in Russia, including some unintended consequences of the economic growth, including the growth of the demands for democratization, the disjuncture between ambitious policy reforms and their inept implementation by the state apparatus, and the 'mediocrity syndrome' resulting from unjustified claims of Russia's unique influence on the global scale. The article concludes that the features of Russia's current political and economic order impose insurmountably high barriers for the implementation of authoritarian modernization in terms of ideas, institutions, and policies, thereby exhausting the very potential of this project.
  • Gel'man, Vladimir (European University at St.Petersburg Press, 2015)
    Серия препринтов; Центр исследований модернизации