Browsing by Subject "narcolepsy"

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  • Jokela, Tomi; Sarkanen, Tomi; Alakuijala, Anniina; Toppila, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Unen laadun tutkimisen kultainen standardi on polysomnografia-tutkimus (PSG), jossa potilaalta rekisteröidään aivosähkökäyrien lisäksi muun muassa hengityksen ilmavirtaus, rintakehän hengitysliikkeet, silmien liikkeet, sekä EKG. Näiden avulla saadaan kokonaisvaltainen kuva potilaan unen laadusta ja tutkimusta käytetäänkin erinäisten unihäiriöiden kuten uniapnean, narkolepsian, sekä levottomien jalkojen oireyhtymän diagnosoinnissa. PSG on kuitenkin verrannollisen kallis tutkimus sen suorittavalle yksikölle ja vaivalloinen potilaalle, sillä tämä joutuu nukkumaan tutkimuslaitteisto päällään tutkimusyönä. Näistä syistä PSG:n rinnalle on pyritty kehittämään vaihtoehtoisia unen laadun tutkimusmenetelmiä. Aktigrafilla tarkoitetaan potilaaseen kiinnitettyä kiihtyvyysanturia, joka rekisteröi potilaan liikkeitä. Käytännössä tämä tarkoittaa yleensä ranteeseen kiinnitettävää älykellomaista laitetta. Aktigrafia voidaan käyttää päivänaikaisen aktiivisuuden seuraamisen lisäksi myös potilaan unenaikaisen liikehdinnän mittaamiseen, minkä vuoksi sillä on myös unilääketieteen kannalta hyödyllisiä käyttötarkoituksia. Tässä tutkimuksessa pyrittiin tutkimaan aktigrafin tarkkuutta mittaamaan seuraavia parametrejä, vertaamalla niitä PSG-tutkimuksen vastaaviin arvoihin: unen pituus, unen tehokkuus, nukahtamislatenssi, sekä havahtumisindeksi. Tutkimuksen 281 potilasta nukkuivat tutkimusyönä sekä PSG-, että aktigrafi-laitteistot yllään, jolloin saatiin vertailukelpoista dataa tutkimusmenetelmien välillä. Tämän jälkeen data analysoitiin Bland-Altman-metodia käyttäen, mikä on erityisen sopiva, kun verrataan kahdella tutkimusmenetelmällä mitattua dataa toisiinsa. Data-analyysissä otettiin myös huomioon potilaiden erinäiset diagnosoidut unihäiriöt jakamalla potilaat diagnoosikategorioihin, jotta voitiin arvioida, huononeeko aktigrafin tarkkuus, jos tutkittava kärsii unihäiriöstä. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että aktigrafi on melkein PSG:n veroinen unen pituuden, sekä unen laadun arvioimisessa, vaikka potilas kärsisi unihäiriöstä. Aktigrafin tarkkuus kumminkin vaikuttaa jonkin verran laskevan mitä epätehokkaampaa potilaan uni on.
  • Luo, Guo; Ambati, Aditya; Lin, Ling; Bonvalet, Melodie; Partinen, Markku; Ji, Xuhuai; Maecker, Holden Terry; Mignot, Emmanuel Jean-Marie (2018)
    Type 1 narcolepsy (T1N) is caused by hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neuronal loss. Association with the HLA DQB1*06:02/DQA1*01:02 (98% vs. 25%) heterodimer (DQ0602), T cell receptors (TCR) and other immune loci suggest autoimmunity but autoantigens are unknown. Onset is seasonal and associated with influenza A, notably pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) infection and vaccination (Pandemrix). Peptides derived from HCRT and influenza A, including pH1N1, were screened for DQ0602 binding and presence of cognate DQ0602 tetramer-peptide-specific CD4(+) T cells tested in 35 T1N cases and 22 DQ0602 controls. Higher reactivity to influenza pHA(273-287) (pH1N1 specific), PR8 (H1N1 pre-2009 and H2N2)-specific NP17-31 and C-amidated but not native version of HCRT54-66 and HCRT86-97 (HCRTNH2) were observed in T1N. Single-cell TCR sequencing revealed sharing of CDR3 beta TRBV4-2-CASSQETQGRNYGYTF in HCRTNH2 and pHA(273-287)-tetramers, suggesting molecular mimicry. This public CDR3 beta uses TRBV4-2, a segment modulated by T1N-associated SNP rs1008599, suggesting causality. TCR-alpha/beta CDR3 motifs of HCRT54-66-NH2 and HCRT86-97-NH2 tetramers were extensively shared: notably public CDR3 alpha, TRAV2-CAVETDSWGKLQF-TRAJ24, that uses TRAJ24, a chain modulated by T1N-associated SNPs rs1154155 and rs1483979. TCR-alpha/beta CDR3 sequences found in pHA(273-287), NP17-31, and HCRTNH2 tetramer-positive CD4(+) cells were also retrieved in single INF-gamma-secreting CD4(+) sorted cells stimulated with Pandemrix, independently confirming these results. Our results provide evidence for autoimmunity and molecular mimicry with flu antigens modulated by genetic components in the pathophysiology of T1N.
  • Bassetti, Claudio L. A.; Kallweit, Ulf; Vignatelli, Luca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Lecendreux, Michel; Baldin, Elisa; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Jennum, Poul; Khatami, Ramin; Manconi, Mauro; Mayer, Geert; Partinen, Markku; Pollmaecher, Thomas; Reading, Paul; Santamaria, Joan; Sonka, Karel; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lammers, Gert J. (2021)
    Background and purpose Narcolepsy is an uncommon hypothalamic disorder of presumed autoimmune origin that usually requires lifelong treatment. This paper aims to provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of narcolepsy in both adults and children. Methods The European Academy of Neurology (EAN), European Sleep Research Society (ESRS), and European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) nominated a task force of 18 narcolepsy specialists. According to the EAN recommendations, 10 relevant clinical questions were formulated in PICO format. Following a systematic review of the literature (performed in Fall 2018 and updated in July 2020) recommendations were developed according to the GRADE approach. Results A total of 10,247 references were evaluated, 308 studies were assessed and 155 finally included. The main recommendations can be summarized as follows: (i) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in adults-scheduled naps, modafinil, pitolisant, sodium oxybate (SXB), solriamfetol (all strong); methylphenidate, amphetamine derivatives (both weak); (ii) cataplexy in adults-SXB, venlafaxine, clomipramine (all strong) and pitolisant (weak); (iii) EDS in children-scheduled naps, SXB (both strong), modafinil, methylphenidate, pitolisant, amphetamine derivatives (all weak); (iv) cataplexy in children-SXB (strong), antidepressants (weak). Treatment choices should be tailored to each patient's symptoms, comorbidities, tolerance and risk of potential drug interactions. Conclusion The management of narcolepsy involves non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches with an increasing number of symptomatic treatment options for adults and children that have been studied in some detail.
  • Ollila, Hanna M. (2020)
    Type-1 narcolepsy is a severe neurological disorder with distinct characteristic of loss of hypocretin neurotransmitter. Genetic analysis in type-1 narcolepsy have revealed a unique signal pointing toward autoimmune, rather than psychiatric origin. While type-1 narcolepsy has been intensively studied, the other subtypes of hypersomnolence, narcolepsy, and hypersomnia are less thoroughly understood. This review summarizes the latest breakthroughs in the field in narcolepsy. The goal of this article is to help the reader to understand better the risk from genetic factors and their interplay with immune, genetic, and epidemiological aspects in narcolepsy.
  • Melén, Krister; Jalkanen, Pinja; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.; Partinen, Markku; Nohynek, Hanna; Vuorela, Arja; Vaarala, O.; Freitag, Tobias L.; Meri, Seppo; Julkunen, Ilkka (2020)
    Narcolepsy type 1, likely an immune-mediated disease, is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. The disease is strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1∗06:02. A significant increase in the incidence of childhood and adolescent narcolepsy was observed after a vaccination campaign with AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix influenza vaccine in Nordic and several other countries in 2010 and 2011. Previously, it has been suggested that a surface-exposed region of influenza A nucleoprotein, a structural component of the Pandemrix vaccine, shares amino acid residues with the first extracellular domain of the human OX2 orexin/hypocretin receptor eliciting the development of autoantibodies. Here, we analyzed, whether H1N1pdm09 infection or Pandemrix vaccination contributed to the development of autoantibodies to the orexin precursor protein or the OX1 or OX2 receptors. The analysis was based on the presence or absence of autoantibody responses against analyzed proteins. Entire OX1 and OX2 receptors or just their extracellular N-termini were transiently expressed in HuH7 cells to determine specific antibody responses in human sera. Based on our immunofluorescence analysis, none of the 56 Pandemrix-vaccinated narcoleptic patients, 28 patients who suffered from a laboratory-confirmed H1N1pdm09 infection or 19 Pandemrix-vaccinated controls showed specific autoantibody responses to prepro-orexin, orexin receptors or the isolated extracellular N-termini of orexin receptors. We also did not find any evidence for cell-mediated immunity against the N-terminal epitopes of OX2. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that the surface-exposed region of the influenza nucleoprotein A would elicit the development of an immune response against orexin receptors. © 2020 The Authors
  • Sarkanen, Tomi; Alakuijala, Anniina; Partinen, Markku (2019)
    Study objectives To validate Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS) as a screening tool for narcolepsy in a clinical population and to compare it with Swiss Narcolepsy Scale (SNS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Methods UNS questionnaires of 267 participants visiting Helsinki Sleep Clinic were analyzed. The diagnoses of the participants were narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 89), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 10), other hypersomnias (n = 24), sleep apnea (n = 37), restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder (n = 56), and other sleep-related disorders (n = 51). In addition, ESS and SNS scores in a subset of sample (total N = 167) were analyzed and compared to UNS. Results Mean UNS score in NT1 was 22.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20.4 to 23.6, range 9-43), which was significantly higher than in other disorders, including NT2 (mean 13.7, 95% CI = 10.3 to 17.1, range 7-21, p = .0013). Sensitivity and specificity of UNS in separating NT1 from other disorders were 83.5% and 84.1%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 82.5% and 85.1%, respectively. Sensitivities of SNS and ESS in NT1 were 77.2% and 88.6%, and specificities 88.6% and 45.5%, respectively. There were no differences in receiver operating characteristic curves between UNS and SNS. UNS had moderate negative correlation with hypocretin-1 levels (r(s) = -.564, p <.001), and mean sleep latency in multiple sleep latency test (r(s)= -.608, p <.001). Conclusions UNS has high specificity and sensitivity for NT1 in a sleep clinic setting. UNS scores below 9 strongly suggest against the diagnosis of narcolepsy.