Browsing by Subject "narrative"

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  • Sinclair, Joanna Beth (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Economics and Society
    Knowledge Flow, my dear friend! I would like to introduce you to a close relative of yours: Organizational Communication. You might want to take a moment to hear what your newfound kin has to say. As bright as you are dear Flow, you're missing a piece of the puzzle - for one cannot study any aspect of an organization relating to communication without acknowledging the message. Without a message, communication does not exist. Organizational Communication has always appreciated this. Perhaps the time has come for you to join rank and do so too? The main point of this work is to prove that the form of a message considerably affects communication, interpretation - and knowledge flow. As stories are at the heart of this thesis; and entertaining, reader-friendly communication its main argument, the entire manuscript is written in story form and is intentionally breaking academic writing tradition as far as writing style goes. Each chapter reads as a story of sorts and put together they create a grand narrative of my journey as a PhD student, the research I have conducted and the outcomes of this work. Thus if a reader hopes to make any sense of this title, she must read it in the same way one would read a novel, from beginning to end. This is a thesis with three aspirations. First, it sets out to prove that knowledge flow cannot be studied without a message. Second, it moves on to give the reader a once-over of a much used message form: storytelling. After these two goals are tackled the path is clear to research if message form indeed is as essential as claimed. I do so through both a qualitative and a quantitative study. The former acted as both a stepping stone into the research area and as an inspirational pilot, from which the research design for the larger quantitative study was drawn. Together, these two studies answered my research question - and allowed me to fulfill the third, final and foremost aspiration of this study - bridging the gap between two separate fields of knowledge management: knowledge flow and storytelling.
  • Birindelli, Pierluca (2019)
    In this article I explore various current myths that lead foreigners, especially North Europeans and North Americans, to choose to visit/live in Florence or Tuscany for a while or forever. Is it possible to discern any shared, collective representations? If so, how do such myths fit into the contemporary everyday life of the city? Can we identify a pathway from the aesthetic quest for “authentic” Italian life to cultural encounters with Italians in the flesh? My hypothesis is that one of the leitmotifs of foreigners’ experiences is a romantic, and to a lesser degree, intellectual approach towards “Florence without Florentines”. If so, there is nothing new “Under the Tuscan Sun”: the Grand Tour narrative is alive and kicking. Contemporary experiences of Florence and Tuscany continue to be shaped by the social imaginary inherited from the early nineteenth century. Travellers and sojourners come to Florence with a set of expectations shaped through filmic and literary representations and see what they expect to see, not least because the Italians are equally complicit in performing their part in this ritualised experience.
  • Kosunen, Sonja; Hansen, Petteri (2018)
    In recent years Finnish comprehensive education has often been discussed in both, academic and public forums, in terms of its relatively high learning outcomes and perceived efficiency. Yet what has often been lacking in cross-country comparisons is a critical socio-historical analysis of contingent nation-specific events and features as well as an in-depth analysis of Finnish education politics as constantly changing dynamic system. We analyze and reconstruct the discursive narrative of Finnish comprehensive education within a socio-historical framework. The material consists of interviews with the establishment of Finnish education: politicians, leading policy-makers and stakeholders, and established scholars (n=9). Three periods were recognized and reconstructed in the analysis: 1) The pre-comprehensive school period, 2) a steady development culminating in the crisis of the 1990s, and 3) the PISA results, which in the narrative led to international success and national gridlock. The crucial changes relate to changes in audiences (performing game). Two key findings emerge from this discursive narrative analyses: the role of the PISA reports as a turning point for the basic education politics in Finland and how this turn led to a discussion of comprehensive school as a kind of success story.
  • Kajamaa, Anu; Kerosuo, Hannele; Engeström, Yrjö (ESADE Business School, 2011)
  • Livholts, Mona Birgitta (2021)
    Exhaustion is not about being tired. It is an intense feeling of restlessness, of insomnia, and awakening when I ask myself: have I exhausted all that is possible? Such a state of restlessness and wakefulness represents a turning point for having enough, and opens for new possibilities to act for social change. This reflexive essay departs from the notion that the language of exhaustion offers a wor(l)dly possibility for social work(ers) to engage in critical analytical reflexivity about our locations of power from the outset of our (g)local environment worlds. The aim is to trace the transformative possibilities of social change in social work practice through the literature of exhaustion (eg. Frichot, 2019; Spooner, 2011). The methodology is based on uses of narrative life writing genres such as poetry, written and photographic diary entrances between the 4th of April and 4th of June. The essay shows how tracing exhaustion during the pandemic, visualises a multiplicity of forms of oppression and privilege, an increasing attention and relationship to things, and border movements and languages. I suggest that social work replace the often-used terminology of social problems with exhaustive lists to address structural forms of racism, sexism, ableism, ageism, which has been further visualized through death, illness, violence, and poverty during the pandemic. I argue that the language of exhaustion is useful for reflexivity and action in social workpractice through the way it contributes to intensified awareness, attention, engagement, listening, and agency to create social justice.
  • Luodeslampi, Juha; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto (2019)
    This article examines the career paths of Finnish Religious Education (RE) teachers who were born in the 1930s, through a retrospective, self-autobiographical life history approach. The material reported here is a part of wider data of mainly written narratives (N = 62) from RE teachers who recount their career trajectories. In these career-focused life histories, the teachers outline their own professionalism as embedded in changing sociohistorical contexts, where to a great extent they tell about the active development of the school and the teaching of their particular subject to answer to the changing needs and challenges. Some teachers have, along with their teaching, also been actively involved in different communities or associations. Many of the Religious Education teachers here reflect on their career paths in relation to their profession as a teacher and often also with double qualifications as pastor trained theologians. At times, this constructs a possibility for tension between the roles of a teacher and that of a pastor, and in the perceptions of RE as a school subject and as something “preached” in the pulpit—some see their professionalism above all in relation to their religious life. This also includes a notable gender divide in the data, as at the time when these teachers gained their professional qualifications, it was only possible for men to be ordained in the Finnish Lutheran Church. Succeeding this, the male teachers in these data commonly have pastorhood as their first profession. For the purpose of this article, the career accounts of four teachers have been selected for further analysis, as they were perceived as telling examples of the wider material in terms of more or less typical career paths.
  • Voutilainen, Veera (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This thesis joins the eternal process of reaching for the unreachable, mysterious space of non-existence. Instead of defining anything or offering any answers, it makes portraits of a particular phenomenon: the question of remembrance and death in a context of today. What kind of scenarios have been offered for our digital afterlife? How do we want to be remembered after death as our lives become more difficult to grasp physically? We will meet a man who travels around the world with an uncanny robot, and listen to an artist in the process of inventing an interactive form for expressing grief through metaphysical dialogue. We will explore ideas of an entrepreneur who offers you a chance to live (symbolically) forever as an avatar, and we will focus on a hybrid eternity project, transforming rituals of memorising into forms that may speak more accurately to the mortals of the digital world. We will imagine a never-ending conversation between two lovers. Behind this curiosity towards the immortal enigma, there lies a wider question of whether our ’less physical’ lives could make us re-imagine, and possibly even notice changes in our beliefs and thoughts about death and remembering. The methodology of this work trusts in the power of human conversation. Through semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a limited amount of people, the thesis searches for scenarios of alternative futures for the culturally shifting rites of passage. Inspired by narrative approach to research and life, stories are valued as ever-changing material through which we construct our realities – and ourselves. What kind of narratives do the present-day technologies encourage us to create? How might our increasingly digital lives be changing the way we memorise and mourn? This work offers a speculative theoretical meditation to a few alternative futures of remembering: apocalyptic self-narratives that make the border between fiction and fact seem obscure. 
  • Molander, Pauliina; Ylänne, Karoliina (2019)
    Introduction: The Ulcerative Colitis (UC) Narrative is a global initiative to engage patients with UC, in order to help identify the impact of UC on patients' lives. The aim of the UC Narrative extension survey in Finland was to identify and describe the unmet needs in quality care. Methods: Seventeen Finnish physicians were surveyed in the original UC Narrative survey between 7 December 2017 and 24 January 2018. In the extension phase, Finnish UC patients, recruited through the Finnish patient association, were surveyed from 15 November to 3 December 2018, covering questions on disease characteristics, impact on life, most common challenges in communication with health care professionals (HCPs) and access to care. Results: Five hundred and eight patients with self-reported UC diagnosis participated (137 male [27.0%]). Diagnostic delay was, on average, 2.3 (SD 5.5) years; 14.4% had waited five years or more for diagnosis. Most patients (396; 78.0%) considered themselves to be in remission and rated their overall state of health as 'excellent' or 'good' (303; 59.7%). Most patients (79.6%) were satisfied with the communication with their HCPs, and the majority (74.2%) felt comfortable raising concerns and fears with HCPs. However, the satisfaction in discussing mental and emotional health impacts of UC was lower (44.3%). A relatively large number of patients (38.5%) felt that they would be a more successful person without UC. Conclusions: The UC Narrative survey highlighted the diagnostic delay in UC, challenges in communication with HCPs and the impact of UC on life from the patients' perspective.
  • Mönkkönen, Ilkka (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    The purpose of this study was to find out, in retrospect, how the polytechnic students chose their study place and how their conception of the reputation of an educational institute affected their choices during the application process. The study was based on the narrative interviews of 17 first year students from three degree programs of one polytechnic. The analysis of the interviews proceeded in two successive stages. The first stage consisted of a narrative analysis in accordance with the classification of Donald Polkinghorne (1995). In the second stage, the analysis was complemented by A. J. Greimas’ three-level semiotic approach, comprising the discursive, narrative (actantial model) and deep levels. The conclusions were based on both analyses, i.e. on methological triangulation. The narrative analysis prepared the way for the construction of three meta-narratives in accordance with the applicants’ aims. The three aims that guided the applicants’ choices were (i) the up-dating of one’s professional skills, (ii) the choice of a profession and (iii) the taking of a degree in a polytechnic. The semiotic analysis showed two dimensions along which the choices were made. Firstly, the applicants aimed to have a study place in which they could combine both practical skills and theoretical knowledge (pragmatic-professional dimension). Secondly, the analysis also showed that emotions and values affected the choices they made (dimension of social values). The reputation of a polytechnic was considered an important factor of the application process. The applicants’ conception of reputation turned out pragmatic, since the stories they had heard about the daily routines of a polytechnic were regarded as essential for its reputation. The stories about a high number of drop-outs and graduation without employment prospects were considered negative for reputation. The applicants highly valued the information they received directly from the polytechnic students. Grapevine proved to be an effective means of communication, but the applicants also resorted to general information guides and the institutes’ Internet pages, whereas the media’s role turned out less important during the application process. The most important communicational channel was face-to-face communication. E-mail, mobile phone and various platforms in the Internet also provided forums or networks for meeting peers and spreading stories about the polytechnics.
  • Mantere, Saku; Aula, Pekka; Schildt, Henri; Vaara, Eero (Hanken School of Economics, 2013)
    We examine how organizational stakeholders use narratives in their psychological processing of venture failure. We identify a range of “narrative attributions”, alternative accounts of failure that actors draw on to process the failure and their role in it. Our analysis provides a view of entrepreneurial failure as a complex social construction, as entrepreneurs, hired executives, employees and the media construct failure in distinctively different ways. Narratives provide means for both cognitive and emotional processing of failure through grief recovery and self-justification.
  • Vaara, Eero (Sage Publications, 2010)
    This article concentrates on the discursive constmction of success and failure in narratives of post-merger integration. Drawing on extensive interview material from eight Finnish-Swedish mergers and acquisitions, the empirical analysis leads to distinguishing four types of discourse — 'rationalistic', 'cultural', 'role-bound' and 'individualistic' — that narrators employ in recounting their experiences. In particular, the empirical material illustrates how the discursive frameworks enable specific (di.scursive) strategies and moves for (re)framing the success/failure, justification/legitimization of one's own actions, and (re)constniction of responsibility when dealing with socio-psychological pressures associated with success/failtire. The analysis also suggests that, as a result of making use of these discursive strategies and moves, success stories are likely to lead to overly optimistic or, in the case of failure stories, overly pessimistic views on the management's ability to control these change processes. Tliese findings imply that we should take the discursive elements that both constrain our descriptions and explanations seriously, and provide opportunities for more or less intentional (re)interpretations of postmerger integration or other organizational change processes.
  • Vaara, Eero; Tienari, Janne (2010)
    Although extant research has highlighted the role of discourse in the cultural construction of organizations, there is a need to elucidate the use of narratives as central discursive resources in unfolding organizational change. Hence, the objective of this article is to develop a new kind of antenarrative approach for the cultural analysis of organizational change. We use merging multinational corporations (MNCs) as a case in point. Our empirical analysis focuses on a revelatory case: the financial services group Nordea, which was built by combining Swedish, Finnish, Danish, and Norwegian corporations. We distinguish three types of antenarrative that provided alternatives for making sense of the merger: globalist, nationalist, and regionalist (Nordic) antenarratives. We focus on how these antenarratives were mobilized in intentional organizational storytelling to legitimate or resist change: globalist storytelling as a means to legitimate the merger and to create MNC identity, nationalist storytelling to relegitimate national identities and interests, Nordic storytelling to create regional identity, and the critical use of the globalist storytelling to challenge the Nordic identity. We conclude that organizational storytelling is characterized by polyphonic, stylistic, chronotopic, and architectonic dialogisms and by a dynamic between centering and decentering forces. This paper contributes to discourse-cultural studies of organizations by explaining how narrative constructions of identities and interests are used to legitimate or resist change. Furthermore, this analysis elucidates the dialogical dynamics of organizational storytelling and thereby opens up new avenues for the cultural analysis of organizations.
  • Kaartinen, Timo Antero (2017)
    While parallelism is easily recognizable as the source for various literary tropes, it is also important as a resource for the speakers’ dialogic engagement with the patterns of interaction and experience they embody as part of their linguistic habitus. This article explores the forms of parallelism found in a variety of speech and narrative genres in Bandanese, an Eastern Indonesian minority language with about 5,000 speakers. Bandanese abounds with parallel expressions in which speakers use part-whole relations based on social and cultural classifications to construct totalizing cognitive and value statements. At the same time, Bandanese poetics is more than just evidence of an integrated cultural world. The article analyzes interactions between tropes based on repetition and parallelism to suggest that speakers and narrators use them to create a resonance between immediate rhetorical effects and larger aesthetic positions recognized in their folk categories. A prominent example of such resonance is the use of parallelism in eloquent, public speech. When speakers use the lexical contrast between Bandanese and the regional or national majority language as a source of parallel expressions, they draw from an aesthetic in which powerful speech resonates with past and future dialogue with outsiders. Recent scholarship of parallelism and repetition encourages us to recognize that they produce potential dialogic relations on a larger scale than that of single utterances. This approach can produce valuable insights into the possibilities for innovation in and revitalization of Bandanese and other minority languages threatened by demographic change and by losing their former domains of use.
  • Hakonen, Maria; Ikäheimonen, Arsi; Hulten, Annika; Kauttonen, Janne; Koskinen, Miika; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Lowe, Anastasia; Sams, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P. (2022)
    Perception of the same narrative can vary between individuals depending on a listener's previous experiences. We studied whether and how cultural family background may shape the processing of an audiobook in the human brain. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 48 healthy volunteers from two different cultural family backgrounds listened to an audiobook depicting the intercultural social life of young adults with the respective cultural backgrounds. Shared cultural family background increased inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in the left-hemispheric Heschl's gyrus, insula, superior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, in the right-hemispheric lateral occipital and posterior cingulate cortices as well as in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus and precuneus. Thus, cultural family background is reflected in multiple areas of speech processing in the brain and may also modulate visual imagery. After neuroimaging, the participants listened to the narrative again and, after each passage, produced a list of words that had been on their minds when they heard the audiobook during neuroimaging. Cultural family background was reflected as semantic differences in these word lists as quantified by a word2vec-generated semantic model. Our findings may depict enhanced mutual understanding between persons who share similar cultural family backgrounds.
  • Geyer, Lukas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyz society got entangled in discussions about what it means to be Kyrgyz. Even though Kyrgyzstan has experienced a surge in nationalism over the last decades, it is only since recently that non-heteronormative sexualities are increasingly constructed as a threat to the continued existence of the Kyrgyz nation. Based on five in-depth interviews with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals, I explore how they rationalise the increasing homophobia in Kyrgyz society and what kind of behavioural strategies they adopt to cope with the hostile environment. In particular, I assess whether the discursive exclusion of LGBT individuals from the Kyrgyz nation alters their relationship with the nation and the state. The research participants demonstrate an awareness for the connection between increasing nationalism and worsening attitudes against LGBT people and report corresponding adjustments in their behaviour, ranging from adaptation and hiding strategies to activism and emigration. While all respondents have a negative relationship with the Kyrgyz state, most report a decreasing sense of belonging to the Kyrgyz nation amid growing homophobia as well. These results suggest that the increased emphasis on the purportedly heteronormative nature of the Kyrgyz nation succeeds in redefining individual belonging to the nation and shifting the imagined boundaries of the nation.
  • Heikkilä, Jaana (2002)
    During the 1990s, globalisation, severe recession and changing social values among several other factors have challenged the Finnish welfare state as it was during the transition between the 1980s and the 1990s. The beginning of this paper is dedicated to describing macro-social and macroeconomic background issues as some of the factors that might have influenced the form of the Finnish welfare state. Later on, descriptive statistics have been used with the purpose of tracing potential retrenchment of the welfare state expenses and to elaborate the background information. The descriptive data indicates growth in social security expenses paid by the Finnish state, as well as rising unemployment rate, growing debt and sinking gross national product in the early 1990s. According to the same data, the national economy has recovered by the late 1990s, and social security expenses have mainly decreased simultaneously. In order to see how the welfare state has developed and reacted to the internal and external changes in the 1990s and to see how diverse social groups have been treated within the Finnish social security system, institutional revisions in three social security programs have been viewed in a narrative study. Developments in these social security programs have been compared to some presumably significant background factors in order to see if they could have affected these revisions. The conclusions are that retrenchment on the institutional level can be observed, tendency seems to be towards more activating social policies, as well as that the traditional universality of the Finnish welfare state may be fading.
  • Sydänmäki, Veera Katariina (2005)
    This thesis explores the link between the events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent initiation of the policy of "war on terror". The theoretical assumption of the thesis forwards that the American political establishment had to give the events of September 11 a meaning in order to create a basis for meaningful action. The analysis therefore explores how the events were represented and how these representations provided the discursive foundation for the formation of the "war on terror". I approach this topic through three analytical steps. First, I draw a theoretical outline of what I call the narrative approach for the purpose of describing the logic of meaning construction. The narrative approach holds that national narratives contextualize and frame policy problems and their solutions. I then introduce the layered model of discursive structures which implies that policies are conditioned by political discourses that are embedded in narrative structures. Second, in order to approach the question of narrative structures and their influence on foreign policies I present a review of the prominent narratives in the American historical self-conception. I identify one overarching narrative structure - the narrative of American exceptionalism - as well as four traditions of narrating America's foreign policy - Jeffersonianism, Hamiltonianism, Wilsonianism and Jacksonianism. This part of the analysis is based on previous research on the topic. Third, in order to establish the link between narrative structures and the discursive interpretation of the events of September 11 I perform a discourse analysis of a strategic sample of political texts on the events of September 11. This analysis investigates firstly the structure of argumentation that was used to describe the events and secondly the ways in which narratives were present in the representations of the events of September 11. In this part of the analysis I discuss how national narratives and their varying representations framed and conditioned the foreign policy agenda and principles of the "war on terror". I conclude that the discursive construction of the events of September 11 was framed by the narrative of exceptionalism in terms of the overarching rhetorical structure and the central metaphors. Further, the argumentation on the events of September 11 was established in the particular frameworks of the Jacksonian and the Wilsonian narrative traditions. I argue that this merging of the Jacksonian and Wilsonian narrative representations provided for a military-oriented and potentially limitless scope and policy for the "war on terror". Finally, I argue that had the dominant narratives used by the American political establishment been different, one could have expected a markedly different policy reaction by the United States to the events of the September 11.
  • Helin, Marjut (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    War children were sent away to shelter without their parents to other Nordic countries, mainly to Sweden. The phenomenon was remarkable. During the Second World War nearly 80,000 children were sent from their homes by trains or boats. These children travelled to foster homes where they were placed with new parents looking after them. After the conclusion of the peace, for some months or sometimes years later, orders were given to send the children back to their families in Finland. Returning back to Finland and to their biological parents and families was not always easy. Deep bonds between the children and their foster families were created and leaving caused grief to those small travellers once again. In some cases, distances were created in the relations between Mothers and their daughters. Many had forgotten their Finnish, and returning to school proved difficult. Some of the war children felt rootlessness, a result of being torn away from their family and culture. The aim of this study is to describe how former war children became mothers by themselves, and later on grandmothers. The study also explores how they describe the meaning of the war and their childhood in their own parenthood and what were their experiences of time in foster homes. Seven former war children and three daughters were interviewed for this study. Interviews were biographical. A narrative approach and thematic reading (by Riessman 2008) has guided the analysis of the texts. According to the results of this study, the importance of having your own home , family and security in childhood relationships is significant. Caring and having responsibility for disadvantaged others was important for former war children. What come from the detailed experiences of the 'war childhood' most of all were the difficulties they found on returning to Finland. Some of them had become very attached to their foster parents. There were varying degrees of language problems among the returnees. Some of the interviewees had completely forgotten their native language. Given that, starting the school at home was difficult. They also remembered continuous travelling.When asked on the outcome of their relationship with their biological mother, most interviewees were happy, with a few experiencing some distance in this relationship. Security and being available to protect their children were important in their own motherhood and grand motherhood. In difficult family situations like divorce, they wanted to give their time and support for helping with grandchildren. Another important aspect in family life is interaction between all its members. Talking things through in families and also in War Child Associations was highly valued. However, talking of war childhood had been silenced in some families. In conclusion, the experiences of former war children should take in consideration when difficult situations between parents and children or children's positions in war zones are resolved. War children also have a lot to give for further educational study.
  • Haatainen, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Sustainable consumption has become a widely debated topic in academic discussions, politics, the media, and consumer culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify the stories that are told about overconsumption and how responsibilities for the issue are distributed to different actors in these stories. Stories, in which events logically unfold and actors are positioned into different roles have a key role in the articulation of understandings of phenomena. 13 online news articles and two editorials published in three Finnish news media and the related news discussion forums were chosen as an empirical example of public discussion that shapes and reflects common perceptions on the issue. The news articles and editorials include references to the Earth Overshoot Day, limiting the context of the thesis to overconsumption that is defined based on the limits of the planet’s biocapacity. With the help of a qualitative narrative analysis, four storylines were constructed. These storylines are overconsumption by overpopulation, greed and impossible endless growth; one world, shared challenge, and technology as the problem and the solution. The most frequently mentioned actors across the storylines are citizens, developing and wealthy nations, decision-makers and politicians, businesses, and wealthy elite. Besides reflecting both academic discussions and previous literature on narratives about sustainable consumption, the presence of population dynamics and the conflict between socio-economic development and environmental well-being was notable in the analyzed discussions. The incomplete narrative structures, missing roles, and diverse elements included in the storylines reflect the complexity of the issue and the struggles related to articulating a coherent story with a sufficient solution and actors capable of solving the issue. To clarify the discussion on the topic, it is suggested that the distribution of the responsibilities and opportunities to improve the situation amongst actors should be addressed in the communication on sustainable consumption and the Earth Overshoot Day.
  • Jokinen, Ari; Leino, Helena; Bäcklund, Pia; Laine, Markus (2018)
    The aim of our article is to follow how global policy models affect local policy making. Each city has unique local challenges in promoting development, e.g. economic growth, but also needs to find a balance between these targets and demands for sustainable city solutions. In our empirical study, we follow how ideas of waterfront development - to attract new inhabitants and promote economic growth - and global demands of carbon control were used interactively in a strategic spatial planning process in the city of Tampere, Finland. During the six-year planning process, these two policy targets became interdependent, created a new policy-making domain, and led to a combinatorial development of sustainability elements arising from this domain. These findings demonstrate the serial use of global policy models in the creation of a local urban sustainability fix'. To conclude, the intertwinement of diverse global policy models in a city planning process creates easily a recursive cycle that redefines urban sustainability within cities and intercity networks. This perspective makes local policy narratives and strategic planning highly important in urban sustainability research as promoting urban sustainability becomes an inherently ambivalent practice.