Browsing by Subject "motor skills"

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  • Haapala, Eero A.; Gao, Ying; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Vanhala, Anssi; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lakka, Timo A.; Finni, Taija (2021)
    We investigated the associations of motor competence (MC) with peak oxygen uptake (V.O-2peak), peak power output (W-max), and body fat percentage (BF%) and whether measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modify the associations between MC and BF%. Altogether, 35 children (aged 7-11 years) in the CHIPASE Study and 297 in PANIC Study (aged 9-11 years) participated in the study. MC was assessed using KTK and modified Eurofit tests. V.O-2peak and W-max were measured by maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean mass (LM) or body mass (BM). BF% was assessed either by bioimpedance (CHIPASE) or DXA (PANIC). MC was not associated with V.O-2peak/LM (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.073-0.188, P > .083). V.O-2peak/BM and W-max/LM and BM were positively associated with MC (beta = 0.158-0.610, P < .05). MC ( = -0.186 to -0.665, P < .01), but not V.O-2peak/LM ( = -0.169-0.035, P > .381), was inversely associated with BF%. Furthermore, the associations of MC with BF% were not modified by CRF. These results suggest that the positive associations between MC and CRF scaled by BM are a function of adiposity and not peak aerobic power and that CRF is not modifying factor in the associations of MC and BF%.
  • Hotta, Jaakko; Zhou, Guangyu; Harno, Hanna; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2017)
    Introduction: Many central pathophysiological aspects of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) are still unknown. Although brain-imaging studies are increasingly supporting the contribution of the central nervous system to the generation and maintenance of the CRPS pain, the brain's white-matter alterations are seldom investigated. Methods: In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to explore white-matter changes in twelve CRPS-type-1 female patients suffering from chronic right upper-limb pain compared with twelve healthy control subjects. Results: Tract-based spatial-statistics analysis revealed significantly higher mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in the CRPS patients, suggesting that the structural connectivity is altered in CRPS. All these measures were altered in the genu, body, and splenium of corpus callosum, as well as in the left anterior and posterior and the right superior parts of the corona radiata. Axial diffusivity was significantly correlated with clinical motor symptoms at whole-brain level, supporting the physiological significance of the observed white-matter abnormalities. Conclusions: Altogether, our findings further corroborate the involvement of the central nervous system in CRPS.
  • McGowan, Catherine Marie; Hyytiäinen, Heli Katariina (2017)
    Athletic performance or the kinematics of locomotion is ultimately the result of the actions of muscles. Muscular actions differ depending on the muscle group involved with anatomical and functional properties depending on the primary roles of the muscle; from stabilisation to powering locomotion. The functional (contractile and metabolic) properties of a muscle are determined by its fibre type or relative fibre type proportions in the muscle. The actions of muscle require the coordination of the nervous system with muscle contraction to produce movement or resist movement to avoid unwanted motion and tissue damage. The coordination of muscular action with the nervous system is termed neuromotor control and it requires precise proprioceptive input from the periphery, processing and input from the central nervous system (including learned or trained movements) and involves timing of muscle recruitment as well as muscle contraction. Training of muscles involves training for strength (or force generation) and stamina with measureable physiological changes with training including increased fibre size, alterations in fibre type, alterations in glycogen concentrations and lactate transport and alterations in mitochondrial and capillary density. As well as standard athletic training, skills training can make the difference in athletic performance and injury prevention in the equine athlete. This involves training of neuromotor control; training motor skills by motor relearning and conditional learning. Practical specific training techniques can be used in injury prevention, rehabilitation post injury and maintenance of the athlete. In this review we will focus on the thoracolumbar and hindlimb areas of the horse and review the importance of muscular control of locomotion, neuromotor control, the physiological effects of training and practical ways to maximise performance potential by specific physiotherapy skills training.