Browsing by Subject "morphology"

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  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Nikolaev, Alexandre; Lehtonen, Minna; Higby, Eve; Hyun, JungMoon; Ashaie, Sameer (2018)
    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the recognition speed of Finnish nominal base forms varies as a function of their paradigmatic complexity (stem allomorphy) or productivity status. Nikolaev et al. (2014) showed that words with greater stem allomorphy from an unproductive inflectional class arc recognized faster than words with lower stein allomorphy from a productive inflectional class. Productivity of an inflectional paradigm correlates with the number of stem allomorphs in languages like Finnish in that unproductive inflectional classes tend to have higher stem allomorphy. We wanted to distinguish which of these two characteristics provides the benefit to speed of recognition found by Nikolaev et al. (2014). The current study involved a lexical decision task comparing three categories of words: unproductive with three or more stem allomorphs, unproductive with two stem allomorphs, and productive with two stein allomorphs. We observed a facilitation effect for word recognition only for unproductive words with three or more stem allomorphs, but not for unproductive words with two allomorphs. This effect was observed particularly in words of low to moderate familiarity. The findings suggest that high stem allomorphy, rather than productivity of the inflectional class, is driving the facilitation effect in word recognition.
  • Pellinen, Markku J.; Zahiri, Reza; Sihvonen, Pasi (2020)
    A new species of Sacada from northern Thailand is described: S. chaehomensis sp. nov. Pellinen & Zahiri (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Pyralinae). Morphological characters and DNA barcode data are provided for the new species, with a morphological comparison to S. dzonguensis and S. umtasorensis, and a DNA-barcode comparison to S. ragonotalis and S. albioculalis, respectively. After this addition, the current number of valid species in the genus Sacada is 43.
  • Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Du Preez, Louis H.; Vanhove, Maarten P.M.; Brendonck, Luc; Smit, Nico J. (2020)
    Haemogregarine (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) blood parasites are commonly reported from anuran hosts. Dactylosomatidae (Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1955) is a group of haemogregarines comprising Dactylosoma Labbe, 1894 and Babesiosoma Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1956. Currently Dactylosoma and Babesiosoma contain five recognised species each. In the current study, a total of 643 anurans, comprising 38 species, 20 genera, and 13 families were collected from South Africa (n = 618) and Belgium (n = 25), and their blood screened for the presence of dactylosomatid parasites. Three anuran species were found infected namely, Ptychadena anchietae (Bocage, 1868) and Sclerophrys gutturalis (Power, 1927) from South Africa, and Pelophylax lessonae (Camerano, 1882) from Belgium. Based on morphological characteristics, morphometrics and molecular results a new dactylosomatid, Dactylosoma kermiti n. sp. is described form Pty. anchietae and Scl. gutturalis. The species of Dactylosoma isolated from Pel. lessonae could not, based on morphological or molecular analysis, be identified to species level. Phylogenetic analysis shows species of Dactylosoma infecting anurans as a monophyletic group separate from the other haemogregarine groups. Additionally, the mosquitoes Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) mashonaensis Theobald, 1901 and U. (Pfc.) montana Ingram and De Meillon, 1927 were observed feeding on Scl. gutturalis in situ and possible dividing stages of this new parasite were observed in the mosquitoes. This study is the first to describe a dactylosomatid parasite based on morphological and molecular data from Africa as well as observe potential stages in possible dipteran vectors.
  • Savriama, Yoland; Valtonen, Mia; Kammonen, Juhana I.; Rastas, Pasi; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Lyyski, Annina; Häkkinen, Teemu J.; Corfe, Ian J.; Gerber, Sylvain; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Paulin, Lars; Holm, Liisa; Löytynoja, Ari; Auvinen, Petri; Jernvall, Jukka (2018)
    An increasing number of mammalian species have been shown to have a history of hybridization and introgression based on genetic analyses. Only relatively few fossils, however, preserve genetic material, and morphology must be used to identify the species and determine whether morphologically intermediate fossils could represent hybrids. Because dental and cranial fossils are typically the key body parts studied in mammalian palaeontology, here we bracket the potential for phenotypically extreme hybridizations by examining uniquely preserved cranio-dental material of a captive hybrid between grey and ringed seals. We analysed how distinct these species are genetically and morphologically, how easy it is to identify the hybrids using morphology and whether comparable hybridizations happen in the wild. We show that the genetic distance between these species is more than twice the modern human–Neanderthal distance, but still within that of morphologically similar species pairs known to hybridize. By contrast, morphological and developmental analyses show grey and ringed seals to be highly disparate, and that the hybrid is a predictable intermediate. Genetic analyses of the parent populations reveal introgression in the wild, suggesting that grey–ringed seal hybridization is not limited to captivity. Taken together, we postulate that there is considerable potential for mammalian hybridization between phenotypically disparate taxa.
  • McKenzie, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This project is a corpus-based study on numeral + noun phrases in Scottish Gaelic. The typical pattern in Scottish Gaelic is to use a singular noun after numerals one and two and a plural noun after numerals three through ten. However, there are some nouns that do not follow this expected pattern. These exceptions are called numeratives and there are three different categories of numeratives in Scottish Gaelic: duals, numeratives identical in form to a singular, and numeratives with a form that differs from singular and plural and only used with numerals. This study aims to find which nouns have numerative forms and how their use varies diachronically and between dialects. While numeratives have been more researched in Welsh and Irish, there is not much research on numeratives in Scottish Gaelic. Ò Maolalaigh (2013) did a more restricted corpus study to find what nouns use singular after numerals three through ten. The past research provides a good comparison for my results and gives me a good foundation to expand on. From the past research, there seems to be a semantic relationship between the kinds of nouns that have numerative forms, so I sort my results into semantic categories as well. I also look at numeratives from the perspective of linguistic complexity since Scottish Gaelic is a minority language with a large proportion of L2 speakers. This project uses Corpas na Gàidhlig (the Corpus of Scottish Gaelic), which is part of the University of Glasgow’s Digital Archive of Scottish Gaelic. I search the corpus for numerals two through four to see which nouns use numeratives and how consistently they use them. I also look at how frequently numeratives are used diachronically and how usage varies across dialects. I focus especially on nouns that have a high number of numerative tokens to see if there is a pattern in their usage. In my results, I found 47 nouns that use a dual form and 105 nouns that use a numerative identical in form to a singular. The overall findings for numerative use are that dual use is decreasing, while use of numeratives identical in form to singular has been increasing since 1900-1949. The semantic category with the most dual tokens is natural pairs. The nouns with numeratives identical in form to singular tend to be nouns frequently used with numerals, such as measurement words.
  • Nurmio, Silva Mikaela (de Gruyter, 2020)
    Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM]
  • Vehkavuori, Suvi-Maria; Stolt, Suvi (2019)
    Previous studies have shown that early lexical development is associated with later language development. It is less clear which language domains early receptive/expressive lexicons are associated with. This study analyses these associations. The study also investigates whether children with slow/typical/fast developing early receptive/expressive lexical skills differed in their language skills at three and a half years (42 months) and the predictive value of early receptive/expressive lexical skills for later language skills. The participants of this longitudinal study were 68 healthy, monolingual Finnish-speaking children whose language development was measured using the Finnish, short-form-version of the Communicative Development Inventories at 12, 15, 18 and 24 months. At 42 months, language skills of the participants were assessed using tests measuring lexical, phonological, morphological and general receptive/expressive language skills. Early receptive lexicon was associated with later morphological skills from 15 months and onwards and with other language domains at 24 months. Early expressive lexicon was associated with later morphological skills at 15 months and onwards but with other language domains from 18 months. A trend was found that children with different early lexical growth rates differed in their language skills at 42 months. The best models for predicting later receptive/expressive language skills included variables from both early receptive and expressive lexicons. These models worked well to explain receptive/expressive language skills at 42 months (63/78% of the variance). This study provides novel information on the specific associations between receptive and expressive lexicon growth and later language skills. For clinicians, measuring both receptive and expressive lexicons provides the most representative information on children's language development.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael (Northern European Association for Language Technology, 2011)
    NEALT Proceedings Series
    A novel technique of adding positionwise flags to one-level finite state lexicons is presented. The proposed flags are kinds of morphophonemic markers and they constitute a flexible method for describing morphophonological processes with a formalism that is tightly coupled with lexical entries and rule-like regular expressions. The formalism is inspired by the techniques used in two-level rule compilation and it practically compiles all the rules in parallel, but in an efficient way. The technique handles morphophonological processes without a separate morphophonemic representation. The occurrences of the allomorphophonemes in latent phonological strings are tracked through a dynamic data structure into which the most prominent (i.e. the best ranked) flags are collected. The application of the technique is suspected to give advantages when describing the morphology of Bantu languages and dialects.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael (MTA Research Institute for Linguistics, 2019)
    Hennie presented a very general sufficient condition for regularity of Turing machines. This happened chronologically before Generative Phonology (Chomsky & Halle 1968) and the related finite-state research (Johnson 1972; Kaplan & Kay 1994). Hennie’s condition lets us (1) construct a finite-state transducer from any grammar implemented by a linear-time Turing machine, and (2) to model the regularity in context-sensitive derivations. For example, the suffixation in hunspell dictionaries (Németh et al. 2004) corresponds to time-bounded two way computations performed by a Hennie machine. Furthermore, it challenges us to look for new forgotten islands of regularity where Hennie’s condition does not necessarily hold.
  • Liu, Li-Na; Razaq, Abdul; Atri, Narender Singh; Bau, Tolgor; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouket, Ali Chenari; Chen, Lai-Ping; Deng, Chu; Ilyas, Sobia; Khalid, Abdul Nasir; Kitaura, Marcos Junji; Kobayashi, Takahito; Li, Yu; Lorenz, Aline Pedroso; Ma, Yuan-Hao; Malysheva, Ekaterina; Malysheva, Vera; Nuytinck, Jorinde; Qiao, Min; Saini, Munruchi Kaur; Scur, Mayara Camila; Sharma, Samidha; Shu, Li-Li; Spirin, Viacheslav; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tojo, Motoaki; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Valerio-Junior, Claudio; Verbeken, Annemieke; Verma, Balwant; Wu, Ri-Han; Xu, Jian-Ping; Yu, Ze-Fen; Zeng, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Banerjee, Arghya; Beddiar, Arifa; Bordallo, Juan-Julian; Dafri, Ahlem; Dima, Balint; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mandal, Raghunath; Morte, Asuncion; Nath, Partha Sarathi; Papp, Viktor; Pavlik, Jozef; Rodriguez, Antonio; Sevcikova, Hana; Urban, Alexander; Voglmayr, Hermann; Zapparoli, Giacomo (2018)
    Eight new species presented are Calostoma areolatum collected in Wuyishan National Park (China), Crinipellis bidens from Hubei Province (China), Lactifluus sainii from Himalayan India, Inocybe elata from Yunnan (China), Inocybe himalayensis from Pakistan. Specimens previously identified as Massalongia carnosa represent a new species, namely M. patagonica restricted to southern South America. Saprolegnia maragheica is a new oomycete species of fresh water in Maraghe (Iran). Uncispora wuzhishanensis is a new aquatic hyphomycete species. A type specimen of Raddetes turkestanicus was studied and based on this the new combination Conocybe turkestanica, is proposed. Argyranthemum frutescens is a new host for Alternaria alternata and Syzygium cumini for Phyllosticta capitalensis in India. Crepidotus ehrendorferi is confirmed for Hungary and Pluteus leucoborealis for Central Europe, and for the phytogeographical region of Carpaticum. Pseudopithomyces palmicola is shown to occur on grapevine and it is validated by adding a unique identifier. Terfezia fanfani is reported first from Algeria.
  • Reichel, Philipp; Munz, Sebastian; Hartung, Jens; Prager, Achim; Kotiranta, Stiina; Burgel, Lisa; Schober, Torsten; Graeff-Honninger, Simone (2021)
    Cannabis is one of the oldest cultivated plants, but plant breeding and cultivation are restricted by country specific regulations. Plant growth, morphology and metabolism can be manipulated by changing light quality and intensity. Three morphologically different strains were grown under three different light spectra with three real light repetitions. Light dispersion was included into the statistical evaluation. The light spectra considered had an influence on the morphology of the plant, especially the height. Here, the shade avoidance induced by the lower R:FR ratio under the ceramic metal halide lamp (CHD) was of particular interest. The sugar leaves seemed to be of elementary importance in the last growth phase for yield composition. Furthermore, the last four weeks of flowering were crucial to influence the yield composition of Cannabis sativa L. through light spectra. The dry flower yield was significantly higher under both LED treatments compared to the conventional CHD light source. Our results indicate that the plant morphology can be artificially manipulated by the choice of light treatment to create shorter plants with more lateral branches which seem to be beneficial for yield development. Furthermore, the choice of cultivar has to be taken into account when interpreting results of light studies, as Cannabis sativa L. subspecies and thus bred strains highly differ in their phenotypic characteristics.
  • Drobac, Senka; Silfverberg, Miikka; Yli-Jyrä, Anssi Mikael (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2012)
    We explain the implementation of replace rules with the .r-glc. operator and preference relations. Our modular approach combines various preference constraints to form different replace rules. In addition to describing the method, we present illustrative examples.
  • Hakala, Tero; Hulten, Annika; Lehtonen, Minna; Lagus, Krista; Salmelin, Riitta (2018)
    Neuroimaging studies of the reading process point to functionally distinct stages in word recognition. Yet, current understanding of the operations linked to those various stages is mainly descriptive in nature. Approaches developed in the field of computational linguistics may offer a more quantitative approach for understanding brain dynamics. Our aim was to evaluate whether a statistical model of morphology, with well-defined computational principles, can capture the neural dynamics of reading, using the concept of surprisal from information theory as the common measure. The Morfessor model, created for unsupervised discovery of morphemes, is based on the minimum description length principle and attempts to find optimal units of representation for complex words. In a word recognition task, we correlated brain responses to word surprisal values derived from Morfessor and from other psycholinguistic variables that have been linked with various levels of linguistic abstraction. The magnetoencephalography data analysis focused on spatially, temporally and functionally distinct components of cortical activation observed in reading tasks. The early occipital and occipito-temporal responses were correlated with parameters relating to visual complexity and orthographic properties, whereas the later bilateral superior temporal activation was correlated with whole-word based and morphological models. The results show that the word processing costs estimated by the statistical Morfessor model are relevant for brain dynamics of reading during late processing stages.
  • Bloch-Trojnar, Maria; Nurmio, Silva (de Gruyter, 2020)
    Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM]
  • Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Du Preez, Louis H.; Vanhove, Maarten Pieterjan Maria; Brendonck, Luc; Smit, Nico J. (2018)
    Haemogregarines (Apicomplexa: Adeleiorina) are a diverse group of haemoparasites reported from almost all vertebrate classes. The most commonly recorded haemogregarines to parasitize anurans are species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908. To date 16 Hepatozoon species have been described from anurans in Africa, with only a single species, Hepatozoon hyperolli (Hoare, 1932), infecting a member of the Hyperoliidae. Furthermore, only two Hepatozoon species are known from South African anurans, namely Hepatozoon theileri (Laveran, 1905) and Hepatozoon ixoxo Netherlands, Cook and Smit, 2014, from Amietia delalandii (syn. Amietia quecketti) and three Sclerophrys species, respectively. Blood samples were collected from a total of 225 individuals representing nine hyperoliid species from several localities throughout northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Twenty frogs from three species were found positive for haemogregarines, namely Afrixalus fornasinii (6/14), Hyperolius argus (2/39), and Hyperolius marmoratus (12/74). Based on morphological characteristics, morphometrics and molecular findings three new haemogregarine species, Hepatozoon involucrum Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp., Hepatozoon tenuis Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp. and Hepatozoon thori Netherlands, Cook and Smit n. sp., are described from hyperoliid hosts. Furthermore, molecular analyses show anuran Hepatozoon species to be a separate monophyletic group, with species isolated from African hosts forming a monophyletic clade within this cluster.
  • Brandes, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Wooden breast is muscle myopathy occurring in broilers, myopathy forms hard and pale connective tissue areas in broiler breast muscles. When wooden breast is occurring also some other myopathies can coexist: loose muscle structure and white stripping are visible on breast muscles. The myopathy is relatively new and it was noticed approximately ten years ago in greater amounts. The subject of this thesis was to study wing flapping and how it affects the morphology of breast muscles and bones and whether there are links between them and wooden breast prevalence. The literature review handled muscle morphology and bones morphology and how muscles shape changes when they grow in size, how muscles and bones grow normally and how the exercise of the muscles will affect wooden breast prevalence. In the literature review the anatomy of broiler movement and especially the anatomy of bones and the muscles that are involved in wing movement is handled. The study is made by raising 171 broiler birds divided in three groups: Group A birds have feed and water on floor level and birds do not have to use their wings. Group B birds lived same way as A-group until at day 25 drinking water is moved to platform which is higher than the floor level. Birds had to fly to platform and down when they need water or feed. Group C feed and water were on floor level but after 3 days water was risen on the platform and platform was risen gradually when birds grew and all birds of the Group C learned how to get to platform. From the original 171 birds 17 were sacrificed outside the study due health reasons. The birds (171-17 i.e. 154) were terminated 20, 30 or 41 days old in 40, 58 or 56 bird batches. The percentage of termination was roughly equal in each group on each termination, except at Day 20, when Group A and Group B had had the same treatment, and there were no terminations in Group B. The aim of this thesis was to study effects of wing flapping to broilers morphological changes. This thesis showed that there were no significant differences in Group A and Group C between studied properties. Wing flapping showed no significant differences during sample termination days in morphological properties.
  • Rikkinen, Jouko; Grimaldi, David A.; Schmidt, Alexander R. (2019)
    Myxomycetes constitute a group within the Amoebozoa well known for their motile plasmodia and morphologically complex fruiting bodies. One obstacle hindering studies of myxomycete evolution is that their fossils are exceedingly rare, so evolutionary analyses of this supposedly ancient lineage of amoebozoans are restricted to extant taxa. Molecular data have significantly advanced myxomycete systematics, but the evolutionary history of individual lineages and their ecological adaptations remain unknown. Here, we report exquisitely preserved myxomycete sporocarps in amber from Myanmar, ca. 100 million years old, one of the few fossil myxomycetes, and the only definitive Mesozoic one. Six densely-arranged stalked sporocarps were engulfed in tree resin while young, with almost the entire spore mass still inside the sporotheca. All morphological features are indistinguishable from those of the modern, cosmopolitan genus Stemonitis, demonstrating that sporocarp morphology has been static since at least the mid-Cretaceous. The ability of myxomycetes to develop into dormant stages, which can last years, may account for the phenotypic stasis between living Stemonitis species and this fossil one, similar to the situation found in other organisms that have cryptobiosis. We also interpret Stemonitis morphological stasis as evidence of strong environmental selection favouring the maintenance of adaptations that promote wind dispersal.
  • Menzel, Frank; Vilkamaa, Pekka (2021)
    The following species of the genus Lycoriella Frey sensu Vilkamaa & Menzel from the Holarctic region are newly described and illustrated: Lycoriella ampla sp. n. (Canada: Ontario), L. barkalovi sp. n. (Russia: Krasnoyarsk region), L. canningsi sp. n. (Canada: British Columbia), L. eurystylata sp. n. (Canada: Quebec), L. excavata sp. n. (USA: Colorado), L. jakovlevi sp. n. (Russia: Karelia), L. kinbasketi sp. n. (Canada: British Columbia), L. longa sp. n. (USA: Colorado), L. nivicola sp. n. (Canada: Nunavut, NWT; Greenland), L. pearyi sp. n. (Greenland), L. taimyrensis sp. n. (Russia: Krasnoyarsk region) and L. tundrae sp. n. (Russia: Krasnoyarsk region). Lycoriella parva (Holmgren, 1869) is redescribed and illustrated and new faunistic records are given for some previously described species of Lycoriella. The newly described species raise the number of known species of Lycoriella from 38 to 50.