Browsing by Subject "moninaisuus"

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  • Mattila, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to describe the factors that influence junior high age young people as they connect with friends and peer groups, especially from the view of a student who is somehow distinct from the group. The term somehow distinct is used to encompass the wide variety of factors that may influence an adolescent who is left to the fringes or totally outside of a peer group. As inclusion and multiculturalism increases in schools it is important to understand adolescent belief and value systems in order to create an atmosphere that is open to diversity and strengthens peer relationships at school. This study examines short essays by young people on the subject of being an outsider to their peer groups and the preconditions and terms of friendships. In addition, what circumstances support or prevent the ability to join a group and form friendships. In past years this topic has been researched from the point of view of the experiences of special needs students and of general adolescent peer relations. (Ellonen, 2008; Hoikkala & Paju 2013; Korkiamäki, 2014; Koster, Nakken , Pijl & van Houten 2009; Saarinen 2012). In this work the angle of approach is the thoughts and feelings that the somehow distinct adolescent brings out in the peers representing the majority of the group and how to support him/her in order to get to join the group and how to strengthen his/her social competence. Methods. For this study, data was collected from two secondary schools. The students were selected from one class at each school and a total of 49 students returned write-ups. Essays were prompted by four questions about what it means to be an outsider, what factors lead to being outside of the group and the conditions for the process of forming peer relations. Student essays were transcribed and sorted by theme. Themes that emerged were then interpreted by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The research highlighted the challenges that diversity poses in adolescent groups. Young people looked for direction from adults and guidance in situations where someone was outside of the group. They also brought forth ideas how the social competence of a young person distinct from the group could be supported. Group dynamics and general social climate in the classroom seemed to influence how diversity was handled. There were subtle differences between boys and girls as far as what components supported and what prevented the forming of peer relations. Girls were especially influenced by outward appearances and favored the opinions of girls high up in the class social hierarchy as to who should be accepted in the group. Boys' ability to form peer relations were supported more by social skills and mutual conversation topics and hobbies.
  • Pasanen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this study was to find how teachers and student teachers perceive diversity in school, as well as how children relate to diversity according to the beliefs of their teachers. Diversity and multiculturality have been studied in Finland from the diversity education perspective, however, little has been explored about how children perceive these individual differences. Previous studies have indicated that teacher's personal knowledge, values and attitudes are essential when it comes to acknowledging diversity in schools. For this reason, it is important to examine how present and future teachers understand diversity. Participants of this research were three class teachers and three student teachers from the university of Helsinki, the data for this study was gathered with theme interviews. Data was analysed with qualitative content analysis, as well as dialogical analysis of multivoicedness. The results of this study indicated, that children actively acknowledge differences in individuals. Contradictions between children appeared mainly because intrinsic qualities of people were not understood and accepted. Especially gender appeared as clear categorizations for the children. Furthermore, how children reacted about diversity was influenced by multiple factors. The ability to understand the theme of diversity varied between teachers and student teachers. All in all diversity was seen as value- and attitude-centered, as well as constantly changing phenomenon. Also, teachers were seen as active agents in considering diversity in their work. Interacting with diverse people, as well as experiences about positioning to be the other were perceived to support the competences of teachers. Finally, due to the dialogical analysis, participants were perceived to be talking from the positions of experts, ethical agents and members of school communities. On the other hand teachers referred to the knowledge of other experts in education, to the ideology of homogenous Finns, as well as to the polarized conversation of the society.
  • Sihvola, Maija (2019)
    Tutkielmani pyrkimyksenä on selvittää kolmen musiikkikasvattajan kokemuksia kulttuurisesti moninaisissa yhteisöissä toimimisesta sekä heidän interkulttuurisen kompetenssinsa rakentumista. Tutkimuskysymykseni kuuluvat: Mitä haastatellut musiikkikasvattajat kertovat kokemuksistaan kulttuurisesti moninaisissa konteksteissa työskentelemisestä? Millä tavoin haastateltavien interkulttuurinen kompetenssi rakentuu heidän kertomuksissaan? Johdannossa hahmottelen lukijalle alustavan käsityksen tutkimukseni taustasta niin henkilökohtaisesta kuin musiikkikasvatuksen alan näkökulmasta. Tutkimukseni teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä tarkastelen kulttuurisen moninaisuuden ilmenemistä musiikkikasvatuksen alalla sekä musiikkikasvattajan interkulttuurista kompetenssia. Käsittelen teorialuvussa myös yleisemmin interkulttuurisuuteen ja kulttuuriseen moninaisuuteen liittyviä teemoja, kysymyksiä ja tutkimusaiheita. Toteutin tutkimukseni kolmella narratiivisella haastattelulla. Valitsin haastateltavani eri puolilta musiikkikasvatuksen kenttää. Haastattelut olivat yksilöhaastatteluja ja analysoin ne narratiivisesti. Olen jakanut tutkimukseni tulososion kahteen osaan: narratiiviseen analyysiin ja narratiivien analyysiin. Haastatellut musiikkikasvattajat huomioivat ja hyödyntävät kulttuurista moninaisuutta työssään eri tavoin. Kulttuurisen moninaisuuden teemat rikastuttivat opetusta, mutta kulttuurisesti moninaiset opetusryhmät asettivat kasvattajan työlle myös uusia haasteita. Interkulttuurisen ymmärryksen käsite vastasi haastateltavien kasvuprosessia kompetenssi-käsitettä paremmin. Haastateltavien kertomuksissa ymmärrys rakentui eri kulttuurien kohtaamisessa ja muokkautui jokaisen haastateltavan ainutlaatuisena prosessina, joka jatkuu edelleen läpi elämän.
  • Tuohilampi, Jasmiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The meaning for this research was to explain what kind of diverse characteristics there are in Supermarsu -books and how they are related to. In addition to this my goal was also to consider how it is possible to teach and raise children to diversity with Supermarsu -books. With this research I want to deepen the understanding of diversity for parents and teachers as well as widen their views of how to use children´s literature for respectful interaction. My research questions are: 1. What kind of diversity is there in the characters of Supermarsu –books? 2. How do people relate to diversity in the bookserie? The research was carried out as qualitative research and my method was theory-leading analysis of the content. With the help of Fokkeman´s code model the charateristics were divided in codes. Denotative codes are names and the third person of pronoun and connotative biological, logical, social, psychological methonomical and metaphor codes. Using model by Ewen I classified characters to round and flat or static and dynamic. Roud character has several characteristics and flat character has one characteristic or one dominative characteristic and few non- dominative. Static character doen´t develop during the story and dynamic develops. Helin´s "value fields of the mind" was also used to place characters to different areas such as value, accept, endure or not to endure area. My main theory was the book The Rhetoric of Character in Children´s Lirerature by Maria Nikolajeva. I used Paula Noronen´s 10 Supermarsu -books. In the results of the research you can see that in the bookseries there are plenty of different kind of characters, differing for example in ethnicity, sex, socio-economic position and personality. The main character, Emilia, is round and dynamic character and supporting characters mostly flat and static. The main attitude for diversity in understanding, but also bullying appears. Emilia has no prejudines and therefor offers a good role model for children to identify with.
  • Virolainen, Sini-Maaria (2019)
    Suomalaisen yhteiskunnan diversiteetti on kasvanut merkittävästi muuttoliikkeiden ja globalisaation myötä. Kulttuurienvälinen kompetenssi on kykyä kohdata kulttuurista moninaisuutta myönteisellä tavalla. Kulttuurienvälisestä kompetenssista on tullut yhä keskeisempi osa myös musiikkikasvattajien ammattitaitoa. Tämä tutkimus syventää käsitystä siitä, mitkä kulttuurienvälisen kompetenssin ulottuvuudet korostuvat musiikkikasvatuksen kontekstissa ja millaisten prosessien kautta kompetenssi kehittyy. Toteutin tutkimuksen haastattelemalla kahta musiikkikasvattajaa, joilla on laajasti opetuskokemusta kulttuurisesti moninaisista ryhmistä niin Suomessa kuin ulkomailla. Haastattelumenetelmänä käytin teemahaastattelua. Analysoin aineistoa teemoittelemalla sekä narratiivisella menetelmällä. Tutkimuskysymykseni olivat: 1) Miten musiikkikasvattajat artikuloivat kulttuurienvälisen kompetenssin ulottuvuuksia suhteessa työhönsä? 2) Minkälaisia kokemuksia musiikkikasvattajat kuvailevat merkityksellisiksi kulttuurienvälisen kompetenssin kehityksen kannalta? Tutkimustulokseni tukevat näkemystä siitä, että kulttuurienvälinen kompetenssi musiikkikasvatuksessa ei ole metodi tai työkalupakki erilaisia taitoja ja kykyjä. Se voidaan nähdä ennemminkin elinikäisenä prosessina, jota ajaa tietyt periaatteet ja eettiset lähtökohdat. Haastatteluissa korostui periaate siitä, kuinka oppilas on kohdattava aina ensisijaisesti yksilönä eikä kulttuurinsa edustajana. On keskeistä, että opettaja kunnioittaa oppilaan itse määrittelemäänsä identiteettiä. Opettajien kertomuksissa korostui kyky tunnistaa omia ennakkoluuloja ja syrjiviä rakenteita, kriittisyys ”kulttuurista tietoa” kohtaan, dialogisuus, kyky sietää ajoittain syntyvää hämmennystä sekä halu oppia toiselta ei toisesta. Myös kulttuurienvälinen kasvu oli opettajien kertomuksissa moniulotteinen prosessi. Kokemuksissa vaihteli sekä transformatiiviset että hitaasti kumuloituvat kokemukset. Kertomuksissa korostui vuorovaikutus merkityksellisten toisten kanssa sekä tunteiden rooli osana kasvuprosessia. Opettajien kertomuksissa kulttuurienväliseen kasvuun liittyi keskeisesti myös musiikilliset kokemukset ja kohtaamiset. Tutkimus avaa opettajien kokemuksia myös musiikin merkityksestä sosiaalisen yhteenkuuluvuuden edistäjänä.
  • Koponen, Anna-Katariina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives. The aim of this Master's thesis is to find out kindergarten educators understanding of childhood sex and gender and its diversity. The focus of this study is to find out what kind of conceptions kindergarten educators have about sex and gender and how it forms. The goal is also to find if kindergarten educators produce gendered conceptions in their open answers and what kind of information they have considering sex, gender and its diversity. This study also develops ways of how educators can support children sexual identity. It also raises awareness of childhood sex and gender diversity, childhood sexuality, as well as addresses the childhood sex education. Previous studies show that early childhood education has gendered activities. Methods. Methodological studies were characterized by Grounded theory procedures and the phenomenographic research. Analysis was carried out inductively. Quantitative research results support the qualitative results. Research material consisted of a part of the Väestöliitto (Family Federation) commissioned survey in 2013 (see. Appendix 1). From this questionnaire two open questions were chosen. They are: question A (n = 271) "What do you think about that child's sex is encrypted from the child and the environment prior to school age? Do you have any experience of that?" and question B (n = 289) "Tell your experience with whether or not the children's can play, as well as the so-called own sex play and so-called opposite sex plays (for example, boys get to play pirates, as well as the princesses)." The responses were analyzed with Atlas.ti 7.0 (Qualitative Data analyzis) program. Results and conclusions. On the basis of kindergarten educator responses, Sex - Gender conceptions consisted of a total of three Core Categories. Conception of gender was not possible to find out from all of the answers. In the question A, there were three different conceptions of how Sex and Gender is formed: Core Category 1 Sex is a biological fact that determines gender identity "SBM" n = 87/147. Core Category 2 Sex is a biological fact, but gender is built socially, and is the child's own experience "SBIS" n = 56/147 and Core Category 3 Biological sex can be encrypted if the birth of the child's sex is unclear, when Sex and Gender are formed by child's own experience "SSPE" n = 4/147. In the question B, the gender conceptions of educators are Core Category 1 "SBM" n = 100/269 and Core Category 2 "SBIS" n = 169/269. Gender perceptions vary depending on the open question. The study suggests that educators need more information about gender diversity, childhood sexuality and sex education.
  • Wrede, Sirpa; Tiilikainen, Marja; Vartiainen, Päivi (2020)
  • Ruuska, Anna Kerttu (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The traditional nuclear family is the most common type of family in our society. During the last decades other kinds of family models have appeared besides the nuclear family. Every child comes across with the diversity of families at some part of their lives. It will happen during their lives or when they start the early childhood education and school. Children should know how to meet the diversity and grow to understand it so that everyone would feel themselves appreciated. Children's books can be a tool to handle diversity of families with children. Through children's books, a child can observe different kinds of families and their lives from a reasonable distance. From a book, the child can find objects to identify to. The child also learns to understand his/her own family as well as other kinds of families. All this widens up the child's picture of the world and teaches how to tolerate dissimilarity. The goal of this research was to find out what kind of families can be found from the popular children's book series Risto Räppääjä, and how the families are represented in it. Another goal was to reflect how educators could use the series in preschool and in elementary school while discussing about diversity of families. The research also tries to broaden the impressions of parents and other educators towards how children's literature can be used variedly when teaching children liberality and how to be a member of the society who accepts dissimilarity. This research was qualitative. The research method was content analysis, where fictional documents were analyzed. The documents were 13 books from a children's book series Risto Räppääjä. Many kinds of families were found from the children's book series Risto Räppääjä. The extended family Räppääjä and nuclear family Perhonen were the most relevant families in this research. These two families broke many of the stereotypes that are placed towards families. Children's points of view and thoughts about families in general also surface from these two families. An adult reader and a child reader find opportunities to reflect the families to their own lives and consider their attitudes through these two families. Also through all the families in the series reader will learn different kinds of ways of living. The children's book series Risto Räppääjä can be used in many ways in preschool and elementary school, for example in conversations, drama and artwork.
  • Haarala, Jaakko-Juhani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This thesis investigates the skills acquired through a Cross-Cultural Kid (CCK) -experience and contemplates if they can be useful in politics as well as in the representation and understanding of diversity. The main purposes of the thesis are: (1) to concur that the interviewees are indeed CCKs, (2) to describe what kind of CCK-related skills they may or may not have acquired, and (3) to discuss how and to what purposes these skills have been used in politics and in the representation of diversity. In an ever-globalizing world, moving and travelling from one country to another has become the norm. Consequently, most societies, including Finland, have become ever more diverse. In the past two decades, Finland’s immigrant population increased fourfold, currently totalling over five per cent of the population. Globalization has also contributed to an increase in children that have been raised in-between cultures, namely CCKs, in Finland and elsewhere. As the size of the migrant population grows and the heated public debate revolving around immigration-related topic intensifies, it becomes crucial to properly represent the increasing diversity in political arenas, too. Previous research on CCKs suggests that CCKs have gained unique skills through their experience of having been raised in-between worlds, such as expanded worldviews, adaptability, observational and social skills to name a few. The literature on descriptive representation by Anne Phillips (et al.), the concept of shared experience by Jane Mansbridge and the idea of a preferable descriptive representative introduced by Suzanne Dovi form the theoretical framework of the thesis. The research is based on interviews of six candidates in the 2015 parliamentary elections of Finland, conducted 3 months prior to the elections. The candidates belong to different parties, ethnicities, and social backgrounds. The interviews are coded and analysed by using the QCA (Qualitative Content Analysis) method, as presented by Margrit Schreier. The results of this thesis support that the interviewees are CCKs and that they qualify as descriptive representatives of their electorate, claiming they shared a similar experience. The interviewees describe many abilities that are useful in politics and in the representation of diversity – particularly concerning the ability to relate to others, adapting to changing situations like a “chameleon” and a sensitivity to the society’s silent voices. In addition to these skills, the interviewees had also benefited from amplified media attention at a time when their distinctive phenotypes are subject to an increasingly heated and divisive political debate. The thesis provides some unique research into the CCK -experience, bringing the concept into the realm of Political Science for the first time. Combining theories of descriptive representation and the CCK -experience provides crucial insight into political representation of diversity.
  • Kyrkkö, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena on kartoittaa oppitunnin aikaista osallisuuden kokemusta sekä vuorovaikutusta yhdessäolon vahvistajana oppilaan näkökulmasta. Osallisuus-käsite on toistuvasti esillä yhteiskunnallisessa keskustelussa. Opetusta ohjaava perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014 nostaa osallisuutta edistävän, ihmisoikeuksia toteuttavan ja demokraattisen toimintakulttuurin perustaksi oppilaiden kasvulle aktiivisiksi kansalaisiksi. Opetuksen tulisi vastata tähän haasteeseen nykyisen koulumaailman moninaisuuden kentällä. Tutkimusaineiston keräsin eteläsuomalaisessa yhtenäiskoulussa syksyllä 2019. Havainnoin yhdeksänsien luokkien evankelisluterilaisen uskonnon opetuksen oppitunteja, haastattelin oppilaita ryhmissä sekä keräsin palautelomakkeet tunneista niin oppilailta kuin opettajaltakin. Havainnoituja luokkia oli neljä, haastateltuja oppilaita kymmenen ja palautelomakevastauksia 64. Kerätyn aineiston analysoin sisällönanalyysin keinoin teoria- ohjaavasti. Ohjaavana teoriana käytin Martti Siisiäisen ”Osallisuuden eri tyypit” -mallia. Havainnoitujen oppituntien aihepiiri liittyi eettiseen valintatilanteeseen sekä taidekuvien analysoimiseen. Oppitunneilla oli käytössä runsaasti osallistavia opetusmetodeja; kerronnallisuutta, yhteistä keskustelua, toiminnallisia elementtejä sekä parityöskentelyä. Tutkimusaineistosta löytyy useita osallisuutta ja osallistumista kuvaavia sanoja, lauseita, ilmaisuja ja käyttäytymistä. Esiin nousee kuitenkin myös viitteitä siitä, etteivät kaikki oppilaat koe osallisuutta oppituntien aikana tai halua osallistua yhteiseen tekemiseen. Käytetyt opetusmetodit ovat mieleisiä suurelle osalle oppilaista, mutta osa pitää tunteja hämmentävinä tai outoina ja kaipaa ”tavallisia” tunteja. Aiemmat uskonnon tunnit määritellään joko hyvin erilaisiksi tai samankaltaisiksi ryhmästä riippuen. Luokkien välillä ilmenee yllättävän paljon eroja tunti- ja haastattelukäyttäytymisessä, vaikka jokaisella oppitunnilla on sama sisältö ja opettaja. Oppilaiden havainnoitu käytös vaihtelee innostuksen ja ilon sekä välinpitämättömyyden ja kyllästymisen akseleilla. Oppilaat itse kuvaavat haastatteluissa tunnetilojaan oppitunnin jälkeen vaihtelevasti. Tutkimuksessa ilmenee, että luokan ryhmähengellä, oppilas-opettajasuhteella ja käytetyillä opetus- menetelmillä on merkittävä vaikutus tunnin sujumiseen sekä oppilaan subjektiiviseen osallisuuden kokemukseen. Oppilaat ovat myös abstraktilta ajattelultaan hyvin eri kehitysvaiheissa. Siksi eriarvoisuuden vähentäminen sekä osallisuuden edistäminen on opetuksessa niin nykyisyyden kuin tulevaisuudenkin haaste.