Browsing by Subject "moral psychology"

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  • Laakasuo, Michael; Sundvall, Jukka (2016)
    Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 were replicated in Study 3. Finally, we ran a weak invariance analysis between the models of Study 2 and 3, concluding that there is no significant difference between factor loading in these studies. We find reason to support a single-factor model of utilitarian/deontological inclinations. In addition, certain dilemmas have consistent error covariance, suggesting that this should be taken into consideration in future studies. In conclusion, three studies, pilot and an invariance analysis, systematically suggest the following. (1) No item needs to be dropped from the scale. (2) There is a unidimensional structure for utilitarian/deontological preferences behind the most often used dilemmas in moral psychology, suggesting a single latent cognitive mechanism. (3) The most common set of dilemmas in moral psychology can be successfully used as a unidimensional measure of utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations, but would benefit from using weighted averages over simple averages. (4) Consideration should be given to dilemmas describing infants.
  • Sundvall, Jukka (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    It has been previously shown that people express disgust at moral transgressions, with both verbal reports and facial expressions. It is also known that the real or imagined presence of an audience can make people more willing to punish perceived wrongdoers and harsher in their judgments of moral violations. The aim of this thesis was to examine whether other people's emotional communication may affect one's moral judgments of speculative dilemma situations, where the killing or harming of another person is motivated by the greater good. Specifically, this thesis aimed to find out if an audience's facial expression affects judgments of moral violations that break a deontological (duty-based) moral rule but are nevertheless utilitarian, ie. the violation can be said to increase aggregate welfare. The hypothesis was that a disgust-signaling facial expression would lead to less utilitarian judgments than a neutral expression. Four data sets from experiments were collected in Finland and in the Netherlands. 117, 124, 124 and 165 people took part in the experiments Three of the experiments were conducted on a computer, and one on a paper form. An established questionnaire of 12 moral dilemma situations was used. In each dilemma, the utilitarian option was also a deontological violation.The participants indicated on a Likert scale I) how acceptable the found the utilitarian option and II) how likely they thought they themselves would act according to this option. Photographs of faces were used as the audience stimulus. Depending on the experimental condition, these faces were either neutral, or expressed disgust or anger. The order of the dilemmas, the photographs and the placing of participants in different experimental conditions was fully randomized. In the fourth experiment, the possible effect of the audience's gender on moral judgments was also examined. In each of the data sets, a main effect of participant gender was observed: males were slightly more utilitarian than females. An anger-signaling audience had no effect discernible from a neutral audience, whereas a disgust-signaling audience led to changes in utilitarian judgment. Additionally, interactions between the emotional audience manipulation and participant and audience gender were observed. Based on these results, it seems that gender and the expression of disgust may have specific roles in audience effects on moral judgment.
  • Lukin, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tavoitteet. Sosiaalisten robottien ulkonäön vaikutuksia ihmisiin ei ole juuri tutkittu, vaikka sosiaaliset robotit yleistyvät jatkuvasti ammatillisessa, etenkin terveydenhuollon, kontekstissa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on tutkia ensin eroja ihmis- ja robottisairaanhoitajan suorittaman pakkolääkinnän moraalisessa tuomitsemisessa. Tämän jälkeen tarkastelen jatkotutkimuksella, onko sairaanhoitorobotin ulkonäöllä ja söpöydellä vaikutusta pakkolääkinnän moraaliseen tuomitsemiseen. Sairaanhoitorobotteja tarkastellaan söpöysskaalalla—söpöys valikoitui mielekkääksi muuttujaksi, koska suuri osa eri aloilla käytettävistä sosiaalisista roboteista on korostetun söpöjä. Aiempien tutkimusten perusteella viehättävä ulkonäkö ja söpöys vaikuttavat havaitsijan tekemään arviointiin ja päätöksentekoon. Tarkastelen tutkielmassa söpöyden ja ulkonäön vaikutuksia sosiaalisten robottien kontekstissa. Menetelmät. Tutkielmaan kerättiin kaksi kokeellista aineistoa, toinen pääkaupunkiseudulta ja toinen Internet-tutkimuksena. Kokeissa oli 135 ja 214 osallistujaa. Tutkimuksissa koehenkilöt lukivat tarinanpätkän, joka päättyi sairaanhoitajan suorittamaan pakkolääkintään tai potilaan tahdon noudattamiseen. Tarinan toimijan (ihmissairaanhoitaja tai robotti) päätöstä arvioitiin kysymysten avulla (kuinka loukkaava tai epäinhimillinen päätös oli, oliko päätös oikea tai tarpeellinen). Koehenkilöt arvioivat kysymyksiä porrastetulla Likert-asteikolla (“Täysin eri mieltä” – “Täysin samaa mieltä”). Ensimmäisessä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin ihmis- ja robottisairaanhoitajan pakkolääkintäpäätöstä neljällä satunnaistetulla koeasetelmalla. Toisessa tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin vain sairaanhoitorobottia ja tarinanpätkään oli liitetty robotin kasvokuva, joka vaihteli skaalalla “ei söpö, keskivertosöpö, söpö”. Tarinanpätkistä ja robottien variaatioista muodostui kuusi koeasetelmaa, jotka oli satunnaistettu järjestyksen ja koehenkilöiden sijoittamisen osalta. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Ensimmäisen tutkimuksen perusteella havaittiin, että robotti- ja ihmissairaanhoitajiin kohdistuvat moraaliset arviot eroavat toisistaan paitsi silloin, kun sairaanhoitorobotti noudattaa potilaan omaa tahtoa. Toisen tutkimuksen perusteella suoraa ulkonäkövaikutusta moraalisiin arvioihin ei havaittu, joskin osa tuloksista oli lupaavia ja kiinnostavia lisätutkimusten kannalta.
  • Pipatti, Otto (Routledge, 2019)
    While highly respected among evolutionary scholars, the sociologist, anthropologist and philosopher Edward Westermarck is now largely forgotten in the social sciences. This book is the first full study of his moral and social theory, focusing on the key elements of his theory of moral emotions as presented in The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas and summarised in Ethical Relativity. Examining Westermarck’s evolutionary approach to the human mind, the author introduces important new themes to scholarship on Westermarck, including the pivotal role of emotions in human reciprocity, the evolutionary origins of human society, social solidarity, the emergence and maintenance of moral norms and moral responsibility. With attention to Westermarck’s debt to David Hume and Adam Smith, whose views on human nature, moral sentiments and sympathy Westermarck combined with Darwinian evolutionary thinking, Morality Made Visible highlights the importance of the theory of sympathy that lies at the heart of Westermarck’s work, which proves to be crucial to his understanding of morality and human social life. A rigorous examination of Westermarck’s moral and social theory in its intellectual context, this volume connects Westermarck’s work on morality to classical sociology, to the history of evolutionism in the social and behavioural sciences, and to the sociological study of morality and emotions, showing him to be the forerunner of modern evolutionary psychology and anthropology. In revealing the lasting value of his work in understanding and explaining a wide range of moral phenomena, it will appeal to scholars of sociology, anthropology and psychology with interests in social theory, morality and intellectual history.
  • Di Battista, Silvia; Pivetti, Monica; Vainio, Annukka; Berti, Chiara (2020)
    Sacred values are moral foundations that may make public and political debates among groups hard to resolve. A taboo trade-off framework offers the opportunity of measuring the inviolability and the "sacralization" of moral foundations. In this study, moral foundations in a taboo trade-off framework were assessed in a convenience sample of Italians (N = 224) using a new measure to assess sacred values, the Omission as a Compromise on Moral Foundations scale (OC-MF). The OC-MF measures the willingness of individuals to omit moral foundations in exchange for money. It was predicted that Italian center and left-wing participants would be less willing to compromise individualizing moral foundations as opposed to binding ones, and that center and right-wing participants would be less willing to compromise on binding moral foundations than left-wing participants. Confirmatory Factor Analyses demonstrated the two-factor structure of the OC-MF: individualizing and binding. As predicted, Repeated Measures Anova showed that political orientation was related with differential adoptions of moral foundations as sacred values, with center and left-wing participants refusing to compromise more on individualizing than on binding moral foundations. Moreover, left-wing participants were more willing to compromise on binding moral foundations than center and right-wing participants. The OC-MF shows the hypothesized differences between Italian political groups and offers a new understanding of moral reasoning. These findings provide opportunities for improving ideological debates concerning sacred values.