Browsing by Subject "monikulttuurisuuskasvatus"

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  • Reinilä, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    We are saturated and surrounded by intertwined cultures, by multiculturality. Multiculturality has to do with both our individual identities and more extensively communities and societies consisting of individuals. Constant change and internal diversity are characteristics of identities and cultures. However the discussion concerning them has often a very stiff and a segregational tone to it. As a consequence we create seemingly natural distinctions between the categories generated and reconstruct an idea of "us" and "others". Diversity and the mechanisms of separation occur also in the school world. The objective of this study is to examine how teachers talk about multiculturality and what kind of meanings and implications are associated with multiculturality within this discussion. I also try to illustrate power relations both between and inside the narrational discourses and present possible rationale behind these discourses, all in the theory frame of critical pedagogics. In this qualitative study I interviewed four teachers working in the Helsinki metropolitan area. I collected the research data through theme interviews. In the analysis I used thematic analysis and discourse analytic methods. In the teachers' narrations of multiculturality a childcentric, pragmatical realistic and a natural multiculturality discourses were present. The core of the discourses was based on the division between a child-origininating and a societal frame. All the discourses created based on the data were seemingly positive, in accordance with a fair equality understanding and acceptable speaking manners. However, a deeper examination of the nuances and functions of the discourses showed hidden mechanisms creating and sustaining otherness. Due to the use of language in a way that it creates otherness, school does not appear and actualize similar to all children, as the institution sustains ethnocentric and segregation-creating reality. On the basis of the results of this study the structures and discourses determining the practises of schools should be more critically examined. Furthermore, becoming aware of this discussion should not only happen at the individual and societal level, but it also should concern the education of future teachers.
  • Kauppinen, Bea (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tässä tutkielmassa pyrin vertailemaan miten erilaiset vähemmistökulttuurit ja kulttuurien moninaisuus huomioidaan suomenkielisessä peruskoulussa käytettävissä B-ruotsin oppikirjoissa. Tavoitteena on selvittää, miten oppilaiden erilaiset kulttuuritaustat ja identiteetit huomioidaan B-ruotsin opetuksessa käytettävien oppikirjojen materiaaleissa. Tutkimukseni pohjana toimivat materiaalissani esiintyvät valokuvat, piirrokset ja etunimet, joissa esiintyvien henkilöiden ja hahmojen kulttuurista moninaisuutta arvioidaan vuoden 2004 ja 2014 ilmestyneiden opetussuunnitelman perusteiden ja niiden yhteydessä julkaistujen monikulttuurisuuskasvatuksen tavoitteiden kautta. Tutkimuksen aihe on perusteltu, sillä vuosi vuodelta kasvava ensimmäisen ja toisen polven maahanmuuttajien määrä suomalaisissa kouluissa kannustaa tarkastelemaan, miten vähemmistöoppilaiden tarpeet huomioidaan osallistujamäärältään merkittävässä B-ruotsin oppiaineessa ja sen materiaaleissa. Tutkimuksen aineistona toimii neljä vuosina 2002–2015 ilmestynyttä B-ruotsin yläkoulun oppikirjaa, joista kaikki ovat sarjojensa ensimmäisiä kurssikirjoja. Tutkimalla tätä noin kymmenen vuoden sisällä ilmestynyttä vertailukelpoista aineistoa, pyrin vastamaan kolmeen tutkimuskysymykseen: 1) Miten opetussuunnitelmien monikulttuuriskasvatukselliset tavoitteet huomioidaan oppikirjoissa? 2) Kuvastavatko B-ruotsin oppikirjat tämän päivän yhteiskunnan kulttuurista moninaisuutta? 3) Onko oppikirjojen tavassa ilmaista kulttuurien moninaisuutta tapahtunut muutoksia viimeisten kymmenen vuoden aikana? Analyysini pohjautuu sisällönanalyysiin, joka sisältää sekä kvalitatiivisia että kvantitatiivisia tutkimustapoja. Analyysi toteutuu materiaalin asettamissa puitteissa. Tarkastelen pääasiassa etnisten vähemmistöjen ja vähemmistökulttuurien esiintymistä ja esittämistä oppikirjoissa analysoimalla sitä, miten etniset vähemmistöt ovat kuvattuina niin oikeissa valokuvissa kuin piirroshahmoinakin. Tämän lisäksi arvioin oppimateriaaleissa esiintyvien etunimien vierasperäisyyttä ja sitä, miten etnisiä tai muuten vierasperäisiä etunimiä hyödynnetään ilmaisemaan monikulttuurisuutta. Analyysini perusteella oppikirjoissa etniset vähemmistöt pysyvät vähemmistöinä myös kirjojen kuvituksissa, mutta ovat useimmiten kuvattuina tasa-arvoisina valtaväestön edustajiin nähden. Tarkasteluni kuitenkin paljastaa, että pohjoismainen valtakulttuuri ja sen arvomaailma esitetään useimmiten itseisarvona, kun taas etniset vähemmistöt ja heidän kulttuurinsa nousee väistämättä esiin poikkeuksellisena tai erilaisena. Vähemmistöistä puhuttaessa oppikirjoissa, heistä annetaan toisinaan erilaisia tai enemmän taustatietoja kuin valtaväestöstä. Nämä taustatiedot pitävät sisällään useimmiten tietoa heidän poikkeavasta synnyinmaastaan tai heidän vanhempiensa kulttuuritaustoista. Tutkimukseni tuloksissa ilmenee, että monikulttuurisuuskasvatus on kuitenkin melko laajasti huomioitu tarkastelemissani B-ruotsin oppimateriaaleissa. Tästä huolimatta moninaisuuden ilmaisemiseen voisi käyttää tasapuolisempia keinoja, jotta vähemmistöt ja heidän kulttuuritaustansa eivät nousisi esiin niin poikkeavina ja erilaisina valtaväestöön nähden. Vuosina 2004 ja 2014 ilmestyneiden opetussuunnitelmien monikulttuurisuuskasvatukselliset periaatteet ja niiden ilmaiseminen ei ollut linjassa kasvavan maahanmuuttajaväestön kanssa, ja tutkimusmateriaalinani toimivista oppikirjoista uusin piti yllättäen sisällään vähiten etnisten vähemmistöjen kuvia tai etunimiä. Tämä saattaa johtua lisääntyneestä varovaisuudesta kulttuurisen moninaisuuden nostamiseen liittyen. Tämä tutkimus valottaa niitä muutoksia ja huomioita, joita nykypäivän oppimateriaaleissa tulee ottaa huomioon, jotta sekä opettajat että oppikirjojen tekijät pystyvät vastaamaan monikulttuurisuuskasvatuksen tavoitteisiin.
  • Tuovinen, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to develop a multicultural version of the food education project Ruokakoulu – Matskolan from the perspective of the families and the children. The multicultural version has been developed in cooperation with the Ruokakoulu – Matskolan project in parallel already existing food school format. The aim of this study was to define key concepts for the new multicultural version. One aim was also to investigate what kind of concrete courses of action would promote multicultural education during the camp. The research questions of the study are the following: 1. How do the different cultures and food cultures show in the families? 2. What kind of concrete courses of action or assignments will help with carrying out the multicultural food education project taking into consideration also the perspective of the families? 3. What kind of possibilities eating together is offering for multicultural education? Methodology. The data was collected in two different ways. The first stage was the open questions questionnaire that the research families filled in. The second stage was the focus groups for children at the camp. The questionnaire and the focus groups had both the same questions. Eight families took part of the first stage and all children who attended at the camp participated to the focus groups. The data was analysed using content analysis by categorizing data into themes and then classifying into bigger unities. Results and conclusions. Culture and food culture seems to be difficult concepts for both families and for children. The food culture in the families was described varying. The multi-culturality came up when doing ethnic food choices at home and in restaurants. Eating together was an important moment from perspective of both families and children. When eating together, the whole picture was important: every step from cooking to cleaning up was done together. From the perspective of food education camp, it is important to notice that eating together is a familiar moment to learn for children.
  • Viita, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Purpose. The main purpose of this research is to find out what teacher student's of Helsinki university think about multicultural education. The goal of this research was to figure out how teacher students define multicultural education, how useful they think it is and how they define a multicultural school. Another goal was also to find out if the thoughts of those student's who had accomplished minor studies in multicultural education differed from those student's thoughts who had not had multicultural education as a minor. Methods. This research was executed by using the qualitative method. Research material was collected from teacher students of Helsinki university by using e-questionnaire. Half of the participants had had a multicultural education as a minor subject. The research material was analyzed by using research material based content analysis. Conclusions. According to my results, multicultural education was seen useful and multicultural school was seen to be much more than only student's multicultural backgrounds, equity and interaction were seen as the base of education. According to my results those teacher students, who had had multicultural education studies as their minor subject, had better and deeper understanding of the nature of multiculturalism and multicultural education than the students who hadn't had this minor and they also emphasized critical thinking.
  • Kortesmäki, Henna-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The object of my thesis is to solve how Finnish primary school music books approach non-western cultures and their music, and how they construct cultural identities. In this research, I see identities as socially and discursively constructed: identity of "others" is always formed in relation to "us". Biased or negative descriptions may affirm stereotypes and prejudice of a certain group. This study is based on the ideology of multicultural education: the aim is to teach students to understand and value different perspectives and offer equal rights to different groups in society. As for music education, it means that different cultures should be approached from their own perspective, taking into account the musical diversity and dynamic nature of cultures. For my thesis I analysed two series of primary school music books: Soi (published by WSOY) and Musiikin mestarit (Otava) for grades 1–2, 3–4 and 5–6. All six books were published in the past two decades and encompass the majority of music books that are generally being used in the Finnish primary schools. I applied discourse analysis as research method for my study. It aims at understanding language as social behavior in a certain cultural and historical context. Within discourse analysis, I chose the critical approach as I was interested in the way the discourses were used to produce, renew and question unequal power relations, depending on how they positioned people. My aim was to observe how the cultures were represented and positioned in relation to "us" in the data. I categorized lyrics, pictures and their captions as per cultural areas, mainly by their geographical location. After that I observed the verbal and visual representations and how identities were constructed by them. I found many repeated and strong representations of certain cultural groups. They created a hegemonic discourse, which failed to take into account the diversity of the culture but instead repeated and boosted existing stereotypes of it. Identities of "others" were constructed in relation to "us" as a part of a long historical continuum. However, there were differences between books. The amount of different cultural contents, captions and photos in relation to drawings grew towards higher grades. Yet only Soi 5–6 had a clear attempt to approach other cultures from a multicultural perspective. On the whole, critical discourse analysis offered an interesting perspective to observe schoolbooks, and would be necessary for all authors, in order to improve multicultural approach in Finnish music education. Nevertheless, multicultural approach should be acknowledged already in teacher education in order to prepare teachers to approach different music cultures in their future work.
  • Viljaala, Mirva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The main purpose of this research is to observe the home economics teachers in comprehensive school as multicultural educators. The goal of this research was to clarify how the home economics teachers experience multiculturalism in their work and how multicultural education can be included in home economics lessons. The Finnish society becomes more multicultural all the time and the teachers are working with the diverse groups of pupils every day. The teachers’ multicultural skills are important especially in the home economics class where students learn new information and skills for their own life and home. This research has a qualitative method. The research material was collected by using the theme interview method. Seven home economics teachers who work in different comprehensive schools took part in the interviews and all the interviews were carried out in January 2020. Three different themes were handled during the interviews. The themes were derived from the research questions in this study. The themes were teaching and multiculturalism, home economics teachers work and multiculturalism along with diversity in school’s everyday life. The interview recordings were transcribed word for word and analyzed using the content analysis. According to my results, multiculturalism enriches the home economics lessons in comprehensive schools. The discussions about food, cooking and eating create good opportunities to learn something new about diverse cultures and tolerance. Home economics teachers strive for equality when meeting the students in the home economics classroom and try to teach tolerance during the lessons. According to this research, the challenges with multiculturalism are mostly connected with students’ weak knowledge of the Finnish language. Home economics teachers consider warm and approving atmosphere in the home economics classroom very important. The home economics teachers’ own multicultural skills increase especially when working with diverse students and outside the school through their own experiences and interests.