Browsing by Subject "multinational corporations"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Barner-Rasmussen, Wilhelm; Björkman, Ingmar; Ehrnrooth, Mats; Koveshnikov, Alexei; Mäkelä, Kristiina; Vaara, Eero; Zhang, Ling (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009)
    Research Reports
    This book is on cross-border competence management in Russia and China. Corporations are facing a number of problems and challenges in their international operations, to which there typically are no simple solutions. For instance, they need to understand and respond to cultural and institutional diversity and ascertain that their foreign units are integrated with the rest of the corporation. Throughout this report we will discuss a range of challenges confronting firms as they seek to develop their capabilities to operate internationally. Some of the challenges are clearly case specific, and although this book aims to offer research-based advice to practicing managers there is a potential danger in applying lessons from other companies to the own firm. Our hope is that our analyses of the challenges facing Finnish corporations in China and Russia reported together with extensive quotes from our interviews and insights from other recent studies will help readers draw their own conclusions as to how to deal with issues related to competence management across borders. With this book we also aspire to contribute to the academic literature by providing new insights into cross-border competence management in general and the operations of Finnish corporations in Russia and China in particular.
  • Barner-Rasmussen, Wilhelm (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2003)
    Economics and Society
    Multinational corporations (MNCs) are commonly perceived as networks of differentiated units, dependent for their competitive edge on the sharing of different kinds of internal resources. This ‘differentiated network’ view of the MNC strongly emphasizes the crucial role of interunit knowledge sharing, the topic of this thesis. The five essays presented here contribute to the research on interunit knowledge sharing in MNCs by focusing on the roles played by language, identity, and feedback seeking in the knowledge sharing process. While these factors have occasionally been brought up in previous research as potentially relevant for interunit knowledge sharing, they have so far been subject to limited empirical examination – an important omission which this thesis is an effort to redress. Furthermore, the treatment of the topic is anchored in a theoretical framework based on social capital. This perspective contributes to MNC research by providing a comprehensive framework for examining the significance of social relationships in interunit interaction. The findings can be summarized in two main points. Firstly, language skills and shared identity appear to promote the accumulation of interunit social capital. Secondly, high levels of interunit social capital seem to promote interunit knowledge sharing and feedback seeking. These observations raise a number of both theoretical and practical issues of considerable relevance for MNC management.
  • Kulonen, Minna (1999)
    The thesis focuses on the sociopolitical value promotion by the multinational corporations, which according to the recent research has increased during 1990's. The phenomena is analysed with the help of the concept of 'moral markets', which refers to the continual flux of the contemporary moral values. The moral values are created and enhanced by the actors at the moral markets. The study is the so called pilot study on the phenomena, which has just begun to develop and of which there exists only minimal previous research. The aim of the thesis is to systematically analyse the value promotion of the corporations and the actors and elements related to the phenomena. The system theory, which emphasises the relationship between the organisation and the external environment, is used as a contextual theory. It has been used as a basis in order to form more specific model on the functions of 'the moral markets' and the power hierarchy behind it. The theory of legitimation of power by David Beetham forms the main theory of the study. The thesis is a case study, in which is used both quantitative content analysis and qualitative text analysis. The case corporations are Shell, Nestlé, McDonald's and Nike, which have been and still are on the boycott. The quantitative analysis pointed out that the promotion of values was both relatively extensive and intensive in three of the four case corporations. Also the so called boycott values were in a central position in three of the four cases, which may seem to indicate that boycotts are one essential reason for the value promotion of the case corporations. From the results of the quantitative analysis there was formed the following value promotion profiles: boycott-centric activity (Shell and Nike), 2) symbolic surplus value -centric activity (McDonald's) and 3) boycott-centric passivity (Nestlé). According to the analysis it seems to be that both Shell and Nike are actively involved in the value creation at the moral markets. Also McDonald's seems to participate in the functions of the moral markets. However, in the case of McDonald's the symbolic surplus values and core values seem to be used to direct the attention away from the actual boycotts and its consequences. In the case of Nestlé the corporation is more passive and defensive when regarding the value promotion. Also the legitimation of the corporation is mainly practised by the means of reactive form of control as the legislation and government intervention. The most important sources of the study are the web sites of the case corporations. The other sources of the study are both socio-scientific and economical reviews, journals and books. The material has been achieved also through the Internet.
  • Pullinen, Jussi (2007)
    The thesis analyses the differences in the ways key stakeholder groups are pictured in corporate photography of fifteen multinational corporations in three different sectors of economy. The data is extracted from annual reports of the corporations for the year 2005. The focus of the work is on corporate public relations, not advertising. The thesis applies the social semiotic theory of Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen to corporate photographs. It combines the Kress and van Leeuwen framework with the Peircean concepts of firstness, secondness and thirdness, first proposed in the context of photography by Merja Salo. The method of the work, a variant of quantitative content analysis, is developed from Anssi Männistö’s image analysis method. The thesis shows that there are significant differences in the ways different corporate stakeholder groups are represented in corporate photography. The key differences are shown to be between representations of corporate management and other groups. The study shows that the representations of international corporate management are extremely uniform, and that there seem to be tight limits for the representations of corporate management. The management is uniformly pictured as engaging the reader in the style of a traditional portrait. There are also tight limits for the expression of emotion and feeling in corporate photography. The only emotional states that are present in the data are smiles or relatively neutral facial expressions. Negative emotion is not displayed by any stakeholder groups. There study shows that there is much more fluctuation in the ways employees and customers are represented, compared with the management. Corporate employees and customers are used as anonymous illustrations to the report, and they are given meaning through their vocational position at best, instead of their individual identities. The thesis suggests that the pictorial representations of the various stakeholder groups constitute a metanarrative, defined in the work as a presentation by the management to the shareholders, in which employees and customers act as evidence of the efficiency of the corporation. The metanarrative is compared to John Berger’s theory of the narrative of oil painting, which describes a continuity between advertising and classical oil painting. According to Berger, the key function of oil painting was to picture the commissioner of the painting surrounded by his estate and possessions, and act in this way as evidence of the commissioner’s wealth. The thesis suggests that the corporation presented in the annual report, as well as its employees and customers as stakeholders, can be understood, adapting the narrative of oil painting, as the estate and possessions of the management. They are then used to convince the shareholders, acting as the audience, of the efficiency and value of the corporation.
  • Björkman, Anette (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Economics and Society
    Control is central to management and there is already a considerable body of research on control. However, the emergence and growth of multinational corporations (MNCs) has renewed the interest in control, as MNCs are complex (often large) organizations that face circumstances beyond those of national business organizations. The geographical dispersion of MNC activities means that the headquarters controls subsidiaries that differ with regard to power and that are embedded in different cultural, political, legal and educational systems. Foreign subsidiary control also takes place across language boundaries and physical (i.e. geographical) distances. In face of these challenges, how are foreign subsidiaries controlled? The thesis explores different types of control mechanisms and attempts to explain the degree to which they are used to control foreign subsidiaries. It contributes to existing knowledge on control by exploring how five different control mechanisms are related to each other. Previous research has tended to focus only on one or two control mechanisms and seldom has their effect on each other been explored. The thesis also contributes by including two central aspects of the MNC that have been neglected in much of the research on foreign subsidiary control: language competence of subsidiary staff and physical distance between the headquarters and its subsidiaries. The findings indicate that specific control mechanisms should not be studied in isolation as there are intricate relationships among the different control mechanisms. Language competence of the subsidiary staff can furthermore affect the type and degree of control that the headquarters can exercise over a subsidiary. The findings also indicate that changes in the physical distance between subsidiaries and its headquarters (i.e. a relocation of the headquarters as part of a restructuring process) can have great consequences for the headquarters-subsidiary relationship.