Browsing by Subject "music"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 36
  • Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Peltola, Henna-Riikka; Putkinen, Vesa; Schafer, Katharina (2021)
    Many people enjoy sad music, and the appeal for tragedy is widespread among the consumers of film and literature. The underlying mechanisms of such aesthetic experiences are not well understood. We tested whether pleasure induced by sad, unfamiliar instrumental music is explained with a homeostatic or a reward theory, each of which is associated with opposite patterns of changes in the key hormones. Sixty-two women listened to sad music (or nothing) while serum was collected for subsequent measurement of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) and stress marker (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) concentrations. Two groups of participants were recruited on the basis of low and high trait empathy. In the high empathy group, PRL and OT levels were significantly lower with music compared with no music. And compared to the low empathy group, the high empathy individuals reported an increase of positive mood and higher ratings of being moved with music. None of the stress markers showed any changes across the conditions or the groups. These hormonal changes, inconsistent with the homeostatic theory proposed by Huron, exhibit a pattern expected of general reward. Our findings illuminate how unfamiliar and low arousal music may give rise to pleasurable experiences.
  • Eeroia, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu (2016)
    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.
  • Ratavaara, Nina (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The study aims to depict how black metal scene members see black metal, the scene and their own identities in the changing, global mediascapes of today and how they (re-) negotiate these elements in these circumstances. In the last two decades, the new ICT have changed the world and equally so musical scenes. The question to be answered then is how a global subculture like black metal that highly values obscurity and has a strong ideology reacts to these changes as these developments result in concepts such as scene, space, identity and authenticity being challenged in today’s globalized world. Despite the little academic attention that black metal has received, it is not only interesting musically with black metal being one of the newest and most extreme metal subgenres but the black metal scene and its practices are noteworthy because of their unique connection of music and ideology as well as the global network that has existed since black metal’s inception. A qualitative multi-method research design is used to achieve an understanding of both experiences and thoughts of individual scene members as well as to try to discover a wider scenic development, negotiation behaviour and to draw a picture of scenic media use. The data was gathered by starting a thread in an online discussion forum and conducting six semi-structured interviews both face-to-face as well as online through email and written Skype chats. Scenic material such as magazines and documentaries were collected and used to support the other two data sets and add more nuances. All these materials were analysed thematically from an insider researcher perspective. In conclusion, it can be said that while there clearly was a phase of conflict in the scene to adapt to the developments it seems they have enforcedly been accepted and are seen as part of an inevitable evolution. The Internet has become the dominant media used in the black metal scene. It is acknowledged that the Internet makes access easier and faster, it shrinks the world. This is seen both as positive and negative. Scene members see it as beneficial personally as the Internet allows inexpensive and fast access to information and communication tools. For the scene however, it is seen as a threat since it renders black metal more visible and provides easier accessibility for everyone. While black metal in its core has not changed and its ideology has remained the same, the scene has developed, grown up and become more diverse and fragmented as well as lost some of its restrictiveness.
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Särkämö, Teppo (2021)
    Patients with post-stroke impairments present often significant variation in response to therapeutic interventions. Recent studies have shown that daily music listening can aid post-stroke recovery of language and memory, but reliable predictors of treatment response are unknown. Utilizing data from the music intervention arms of a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) on stroke patients (N = 31), we built regression models to predict the treatment response of a two-month music listening intervention on language skills and verbal memory with baseline demographic, clinical and musical data as well as fMRI data from a music listening task. Clinically, greater improvement in verbal memory and language skills after the music listening intervention were predicted by the severity of the initial deficit and educational level. Neurally, greater baseline fMRI activation during vocal music listening in the left parietal cortical and medial frontal areas predicted greater treatment-induced improvement in language skills and greater baseline engagement of the auditory network during instrumental music listening predicted improvement in both verbal memory and language skills. Our results suggest that clinical, demographic, and neuroimaging data predicts music listening treatment response. This data could be used clinically to target music-based treatments.
  • Tulilaulu, Aurora; Nelimarkka, Matti; Paalasmaa, Joonas; Johnson, Daniel; Ventura, Dan; Myllys, Petri; Toivonen, Hannu (2018)
    Data musicalization is the process of automatically composing music based on given data, as an approach to perceptualizing information artistically. The aim of data musicalization is to evoke subjective experiences in relation to the information, rather than merely to convey unemotional information objectively. This paper is written as a tutorial for readers interested in data musicalization. We start by providing a systematic characterization of musicalization approaches, based on their inputs, methods and outputs. We then illustrate data musicalization techniques with examples from several applications: one that perceptualizes physical sleep data as music, several that artistically compose music inspired by the sleep data, one that musicalizes on-line chat conversations to provide a perceptualization of liveliness of a discussion, and one that uses musicalization in a game-like mobile application that allows its users to produce music. We additionally provide a number of electronic samples of music produced by the different musicalization applications.
  • Heimola, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Aims: In earlier research it has been found that music can elicit strong emotional responses, and that mood affects the way they are processed. The brain basis of musical emotions has however been studied less than that of facial emotions. Also, there have been no studies on how depressed mood affects musical emotions in the brain. In the present study, both the effect of depressed mood state and that of depressive disorder on neural processing of musical emotions is studied. The aim is to identify brain regions affected, and to model the effective connectivity between these regions and the impact of depressed mood state and depressive disorder on this system. Methods: A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment was conducted, in which 56 adult subjects listened to emotional (happy, sad, and fearful) music. The experiment consisted of two conditions: in the implicit condition the subjects were asked how many instruments were playing, and in the explicit which of the three emotions best characterised the musical excerpt. The subjects also completed the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The behavioural and imaging data were analysed both within the general linear model (GLM) to identify affected brain regions and the dynamic causal modelling (DCM) framework to model how sensory inputs enter the brain system and how experimental conditions modulate connections between specified brain regions. Results and conclusions: The subjects were mostly not clinically depressed (76%) and the MADRS scores were not correlated with neural activity in the brain. The POMS Depression scale was however associated with attenuated activity in the right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) while listening to happy and fearful music under the implicit condition. As PCC has been associated with internally directed cognition and the management of brain's attention networks, this attenuation is likely to reflect the incongruence between stimuli and mood state, which would result in increased attention and/or a decrease in explorative cognitive activity. Comparisons of DCM models consisting of PCC, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the amygdala indicated that auditory stimuli enter into this system via the auditory cortex in STG. The analyses could not determine whether the emotional content of the stimuli modulates connectivity between these regions, but MADRS and POMS scores were associated with amygdala connectivity. This is in line with the view that depressive disorder disrupts the amygdala's role in orienting to affective information.
  • Särkamö, Teppo; Altenmueller, Eckart; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Peretz, Isabelle (2016)
  • Nie, Peixin; Wang, Cuicui; Rong, Guang; Du, Bin; Lu, Jing; Li, Shuting; Putkinen, Vesa; Sha, Tao; Tervaniemi, Mari (2022)
    Music expertise is known to be beneficial for cognitive function and development. In this study, we conducted 1-year music training for school children (n = 123; 7–11 years of age before training) in China. The children were assigned to music or second-language after-class training groups. A passive control group was included. We aimed to investigate whether music training could facilitate working memory (WM) development compared to second-language training and no training. Before and after the training, auditory WM was measured via a digit span (DS) task, together with the vocabulary and block tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Child IV (WISC-IV). The results of the DS task revealed superior development in the music group compared to the other groups. However, further analysis of DS forward and backward tasks indicated that the performance of the three training/non-training groups only differed significantly in DS backward scores, but not in the DS forward scores. We conclude that music training may benefit the central executive system of WM, as reflected by the DS backward task.
  • Gallen, Anastasia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Formal musical training has shown promising effects on auditory discrimination in children, but it is not within reach of every family as it is time-consuming and costly. This study aimed to determine whether at-home musical intervention and activities enhance neural auditory speech sound discrimination accuracy in children with or without a familial dyslexia risk. Methods. A follow-up sample of 113 children with or without risk of dyslexia participated. During the first six months of infancy, 57 of the children with a familial risk participated in at-home music listening intervention, including vocal or instrumental music. Musical activities at home were assessed with a questionnaire at 24 months of age. Speech sound discrimination accuracy was assessed at 28 months, with change-elicited responses derived from EEG. Linear mixed-effects (LME) models were applied to study the association between neural responses and musical enrichment. Results. The LME models showed that the association between speech sound discrimination accuracy and musical activities differed between the groups. In post-hoc comparisons, this association differed between the vocal intervention group and the other risk groups. The group without the familial risk did not differ from the risk groups. Conclusions. The observed bidirectional associations of musical activities and vocal listening intervention with change-related cortical processing potentially reflect two separate mechanisms of neural maturation and compensatory activation. Hence, vocal intervention and musical activities might promote specific aspects of auditory neural development. Understanding these associations is relevant in both guiding future research and in preventing language disorders.
  • Grau-Sanchez, Jennifer; Foley, Meabh; Hlavova, Renata; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Ojinaga-Alfageme, Olatz; Radukic, Andrijana; Spindler, Melanie; Hundevad, Bodil (2017)
    Music is a powerful, pleasurable stimulus that can induce positive feelings and can therefore be used for emotional self-regulation. Musical activities such as listening to music, playing an instrument, singing or dancing are also an important source for social contact, promoting interaction and the sense of belonging with others. Recent evidence has suggested that after retirement, other functions of music, such as self-conceptual processing related to autobiographical memories, become more salient. However, few studies have addressed the meaningfulness of music in the elderly. This study aims to investigate elderly people's habits and preferences related to music, study the role music plays in their everyday life, and explore the relationship between musical activities and emotional well-being across different countries of Europe. A survey will be administered to elderly people over the age of 65 from five different European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czechia, Germany, Ireland, and UK) and to a control group. Participants in both groups will be asked about basic sociodemographic information, habits and preferences in their participation in musical activities and emotional well-being. Overall, the aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role of music in the elderly from a psychological perspective. This advanced knowledge could help to develop therapeutic applications, such as musical recreational programs for healthy older people or elderly in residential care, which are better able to meet their emotional and social needs.
  • Tervaniemi, Mari; Putkinen, Vesa; Nie, Peixin; Wang, Cuicui; Du, Bin; Lu, Jing; Li, Shuting; Cowley, Benjamin Ultan; Tammi, Tuisku; Tao, Sha (2022)
    In adults, music and speech share many neurocognitive functions, but how do they interact in a developing brain? We compared the effects of music and foreign language training on auditory neurocognition in Chinese children aged 8-11 years. We delivered group-based training programs in music and foreign language using a randomized controlled trial. A passive control group was also included. Before and after these year-long extracurricular programs, auditory event-related potentials were recorded (n = 123 and 85 before and after the program, respectively). Through these recordings, we probed early auditory predictive brain processes. To our surprise, the language program facilitated the children's early auditory predictive brain processes significantly more than did the music program. This facilitation was most evident in pitch encoding when the experimental paradigm was musically relevant. When these processes were probed by a paradigm more focused on basic sound features, we found early predictive pitch encoding to be facilitated by music training. Thus, a foreign language program is able to foster auditory and music neurocognition, at least in tonal language speakers, in a manner comparable to that by a music program. Our results support the tight coupling of musical and linguistic brain functions also in the developing brain.
  • Bernardi, Nicolo F.; Codrons, Erwan; di Leo, Rita; Vandoni, Matteo; Cavallaro, Filippo; Vita, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Luciano (2017)
    In light of theories postulating a role formusic in forming emotional and social bonds, here we investigated whether endogenous rhythms synchronize between multiple individuals when listening to music. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings were taken from multiple individuals (musically trained or music-naive) simultaneously, at rest and during a live concert comprisingmusic excerpts with varying degrees of complexity of the acoustic envelope. Inter-individual synchronization of cardiorespiratory rhythms showed a subtle but reliable increase during passively listening to music compared to baseline. The low-level auditory features of the music were largely responsible for creating or disrupting such synchronism, explaining similar to 80% of its variance, over and beyond subjective musical preferences and previous musical training. Listening to simple rhythms and melodies, which largely dominate the choice of music during rituals and mass events, brings individuals together in terms of their physiological rhythms, which could explain why music is widely used to favor social bonds.
  • Heiskanen, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    This work studied the creative process of musicians. The subject was chosen partly due to the attention given to creativity in social discussion. The approach was material-based, because during the work it became clear that the theoretical models describing the creative process in general did not provide adequate tools for the examination of musical creation. In this study, the creative process was defined as a process, which generated a work found by the musician novel to him or her. There were two principal research questions: 1) How does the creative process of musicians progress? 2) What makes a process creative? The main emphasis was on the first question, because the study aimed at modeling the creative process of musicians. The material for this study was collected by interviewing five professional musicians, each qualified by an expert of music to be creative. The interviews were thematically linked with each musician's recently implemented creative process. The work generated in the process was used as a stimulant in the interview. The main themes of the interview dealt with the musician's concrete action, cognitive functioning and affective experience during the process. Secondary themes included his or her goals as well as the factors that enhanced or inhibited the process. A material-based analysis was made of the interviews. The conceptualization and modelling of the creative process was founded on a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. In addition to the primary interviews, also supplementary interviews were made in order to ensure that the description of the musician was understood correctly. Further supplementary interviews were made when the material was analyzed and results were deduced. This aimed at increasing the reliability of interpretations and conclusions. The study resulted in a four-level model representing the progress of a creative process. The levels were defined by means of the conception of state. The levels used in defining the process were 1) the state determining the potential of the process, 2) the state delimiting the process, 3) the state orienting the process, and 4) the state determined by the process. The progress of the process was described as changes taking place in the state. It was discovered that the factors having an effect on the creativity of the process were the dynamism of the process, the musician's work in relation to his or her inner standard and the impulses that caused variation in the musician's thinking. The interview method used in this study proved to be a very suitable tool in an examination of a creative process. Thus it may well be applicable in other research contexts associated with creative processes. The outcome of this study, the model of the progress of a creative process, should also provide a feasible basis for the examination of different kinds of creative processes. It enables a comprehensive examination of a creative process, simultaneously justifying the dynamic nature of the process.
  • Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira (2015)
    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.
  • Jakkli, Meera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Neural Oscillations at large-scale local and global neural synchrony levels can be detected at the scalp using electroencephalography. This neural activity presents itself in a varied range of frequencies referred to as ‘Brain Waves’. These frequency bands have cognitive significance and have been implicated in several neural functions due to its important role in communicating with functionally-similar but spatially-distinct brain regions. Frontal Asymmetry is the difference in activity between the right and left hemispheres in frontal areas of the brain recorded via EEG and is seen to be a strong indicator of emotional states. Specifically, approach and withdrawal motivation which have been associated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Using a combination of behavioural and physiological methods in measuring preference and responses gives us an accurate representation of the participant responses. In this study, three tests were conducted during a continuous EEG recording. Test 1: The implication of inducing a positive mood before the onset of stimulus line-up and the extent of its effect on emotions and alpha asymmetry is not extensively studied. In this test, we employed the use of an instrumental soundscape for one experimental group before beginning the stimulus presentation to test this effect against a ‘silent’ control group. Test 2: This test aims to compare the participants’ physiological measures (EEG) and behavioural self-reports to audio advertisement stimuli consisting of different categories of music: ‘Brand music’ vs. ‘Campaign’ music or ‘No music’ Controls. Test 3: There is ambiguity in research regarding how frontal alpha asymmetry as measured by EEG and self-report preferences might change with changing the format of the advertisement to: only Audio, Audiovisual and Silent videos. There has been contradictory evidence regarding the impact of music on an individual’s emotions and consequent memory and decision-making. This thesis delves into these questions through the post-study behavioural test and simple binary choice paradigm that measure the above-mentioned in relation with the stimuli presented to participants. Our results did not show a significant difference in frontal asymmetry in the stimulus presentation across the three tests conducted during EEG recording. The behavioural data however indicated significant preference in behavioural self-report ratings for Brand Music- associated stimuli in Test 2 and for Audiovisual advertisement stimuli in Test 3. Results also revealed a significant correlation between ratings given to a stimulus and post-study memorability. The final binary choice paradigm test indicated higher preference to products related to stimulus presentation (‘advertised’ brand) vs similar products not related to the presented stimulus (‘non-advertised’ brand). We anticipate that these results will further help us understand and predict general preferences that can help companies, government policy-makers and the general public be more aware and better equipped to manage their valuable resources of money, time, attention and memory.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo (2018)
    Music engages an extensive network of auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional processing regions in the brain. Coupled with the fact that the emotional and cognitive impact of music is often well preserved in ageing and dementia, music is a powerful tool in the care and rehabilitation of many ageing-related neurological diseases. In addition to formal music therapy, there has been a growing interest in self- or caregiver-implemented musical leisure activities or hobbies as a widely applicable means to support psychological wellbeing in ageing and in neurological rehabilitation. This article reviews the currently existing evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural benefits of musical leisure activities in normal ageing as well as in the rehabilitation and care of two of the most common and ageing-related neurological diseases: stroke and dementia.
  • Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Wilson, Andrew D.; Vase, Lene; Brattico, Elvira; Barrios, Fernando A.; Jensen, Troels S.; Romero-Romo, Juan I.; Vuust, Peter (2014)
  • Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Jiang, Zhiguo; Vuust, Peter; Alcauter, Sarael; Vase, Lene; Pasaye, Erick H.; Cavazos-Rodriguez, Roberto; Brattico, Elvira; Jensen, Troels S.; Barrios, Fernando A. (2015)
    Music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic pain disease, but the functional neural correlates of music-induced analgesia (MIA) are still largely unknown. We recruited FM patients (n = 22) who listened to their preferred relaxing music and an auditory control (pink noise) for 5 min without external noise from fMRI image acquisition. Resting state fMRI was then acquired before and after the music and control conditions. A significant increase in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the BOLD signal was evident in the left angular gyrus (lAnG) after listening to music, which in turn, correlated to the analgesia reports. The post-hoc seed-based functional connectivity analysis of the lAnG showed found higher connectivity after listening to music with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rdIPFC), the left caudate (ICau), and decreased connectivity with right anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), right supplementary motor area (rSMA), precuneus and right precentral gyrus (rPreG). Pain intensity (PI) analgesia was correlated (r = 0.61) to the connectivity of the lAnG with the rPreG. Our results show that MIA in FM is related to top-down regulation of the pain modulatory network by the default mode network (DMN).
  • Torppa, Ritva; Huotilainen, Minna (2010)
    We review the possible mechanisms by which music may enhance the evelopment of spoken language, and report preliminary results from our studies with cochlear implant (CI) children. One important finding in these studies is a connection of exposure to parental singing with better ability to perceive contrastive focus and stress in speech. Our preliminary conclusions are that being sung to maintains the child’s attention for extended periods, and that the larger differences in pitch, intensity and duration in song in comparison to speech may help direct attention towards cues in song that also have a role in the perception of speech prosody. This may be of crucial importance for children with hearing impairment, because it may help them to segment the continuous speech stream into words and thus enhance learning of spoken language. Thus, music seems able to play animportant part in the rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment.
  • Kärjä, Antti-Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The thesis focusses on how music has been mythologised in different ways. Mythologisation refers to the ways in which a given phenomenon – in this case music – is connected and invested with ideas and stories that ultimately cannot be substantiated as they characteristically deal with “religious” issues and questions in the sense that they have no empirical answers and thus necessitate believing while there may be overwhelming evidence against them. In the thesis, mythologisation of music is addressed in relation to the postsecular attempts to rescript the sacred, by paying specific attention how different conceptualisations of the “popular” and the “sacred” become interrelated. Thus, the treatment is predominantly theoretical in nature and linked to a broader interest in the intersections of the popular and the sacred in music. The analysis does not focus on religious popular music, or popular music and religion, but on a more conceptual level on how different apprehensions of the popular and the sacred become operationalised and politicised in musical situations. On the basis of existing research within ethnomusicology and the philosophy of music, mythologisation of music is divided in the thesis into four general categories: first, origins of music, detectable not just in the ubiquity of cosmological explanations in various epics and indigenous mythologies but crucially also in the hard-core neuroscientific approaches to music; second, music’s autonomy, based on widespread assumptions about music as a transcendent or supernatural power of its own, with certain universal traits and inexorable effects; third, individuals with allegedly exceptional musical propensities, whether labelled as stars or geniuses; and fourth, authenticity, particularly in relation to presumptions about pureness and excellence. Methodologically, the thesis builds on the cultural study of music and anthropology and sociology of religion. Through socio-constructionist discourse analysis the categories of mythologisation of music are examined in relation to the multidimensionality of the popular and the sacred. Regarding the popular, at issue are its quantitative, aesthetic, sociological, folk, partisan and postmodern dimensions; the sacred in turn is examined in terms of religious, subcultural, national, economic and political aspects. The analysis reveals that the dimensions of the popular that become emphasised in mythologisation of music are the aesthetic, folk and postmodern ones, while on the sacred side it is the cluster of subcultural, national and economic facets which is connected to all areas of mythologisation of music. All five aspects of the sacred have however a fairly equal footing in the ways to mythologise music, which is somewhat unsurprising given the close connection between myths and the sacred in the general sense. With respect to the popular in turn, the conspicuous links between myths about individuality in music and quantitative and mass cultural dimensions are notable. Moreover, the findings indicate that overall the discourses of autonomy and authenticity carry a paramount weight when considering the intersections of the popular and the sacred in mythologisation of music.