Browsing by Subject "murskaus"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Salmi, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This research is for UPM Kymmene Oyj. They are very interested in this topic because they are Finlands biggest users of the stumps and also big stump dealer for the other companies. The research is included to the big research project which is coordinated by FIBIC. Projects name is BEST, which means Sustainable Bioenergy Solutions for Tomorrow. The European Union has set the obligations for the renewable energy source usage in their climate and energy policy. This means that the use of forest biomass needs to grow from year 2006 to year 2020 from 3,6 million cubic meters to 13,5 million cubic meters in year 2020. In the year 2012 usage of forest biomass was 8,3 million cubic meters. The share of the stumps from that amount was 1,1 million cubic meters. The share of the stumps can grow even more. If we are going to use stumps even more we should increase the quality of stump wood. Most harmful things in stump wood quality is the soil particles. They comes up from the ground with stumps when the stumps are lifted. These particles increases stumps ash contents which is very harmful in the combustion process. But still stumps are energy rich fuel which keeps low moisture content during the winter and that is the time when we most need energy. The goal of the research is to find ways to rise energy thickness of the stump by different handling methods. First method is to precrush stumps with Arjes Raptor XL crusher. That special method should decrease moisture content and this has founded out earlier in practical tests because this crusher has special crushing unit. Second method is to take unwanted particles away by sieving. In the research we use two different sieving machines: Neuenhauser 2F StarScreen starscreen and Keestrack Frontier screen. Crushing and sieving together increased heating values 7,5–16,6 % and average was 11,1 %. Different handling methods effects most by decreasing moisture and ash content.
  • Niittymäki, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    There are many challenges in use of dosage forms in medication of elderly people. Especially swallowing of solid dosage forms can be difficult. Dosage forms are often altered to enhance drug intake. Medication adherence is a major contributor to the success of therapy. Adherence is a multidimensional phenomenon which is also affected by properties of medicinal product. Theoretical framework of this thesis is World Health Organization's multidimensional adherence model. Only few studies exist on how properties of dosage forms affect to the success of medical treatment of elderly. The aim of this study was to find out what kind of difficulties related to dosage forms occur in medical treatment of elderly people living in nursing homes. Future goal is to develop dosage forms better suited to elderly and hence improve their medication adherence. This study consisted of interviews and e-survey. This study was carried out in six nursing homes where 322 elderly residents fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study. Nurses (n = 48) were interviewed to explore their views on difficulties related to dosage forms. Other difficulties in use of dosage forms were also surveyed as well as frequency of tablet crushing. Difficulties in use of dosage forms on the medical treatment of the elderly were gathered in the e-survey. Also, the need to crush tablets and open capsules was surveyed as well as need to split tablets to obtain the dose needed. Difficulties in use of dosage forms are common in medical treatment of elderly people. Majority of the interviewed nurses has encountered these difficulties at least few times a week. The most common problematic dosage form was the tablet. About half of the nurses named the big size of tablets and capsules as the most important difficulty in the use of current oral or peroral dosage forms. Over half of the nurses have crushed or given crushed drug daily. The most common reason for dosage form altering was the big size of the medicinal product. Majority of the nurses has often encountered also other than dosage form related difficulties of which the most common challenges are related to suspiciousness. In e-survey, nurses submitted entries regarding 111 elder people. Most cases were related to splitting of a tablet to obtain the desired drug dose. Tablet crushing was reported for little less than one-fifth of the elderly people. Both the splitting and crushing entries were distributed over multiple different medicinal products. Some other difficulties related to dosage forms were reported for less than one-tenth of the elderly people. Based on this study more appropriate dosage forms should be developed for the medical treatment of elderly people. Oral solutions, orodispersible tablets as well as transdermal patches all have advantages. Pharmaceutical research and development can facilitate medical treatment of elderly people and hence improve their medication adherence by introducing more appropriate dosage forms.
  • Laurila, Juha; Hakala, Irina (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2010)
    Suomen ympäristö 25/2010
    Selvityksen tavoitteena oli tuottaa yhteistä tietopohjaa kiviainestuotannon ympäristönäkökohdista, parhaasta käyttökelpoisesta tekniikasta (BAT) ja parhaista ympäristökäytännöistä (BEP) erityisesti ympäristölupamenettelyn tueksi. Selvityksen toivotaan yhdessä valtioneuvoston asetuksen kivenlouhimojen, muun kivenlouhinnan ja kivenmurskaamojen ympäristönsuojelusta kanssa edistävän ja yhdenmukaistavan alan ympäristökäytäntöjä ja tarkkailuja. Kallioalueilla tuotantoprosessi koostuu louhinnasta, johon kuuluvia vaiheita ovat poraus, räjäytys ja rikotus, sekä louheen murskauksesta ja seulonnasta kiviainestuotteiksi. Murskauslaitoksessa on esimurskain, mahdollisia väli- ja jälkimurskaimia, kuljettimia ja seuloja. Sora-alueilla maa-aineksesta ja valmistettavista tuotteista riippuen maa-aines päätyy välppäyksestä suoraan tuotteeksi tai se murskataan ja/tai seulotaan erikokoisiin jakeisiin. Kiviainestuotannosta aiheutuvia ympäristövaikutuksia ovat melu, pöly ja tärinä sekä mahdolliset vaikutukset pinta- ja pohjavesiin. Kiviainestuotantoalueilla on useita erilaisia ja erityyppisiä melu- ja pölypäästölähteitä, joiden päästöjen vähentäminen on teollisuuslaitosten hallittuihin päästölähteisiin verrattuna huomattavasti vaikeampaa. Kiviainestuotannon melu- ja pölyvaikutuksia vähennetään ensisijaisesti toimintojen sijoittelulla sekä käyttämällä vettä pölynsidontaan. Laitetekniset ratkaisut ovat kehittyneet viime vuosina, mutta edelleen niiden toimivuudessa on parannettavaa. Menetelmien soveltuvuudesta murskaustoimintaan Suomen oloissa tarvitaan vielä lisää tutkimus- ja kokemusperäistä tietoa. Laitetekniikan ja tuotantomenetelmien ohella toiminnan huolellinen suunnittelu, ympäristöriskien tunnistaminen ja niihin varautuminen, henkilöstön osaaminen sekä yrityksen toimintakulttuuri ovat ympäristöasioiden hallinnassa keskeisessä asemassa. Tuotantoalueilla työsuojeluun panostaminen tukee monilta osin myös ympäristöasioiden hallintaa. Yksittäisellä kiviainestuotantoalueella kustannustehokkaat ja toteuttamiskelpoiset ratkaisut ovat aina riippuvaisia myös tuotantoalueen sijaintipaikasta ja lähiympäristöstä.