Browsing by Subject "naistentaudit ja synnytykset"

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  • Lyytinen, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Since national differences exist in genes, environment, diet and life habits and also in the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT), the associations between different hormone therapies and the risk for breast cancer were studied among Finnish postmenopausal women. All Finnish women over 50 years of age who used HT were identified from the national medical reimbursement register, established in 1994, and followed up for breast cancer incidence (n= 8,382 cases) until 2005 with the aid of the Finnish Cancer Registry. The risk for breast cancer in HT users was compared to that in the general female population of the same age. Among women using oral or transdermal estradiol alone (ET) (n = 110,984) during the study period 1994-2002 the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for breast cancer in users for < 5 years was 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80–1.04), and in users for ≥ 5 years 1.44 (1.29–1.59). This therapy was associated with similar rises in ductal and lobular types of breast cancer. Both localized stage (1.45; 1.26–1.66) and cancers spread to regional nodes (1.35; 1.09–1.65) were associated with the use of systemic ET. Oral estriol or vaginal estrogens were not accompanied with a risk for breast cancer. The use of estrogen-progestagen therapy (EPT) in the study period 1994-2005 (n= 221,551) was accompanied with an increased incidence of breast cancer (1.31;1.20-1.42) among women using oral or transdermal EPT for 3-5 years, and the incidence increased along with the increasing duration of exposure (≥10 years, 2.07;1.84-2.30). Continuous EPT entailed a significantly higher (2.44; 2.17-2.72) breast cancer incidence compared to sequential EPT (1.78; 1.64-1.90) after 5 years of use. The use of norethisterone acetate (NETA) as a supplement to estradiol was accompanied with a higher incidence of breast cancer after 5 years of use (2.03; 1.88-2.18) than that of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (1.64; 1.49-1.79). The SIR for the lobular type of breast cancer was increased within 3 years of EPT exposure (1.35; 1.18-1.53), and the incidence of the lobular type of breast cancer (2.93; 2.33-3.64) was significantly higher than that of the ductal type (1.92; 1.67-2.18) after 10 years of exposure. To control for some confounding factors, two case control studies were performed. All Finnish women between the ages of 50-62 in 1995-2007 and diagnosed with a first invasive breast cancer (n= 9,956) were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry, and 3 controls of similar age (n=29,868) without breast cancer were retrieved from the Finnish national population registry. Subjects were linked to the medical reimbursement register for defining the HT use. The use of ET was not associated with an increased risk for breast cancer (1.00; 0.92-1.08). Neither was progestagen-only therapy used less than 3 years. However, the use of tibolone was associated with an elevated risk for breast cancer (1.39; 1.07-1.81). The case-control study confirmed the results of EPT regarding sequential vs. continuous use of progestagen, including progestagen released continuously by an intrauterine device; the increased risk was seen already within 3 years of use (1.65;1.32-2.07). The dose of NETA was not a determinant as regards the breast cancer risk. Both systemic ET, and EPT are associated with an elevation in the risk for breast cancer. These risks resemble to a large extent those seen in several other countries. The use of an intrauterine system alone or as a complement to systemic estradiol is also associated with a breast cancer risk. These data emphasize the need for detailed information to women who are considering starting the use of HT.
  • Tikkanen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Placental abruption, one of the most significant causes of perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity, occurs in 0.5-1% of pregnancies. Its etiology is unknown, but defective trophoblastic invasion of the spiral arteries and consequent poor vascularization may play a role. The aim of this study was to define the prepregnancy risk factors of placental abruption, to define the risk factors during the index pregnancy, and to describe the clinical presentation of placental abruption. We also wanted to find a biochemical marker for predicting placental abruption early in pregnancy. Among women delivering at the University Hospital of Helsinki in 1997-2001 (n=46,742), 198 women with placental abruption and 396 control women were identified. The overall incidence of placental abruption was 0.42%. The prepregnancy risk factors were smoking (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1, 2.7), uterine malformation (OR 8.1; 1.7, 40), previous cesarean section (OR 1.7; 1.1, 2.8), and history of placental abruption (OR 4.5; 1.1, 18). The risk factors during the index pregnancy were maternal (adjusted OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1, 2.9) and paternal smoking (2.2; 1.3, 3.6), use of alcohol (2.2; 1.1, 4.4), placenta previa (5.7; 1.4, 23.1), preeclampsia (2.7; 1.3, 5.6) and chorioamnionitis (3.3; 1.0, 10.0). Vaginal bleeding (70%), abdominal pain (51%), bloody amniotic fluid (50%) and fetal heart rate abnormalities (69%) were the most common clinical manifestations of placental abruption. Retroplacental blood clot was seen by ultrasound in 15% of the cases. Neither bleeding nor pain was present in 19% of the cases. Overall, 59% went into preterm labor (OR 12.9; 95% CI 8.3, 19.8), and 91% were delivered by cesarean section (34.7; 20.0, 60.1). Of the newborns, 25% were growth restricted. The perinatal mortality rate was 9.2% (OR 10.1; 95% CI 3.4, 30.1). We then tested selected biochemical markers for prediction of placental abruption. The median of the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) multiples of median (MoM) (1.21) was significantly higher in the abruption group (n=57) than in the control group (n=108) (1.07) (p=0.004) at 15-16 gestational weeks. In multivariate analysis, elevated MSAFP remained as an independent risk factor for placental abruption, adjusting for parity ≥ 3, smoking, previous placental abruption, preeclampsia, bleeding in II or III trimester, and placenta previa. MSAFP ≥ 1.5 MoM had a sensitivity of 29% and a false positive rate of 10%. The levels of the maternal serum free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin MoM did not differ between the cases and the controls. None of the angiogenic factors (soluble endoglin, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, or placental growth factor) showed any difference between the cases (n=42) and the controls (n=50) in the second trimester. The levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) showed no difference between the cases (n=181) and the controls (n=261) (median 2.35 mg/l [interquartile range {IQR} 1.09-5.93] versus 2.28 mg/l [IQR 0.92-5.01], not significant) when tested in the first trimester (mean 10.4 gestational weeks). Chlamydia pneumoniae specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) as well as C. trachomatis specific IgG, IgA and chlamydial heat-shock protein 60 antibody rates were similar between the groups. In conclusion, although univariate analysis identified many prepregnancy risk factors for placental abruption, only smoking, uterine malformation, previous cesarean section and history of placental abruption remained significant by multivariate analysis. During the index pregnancy maternal alcohol consumption and smoking and smoking by the partner turned out to be the major independent risk factors for placental abruption. Smoking by both partners multiplied the risk. The liberal use of ultrasound examination contributed little to the management of women with placental abruption. Although second-trimester MSAFP levels were higher in women with subsequent placental abruption, clinical usefulness of this test is limited due to low sensitivity and high false positive rate. Similarly, angiogenic factors in early second trimester, or CRP levels, or chlamydial antibodies in the first trimester failed to predict placental abruption.
  • Jakobsson, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women globally. Most, probably all cases, arise through a precursor, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Effective cytological screening programmes and surgical treatments of precancerous lesions have dramatically reduced its prevalence and related mortality. Although these treatments are effective, they may have adverse effects on future fertility and pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of surgical treatment of the uterine cervix on pregnancy and fertility outcomes, with the focus particularly on preterm birth. The general preterm birth rates and risk factors during 1987–2005 were studied. Long-term mortality rates of the treated women were studied. In this study, information from The Medical Birth Register (MBR), The Hospital Discharge Register (HDR), The Cause-of-Death Register (CDR), and hospital records were used. Treatments were performed during 1987–2003 and subsequent deliveries, IVF treatments and deaths were analyzed. The general preterm birth rate in Finland was relatively stable, varying from 5.1% to 5.4% during the study period (1987 to 2005), although the proportion of extremely preterm births had decreased substantially by 12%.The main risk factor as regards preterm birth was multiplicity, followed by elective delivery (induction of delivery or elective cesarean section), primiparity, in vitro fertilization treatment, maternal smoking and advanced maternal age. The risk of preterm birth and low birth weight was increased after any cervical surgical treatment; after conization the risk of preterm birth was almost two-fold (RR 1.99, 95% CI 1.81– 2.20). In the conization group the risk was the highest for very preterm birth (28–31 gestational weeks) and it was also high for extremely preterm birth (less than 28 weeks). In this group the perinatal mortality was also increased. In subgroup analysis, laser ablation was not associated with preterm birth. When comparing deliveries before and after Loop conization, we found that the risk of preterm birth was increased 1.94-fold (95% CI 1.10–3.40). Adjusting for age, parity, or both did not affect our results. Large or repeat cones increased the risk of preterm birth when compared with smaller cones, suggesting that the size of the removed cone plays a role. This was corroborated by the finding that repeat treatment increased the risk as much as five-fold when compared with the background preterm birth rate. We found that the proportion of IVF deliveries (1.6% vs. 1.5%) was not increased after treatment for CIN when adjusted for year of delivery, maternal age, or parity. Those women who received both treatment for CIN and IVF treatment were older and more often primiparous, which explained the increased risk of preterm birth. We also found that mortality rates were 17% higher among women previously treated for CIN. This excess mortality was particularly seen as regards increased general disease mortality and alcohol poisoning (by 13%), suicide (by 67%) and injury death (by 31%). The risk of cervical cancer was high, as expected (SMR 7.69, 95% CI 4.23–11.15). Women treated for CIN and having a subsequent delivery had decreased general mortality rate (by -22%), and decreased disease mortality (by -37%). However, those with preterm birth had increased general mortality (SMR 2.51, 95% CI 1.24–3.78), as a result of cardiovascular diseases, alcohol-related causes, and injuries. In conclusion, the general preterm birth rate has not increased in Finland, as in many other developed countries. The rate of extremely preterm births has even decreased. While other risk factors of preterm birth, such as multiplicity and smoking during pregnancy have decreased, surgical treatments of the uterine cervix have become more important risk factors as regards preterm birth. Cervical conization is a predisposing factor as regards preterm birth, low birth weight and even perinatal mortality. The most frequently used treatment modality, Loop conization, is also associated with the increased risk of preterm birth. Treatments should be tailored individually; low-grade lesions should not be treated at all among young women. The first treatment should be curative, because repeat treatments are especially harmful. The proportion of IVF deliveries was not increased after treatment for CIN, suggesting that current treatment modalities do not strongly impair fertility. The long-term risk of cervical cancer remains high even after many years post-treatment; therefore careful surveillance is necessary. In addition, accidental deaths and deaths from injury were common among treated women, suggesting risk-taking behavior of these women. Preterm birth seems be associated with extremely high mortality rates, due to cardiovascular, alcohol-related and injury deaths. These women could benefit from health counseling, for example encouragement in quitting smoking.
  • Mentula, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Background: Mifepristone misoprostol combination has become the preferred method for second trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP). The recommended mifepristone-misoprostol interval has been 36 - 48 hours, but a more flexible interval would be of value. Increasing gestational age has been associated with an increased risk of complications of TOP, but little is known about the complications after MTOP. Also data on repeat TOP after second trimester TOP has been missing. Objectives: To assess the procedure of second trimester MTOP and its complications or health risks in a randomized trial comparing one- and two-day mifepristone-misoprostol intervals and in nationwide cohorts evaluating complications of MTOP and the risk of repeat TOP (re-TOP). Material and methods: The open randomized prospective trial consisted of 227 women who underwent MTOP between gestational weeks 13 - 24. The epidemiological studies performed using the Finnish Abortion Registry and the Hospital Discharge Registry assessed complications after first and second trimester MTOP in 18,248 women who underwent MTOP in Finland in 2003 2006 and the risk of re-TOP in 41,750 women who underwent their first TOP in Finland in 2000 - 2005. Results: Induction-to-abortion time was similar with one- and two-day mifepristone-misoprostol intervals (8.5 vs. 7.2 hours, p=0.038). However, it was markedly longer with the one-day interval among women without previous deliveries (10.1 vs. 7.6 hours, p=0.013) and when gestational age exceeded 16 weeks (10.8 vs. 7.2 hours, p=0.024). The risk of surgical evacuation was increased with the two-day mifepristone-misoprostol interval (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.1), age above 24 years (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1 - 5.3), a history of uterine curettage (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.7 - 11.7) and foetal indication for TOP (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.1 - 34.4). In comparison with first trimester MTOP second trimester MTOP increased the risk of surgical evacuation (adjusted OR 7.8; 95% CI 6.8 - 8.9) and infection (adj. OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5 - 2.9) and second trimester re-TOP (HR 3.8; 95% CI 2.9 - 5.1) and re-TOP after 16 weeks of gestation (HR 5.0; 95% CI 3.3 - 7.7). Conclusions: Both one- and two-day dosing intervals between mifepristone and misoprostol are suitable for second trimester MTOP. Compared with earlier MTOP, second trimester MTOP increases the risk of surgical evacuation or infection and a history of uterine curettage increases this risk. As second trimester TOP is also a risk factor of re-TOP, especially later in pregnancy, special focus on the safety and efficacy of the method is needed.
  • Rahkola-Soisalo, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Most women acquire genital high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection during their lifetime, but seldom the infection persists and leads to cervical cancer. However, currently it is not possible to identify the women who will develop HPV mediated cervical cancer and this often results to large scale follow-up and overtreatment of the likely spontaneously regressing infection. Thus, it is important to obtain more information on the course of HPV and find markers that could help to identify HPV infected women in risk for progression of cervical lesions and ultimately cancer. Nitric oxide is a free radical gas that takes part both in immune responses and carcinogenesis. Nitric oxide is produced also by cervical cells and therefore, it is possible that cervical nitric oxide could affect also HPV infection. In the present study, including 801 women from the University of Helsinki between years of 2006 and 2011, association between HPV and cervical nitric oxide was evaluated. The levels of nitric oxide were measured as its metabolites nitrate and nitirite (NOx) by spectrophotometry and the expression of nitric oxide producing enzymes endothelial and inducible synthases (eNOS, iNOS) by Western blotting. Women infected with HPV had two-times higher cervical fluid NOx levels compared with non-infected ones. The expression levels of both eNOS and iNOS were higher in HPV-infected women compared with non-infected. Another sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia trachomatis that is an independent risk factor for cervical cancer was also accompanied with elevated NOx levels, whereas vaginal infections, bacterial vaginosis and candida, did not have any effect on NOx levels. The meaning of the elevated HPV related cervical nitric oxide was evaluated in a 12 months follow-up study. It was revealed that high baseline cervical fluid NOx levels favored HPV persistence with OR 4.1. However, low sensitivity (33%) and high false negative rate (67%) restrict the clinical use of the current NOx test. This study indicated that nitric oxide favors HPV persistence and thus it seems to be one of the cofactor associated with a risk of carcinogenesis.
  • Lampinen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Women with a history of pre-eclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. The mechanisms which mediate this heightened risk are poorly understood; it was long believed that pre-eclampsia was a separate disease without any connection to other pathologies. The present study was undertaken to investigate the cardiovascular risk milieu, vascular dilatory function and cardiovascular risk factors, in women with pre-eclampsia, 5 6 years after index pregnancy. The aim was to understand better the cardiovascular risks associated with pre-eclampsia and add tools to the evaluation of cardiovascular risk in women. --- The study involved 30 women with previous severe pre-eclampsia and 21 controls. The 2-day study protocol included venous occlusion plethysmography and pulse wave analysis for assessment of vascular dilatory function and central pulse wave reflection, respectively, office and ambulatory blood pressure measurements, assessment of insulin sensitivity, using a minimal model technique, and tests regarding renal function, lipid metabolism, sympathetic activity and inflammation. Vasodilatory function was impaired in women with a history of pre-eclampsia; this was seen in both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation. Proteinuria during pre-eclampsia did not predict changes in vasodilatation, and renal function was similar in the two groups. Insulin sensitivity was related to vasodilatation and features of metabolic syndrome, but only in the patient group, despite similar insulin sensitivity in the control group. Arterial pressure was higher in the patient group than in the controls and correlated with endothelin-1 levels in the patient group, whilst the overall difference between the groups was diminished in 24 hour arterial pressure measurements. Additionally, women with previous pre-eclampsia were characterized by increased sympathetic activity. Impaired vasodilatory function at the vascular smooth muscle level seems to characterize clinically healthy women with a history of pre-eclampsia. These vascular changes and the features of metabolic syndrome may be related to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, increased blood pressure in combination with enhanced sympathetic activity may be additive as regards this risk. These women should be informed about their potential cardiovascular risk profile and the possibilities to minimize it via their own actions. Medical cardiovascular risk assessment in women should include obstetric history.
  • Ulander, Veli-Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the greatest single cause of maternal mortality in pregnant women in developed countries. Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state and brings about an enhanced risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in otherwise healthy women. Traditionally, unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been used for treatment of DVT during pregnancy. We showed in our observational study that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is as effective and safe as UFH in the treatment of DVT during pregnancy. Although DVT during pregnancy is often massive, increasing the risk of developing long-term consequences, namely post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), only 11% of all patients had confirmed PTS 3 4 years after DVT. In our studies the prevalence of PTS was not dependent on treatment (UFH vs LMWH). Low molecular weight heparin is more easily administered, few laboratory controls are required and the hospital stay is shorter, factors that lower the costs of treatment. Cervical insufficiency is defined as repeated very preterm delivery during the second or early third trimester. Infection is a well-known risk factor of preterm delivery. We found overpresentation of thrombophilic mutations (FV Leiden, prothrombin G20210A)among 42 patients with cervical insufficiency compared with controls (OR 6.7, CI 2.7 18.4). Thus, thrombophilia might be a risk factor of cervical insufficiency possibly explained by interaction of coagulation and inflammation processes. The presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies increases the risk for recurrent miscarriage (RM). Annexins are proteins which all bind to anionic phospholipids (PLs) preventing clotting on vascular phospholipid surfaces. Plasma concentrations of circulating annexin IV and V were investigated in 77 pregnancies at the beginning of pregnancy among women with a history of RM, and in connection to their aPL antibody status. Control group consisted unselected pregnant patients (n=25) without history of adverse pregnancy outcome. Plasma levels of annexin V were significantly higher at the beginning (≤5th week) of pregnancy in women with aPL antibodies compared with those without aPL antibodies (P=0.03). Levels of circulating annexin V were also higher at the 6th (P= 0.01) and 8th week of pregnancy in subjects with aPL antibodies (P=0.01). Results support the hypothesis that aPL could displace annexin from anionic phospholipid surfaces of syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs) and may exert procoagulant activities on the surfaces of STBs Recurrent miscarriage (RM) has been suggested to be caused by mutations in genes coding for various coagulation factors resulting in thrombophilia. In the last study of my thesis were investigated the prevalence of thrombomodulin (TM) and endothelial protein C receptor polymorphism EPCR among 40 couples and six women suffering RM. This study showed that mutations in the TM or EPCR genes are not a major cause of RM in Finnish patients.