Browsing by Subject "movement"

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  • Savisaari, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Animations are a way to visualize change and bring inanimate objects life. Today, they are all arounds us: on digital billboards, info screens in shopping malls, websites and in our mobile phones. Major technology companies, such as Apple and Google have established their own guidelines for using movement and animations in digital interfaces. Yet, there is surprisingly little formal research on the topic. The question is, what are these guidelines based on? Existing research focuses on subjective perception of time, animation principles as well as combination of animations and sound in improving comprehension. However, systematic comparison between animation types and their effects on interfaces is absent from present literature. Therefore, this study answers how animation type impacts performance and change detection rates in visual tasks. This study was conducted as an empirical experiment, for which ten participants were recruited using university’s mailing lists. The experiment was carried out using a standard computer monitor, keyboard and head-mounted eye tracking equipment. Participants performed a dual task, consisting of five blocks of equal duration. The goal of the primary task was to keep attention in one part of the screen, and in secondary task participants reacted to visual changes animated on the screen. Performance in both tasks was measured using a combination of reaction times, verbal reports and eye tracking data. Data was analyzed with ANOVA as well as linear and generalized linear regression models, depending on the type of data under scrutiny. Presence of animations greatly improved reaction times and comprehension of change. Additionally, verbal reports differed considerably between animations, as did missed responses to the primary task. In other words, certain animations were noticed and reported with greater reliability and impaired performance in a simultaneous task less than other animations. In this regard, Slide animation performed best of the ones used in this study. In addition to finding measurable differences between animation types, the results were used to contribute to interaction design by establishing general animation guidelines. These guidelines are outlined at the end of this thesis.
  • Prokic, Emma J.; Stanford, Ian M.; Woodhall, Gavin L.; Williams, Adrian C.; Hall, Stephen D. (2019)
    Spontaneous and "event-related" motor cortex oscillations in the beta (15-30 Hz) frequency range are well-established phenomena. However, the precise functional significance of these features is uncertain. An understanding of the specific function is of importance for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), where attenuation of augmented beta throughout the motor network coincides with functional improvement. Previous research using a discrete movement task identified normalization of elevated spontaneous beta and postmovement beta rebound following GABAergic modulation. Here, we explore the effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A modulator, zolpidem, on beta power during the performance of serial movement in 17 (15M, 2F; mean age, 66 ± 6.3 years) PD patients, using a repeated-measures, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-control design. Motor symptoms were monitored before and after treatment, using time-based Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale measurements and beta oscillations in primary motor cortex (M1) were measured during a serial-movement task, using magnetoencephalography. We demonstrate that a cumulative increase in M1 beta power during a 10-s tapping trial is reduced following zolpidem, but not placebo, which is accompanied by an improvement in movement speed and efficacy. This work provides a clear mechanism for the generation of abnormally elevated beta power in PD and demonstrates that perimovement beta accumulation drives the slowing, and impaired initiation, of movement. These findings further indicate a role for GABAergic modulation in bradykinesia in PD, which merits further exploration as a therapeutic target.
  • Särkamö, Teppo; Altenmueller, Eckart; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Peretz, Isabelle (2016)
  • Hinkkanen, Tero; Kurhila, Jaakko; Pasanen, Tomi A. (2008)
    Department of Computer Science Series of publications C
    We present a framework for evaluating believability of characters in first-person shooter (FPS) games and look into the development of non-player character’s user-perceived believability. The used framework is composed of two aspects: firstly, character movement and animation, secondly, behavior. Examination of three different FPS games yields that the newer the game was, the better the believability of characters in the game. Moreover, the results from both the aspects of the framework were mutually balanced through all games examined.
  • Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina; Bocedi, Greta; Cote, Julien; Legrand, Dephine; Guillaume, Fredric; Wheat, Christopher West; Fronhofer, Emanuel A.; Garcia, Cristina; Henry, Roslyn; Husby, Arild; Baguette, Michelle; Bonte, Dries; Coulon, Aurelie; Kokko, Hanna; Matthysen, Erik; Niitepöld, Kristjan; Nonaka, Etsuko; Stevens, Virginie M.; Travis, Justin MJ; Donohue, Kathlin; Bullock, James M.; del Mar Delgado, Maria (2018)
    Dispersal is a process of central importance for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations and communities, because of its diverse consequences for gene flow and demography. It is subject to evolutionary change, which begs the question, what is the genetic basis of this potentially complex trait? To address this question, we (i) review the empirical literature on the genetic basis of dispersal, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations of the evolution of dispersal have represented the genetics of dispersal, and (iii) discuss how the genetic basis of dispersal influences theoretical predictions of the evolution of dispersal and potential consequences. Dispersal has a detectable genetic basis in many organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. Generally, there is evidence for significant genetic variation for dispersal or dispersal-related phenotypes or evidence for the micro-evolution of dispersal in natural populations. Dispersal is typically the outcome of several interacting traits, and this complexity is reflected in its genetic architecture: while some genes of moderate to large effect can influence certain aspects of dispersal, dispersal traits are typically polygenic. Correlations among dispersal traits as well as between dispersal traits and other traits under selection are common, and the genetic basis of dispersal can be highly environment-dependent. By contrast, models have historically considered a highly simplified genetic architecture of dispersal. It is only recently that models have started to consider multiple loci influencing dispersal, as well as non-additive effects such as dominance and epistasis, showing that the genetic basis of dispersal can influence evolutionary rates and outcomes, especially under non-equilibrium conditions. For example, the number of loci controlling dispersal can influence projected rates of dispersal evolution during range shifts and corresponding demographic impacts. Incorporating more realism in the genetic architecture of dispersal is thus necessary to enable models to move beyond the purely theoretical towards making more useful predictions of evolutionary and ecological dynamics under current and future environmental conditions. To inform these advances, empirical studies need to answer outstanding questions concerning whether specific genes underlie dispersal variation, the genetic architecture of context-dependent dispersal phenotypes and behaviours, and correlations among dispersal and other traits.
  • Sandberg, Maria; Klockars, Kristian Erik; Wilén, Kristoffer (2019)
    Scientists agree that changes in the organization of human society and economy are needed to stop the degradation of the natural environment. The most commonly proposed solution, green growth, has been increasingly criticized, but the offered alternative of degrowth has remained a marginal undertaking in academia and in practice. This article further develops the argument for degrowth. The article conducts a comparative analysis of the normative foundations of green growth and degrowth using frameworks from critical social theory. The analysis shows that green growth and degrowth work toward different normative ideals that are justified in different ways. The analysis shows that degrowth has a stronger normative justification than green growth and therefore, should be preferred. The article contributes to the debate about green growth and degrowth by establishing normative grounds for focusing efforts for environmental sustainability on degrowth rather than green growth. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Norros, Veera Maria; Karhu, Elina; Nordén, Jenni; Vähätalo, Anssi Vesa; Ovaskainen, Otso Tapio (2015)
    Assessment of the costs and benefits of dispersal is central to understanding species' life-history strategies as well as explaining and predicting spatial population dynamics in the changing world. While mortality during active movement has received much attention, few have studied the costs of passive movement such as the airborne transport of fungal spores. Here, we examine the potential of extreme environmental conditions to cause dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi. These fungi play a key role as decomposers and habitat creators in forest ecosystems and the populations of many species have declined due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We measured the effect of simulated solar radiation (including ultraviolet A and B) and freezing at -25 degrees C on the spore germinability of 17 species. Both treatments but especially sunlight markedly reduced spore germinability in most species, and species with thin-walled spores were particularly light sensitive. Extrapolating the species' laboratory responses to natural irradiance conditions, we predict that sunlight is a relevant source of dispersal mortality at least at larger spatial scales. In addition, we found a positive effect of spore size on spore germinability, suggesting a trade-off between dispersal distance and establishment. We conclude that freezing and particularly sunlight can be important sources of dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi which can make it difficult for some species to colonize isolated habitat patches and habitat edges.
  • Virtanen, Pirjo Kristiina; Saunaluoma, Sanna (2017)
    Producing geometric designs and images on materials, such as pottery, basketry, and bead artwork, as well as the human body, is elemental and widespread among Amazonian Indigenous peoples. In this article, we examine the different geometric forms identified in the precolonial geoglyph architecture of southwestern Amazonia in the context of geometric design making and relational ontologies. Our aim is to explore earthwork iconography through the lens of Amerindian visual arts and movement. Combining ethnographic and archaeological data from the Upper Purus, Brazil, the article shows how ancient history and socio-cosmology are deeply "written" onto the landscape in the form of geometric earthworks carved out of the soil, which materialize interactions between nonhuman and human actors. We underline skills in visualization, imaginative practices, and movement as ways to promote well-balanced engagements with animated life forms. Here, iconography inserted in the landscape is both a form of writing and also emerges as an agent, affecting people through visual and corporal practices.
  • Pusenius, Jyrki; Kukko, Tuomas; Melin, Markus; Laaksonen, Sauli; Kojola, Ilpo (2020)
    Grey wolf Canis lupus is often the main predator of moose Alces alces. Therefore it can be expected that moose are able to recognize the presence of wolves and react to them to avoid predation. We examined the effect of predation risk by wolves on movement patterns by moose in eastern Finland where moose and wolves have co-existed for centuries. The level of wolf predation risk experienced by 20 radio-collared adult moose was classified according to the proportion of their fixes in wolf territories. Our results suggest that moose adjust their movement speed according to the degree they are exposed to the presence of wolves. The adjustment occurred in summer but not in winter. In summer the moose more exposed to wolves moved faster than the moose less exposed to wolves. Season and the structure of the surrounding forests also affected moose movement patterns. Both movement speed and the linearity of movement decreased in winter and with increasing canopy cover. We suggest that by increased moving when exposed to higher risk of predation moose try to keep distance to the predator and/or try to keep themselves spatially and temporally unpredictable to their predator. Our results differ from those obtained in Scandinavia where no response of moose movement to predation risk by wolves has been detected. It might be that wolves' continuous presence in eastern Finland compared to Scandinavia provide a reason why moose in our study area reacted to the presence of wolves.