Browsing by Subject "nanostructures"

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  • Heise, Katje; Delepierre, Gwenn; King, Alistair; Kostiainen, Mauri; Zoppe, Justin; Weder, Christoph; Kontturi, Eero (2021)
    Native plant cellulose has an intrinsic supramolecular structure. Consequently, it can be isolated as nanocellulose species, which can be utilized as building blocks for renewable nanomaterials. The structure of cellulose also permits its end-wise modification, i.e., chemical reactions exclusively on one end of a cellulose chain or a nanocellulose particle. The premises for end-wise modification have been known for decades. Nevertheless, different approaches for the reactions have emerged only recently, because of formidable synthetic and analytical challenges associated with the issue, including the adverse reactivity of the cellulose reducing end and the low abundance of newly introduced functionalities. This Review gives a full account of the scientific underpinnings and challenges related to end-wise modification of cellulose nanocrystals. Furthermore, we present how the chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystal ends may be applied to directed assembly, resulting in numerous possibilities for the construction of new materials, such as responsive liquid crystal templates and composites with tailored interactions.
  • Vienna, University; Renk, Oliver; Ghosh, Sanyukta; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bursik, Jiri; Schafler, Erhard; Tuomisto, Filip; Bauer, Ernst; Rogl, Peter Franz (2021)
    The influence of shear strain on the microstructural, physical, and mechanical properties was studied on large bulk samples (diameter: 30 mm, thickness: 1 or 8 mm), which were consolidated by high-pressure torsion (HPT) from a commercial powder DD0.7Fe3CoSb12. Particularly, the thick sample (mass similar to 53 g) allowed measuring the thermoelectric (TE) properties with respect to various orientations of the specimen in the sample. All data were compared with those of a hot-pressed (HP) reference sample, prepared with the same powder. Transmission electron microscopy, as well as X-ray powder diffraction profile analyses, Hall measurements, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, supported these investigations. Furthermore, synchrotron data for the temperature range from 300 to 825 K were used to evaluate the changes in the grain size and dislocation density as well as the thermal expansion coefficient via the change in the lattice parameter during heating. In addition, hardness and direct thermal expansion measurements of the HPT samples were performed and compared with the HP reference sample's values. With the increase of the shear strain from the center to the rim of the sample, the electrical resistivity becomes higher, whereas the thermal conductivity becomes lower, but the Seebeck coefficient remained almost unchanged. For the thin as well as thick samples, the enhanced electrical resistivity was balanced out by a decreased thermal conductivity such that the maximum ZT values (ZT = 1.3-1.35 at 856 K) do not vary much as a function of the shear strain throughout the sample, however, all ZTs are higher than that of the HP sample. The thermal-electric conversion efficiencies are in the range of 14-15% (for 423-823 K). With similar high ZT values for the n-type skutterudites, fabricated in the same fast and sustainable way, these p- and n-type skutterudites may serve as legs for TE generators, directly cut from the big HPT bulks.
  • Jokinen, Ville; Kankuri, Esko; Hoshian, Sasha; Franssila, Sami; Ras, Robin H. A. (2018)
    Superhydrophobic surfaces repel water and, in some cases, other liquids as well. The repellency is caused by topographical features at the nano-/microscale and low surface energy. Blood is a challenging liquid to repel due to its high propensity for activation of intrinsic hemostatic mechanisms, induction of coagulation, and platelet activation upon contact with foreign surfaces. Imbalanced activation of coagulation drives thrombogenesis or formation of blood clots that can occlude the blood flow either on-site or further downstream as emboli, exposing tissues to ischemia and infarction. Blood-repellent superhydrophobic surfaces aim toward reducing the thrombogenicity of surfaces of blood-contacting devices and implants. Several mechanisms that lead to blood repellency are proposed, focusing mainly on platelet antiadhesion. Structured surfaces can: (i) reduce the effective area exposed to platelets, (ii) reduce the adhesion area available to individual platelets, (iii) cause hydrodynamic effects that reduce platelet adhesion, and (iv) reduce or alter protein adsorption in a way that is not conducive to thrombus formation. These mechanisms benefit from the superhydrophobic Cassie state, in which a thin layer of air is trapped between the solid surface and the liquid. The connections between water-and blood repellency are discussed and several recent examples of blood-repellent superhydrophobic surfaces are highlighted.