Browsing by Subject "natural regeneration"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Kellomäki, Seppo; Hänninen, Heikki; Kolström, Taneli; Kotisaari, Ahti; Pukkala, Timo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Yli-Vakkuri, Paavo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1961)
  • Turakka, Antti; Luukkanen, Olavi; Bhumibhamon, Suree (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)
  • Downey, Margot (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The creation of forest gaps in disturbance emulation forestry alters local environmental conditions, which causes variability in natural seedling regeneration. Understory vegetation plays an important role in early seedling regeneration success and is sensitive to variations in topography and resource availability. Its analysis can uncover the finer-scale impacts of gap characteristics and competition on the patterns of tree regeneration. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of gap characteristics on patterns of natural vegetation and tree seedling regeneration 5 years post-harvest across 18 gaps in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated forests of Central Finland. Gap characteristics included distance from edge (into residual forest and gap interior), cardinal position in the gap (N, S, E or W), microsite type and dominant topography. All seedlings (≤5m) were counted and measured on 1m2 plots situated along linear strips (2 for each N-S and E-W orientations). On these same plots, vegetation and microsite types were assessed by percent cover for several key categories. Results show that distance from gap edge was the most influential gap characteristic, especially in the ±10m zone. The 0–15m zone inside the gap supported the greatest abundance of seedlings, as well as the highest diversity of both vegetation types and seedling species. The edge zone inside the forest supported shade-tolerant species (dwarf shrubs, mosses). Gap centers (~15m+) supported shade-intolerant species (grasses, shrubs, herbs), creating a highly competitive growing environment. The position within the gap was also an influential characteristic. The N gap positions showed the most statistically significant difference from the others; they had fewer birch seedlings, a greater percent cover of grasses and dwarf shrubs, and a smaller percent cover of ferns. This effect was generally more pronounced in the gap interior. The results of this study support that natural regeneration of seedlings in gaps is quite variable. The mean number of seedlings per ha inside the gaps were 20 360 for Norway spruce, and 6 820 for birch spp. combined; up to 62% were germinants (≤3cm). In the 15m+ region from the gap edge towards the gap center, the mean number of seedlings per m2 was on average ~58% smaller than for the rest of the strip. The presence and abundance of different vegetation species clearly demonstrate that distance from edge and within-gap position strongly affect resource availability and competition. The most significant gap characteristics affecting these patterns of early regeneration for Norway spruce and birch were revealed with the help of generalized additive models (GAMs). Since these gaps are in their early stages of regeneration, the future dynamics and final outcome are still fairly uncertain. However, the current mean number of seedlings inside the gaps suggests a promising potential for natural regeneration. These models point to management actions which could facilitate long-term natural regeneration in similar forest gaps.
  • Yirdaw, Eshetu; Monge, Adrian (2018)
    There is ambiguity in the use of the terms enclosure and exclosure in describing the passive method used for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. We argue that in the context of ecological restoration, the term enclosure is generally more appropriate to use than exclosure. Unlike exclosure, the term enclosure focuses on the degraded area to be restored, does not exclude selective permeability of external factors, and potentially accommodates local people's livelihood needs. However, the term exclosure is appropriate to use in the case of experimental exclosures or management of restoration sites which explicitly exclude specific disturbance factors.
  • Fróis, Nadira (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Regeneration ecology, diversity of native woody species and its potential for landscape restoration was studied in the remnant natural forest at the College of Forestry and Natural Resources at Wondo Genet, Ethiopia. The type of forest is Afromontane rainforest , with many valuable tree species like Aningeria adolfi-friederici, and it is an important provider of ecological, social and economical services for the population that lives in this area. The study contains two parts, natural regeneration studies (at the natural forest) and interviews with farmers in the nearby village of the remnant patch. The objective of the first part was to investigate the floristic composition, densitiy and regeneration profiles of native woody species in the forest, paying special attention to woody species that are considered the most relevant (socio-economic). The second part provided information on woody species preferred by the farmers and on multiple uses of the adjacent natural forest, it also provided information and analysed perceptions on forest degradation. Systematic plot sampling was used in the forest inventory. Twenty square plots of 20 x 20 m were assessed, with 38 identified woody species (the total number of species was 45), representing 26 families. Of these species 61% were trees, 13% shrubs, 11% lianas and 16% species that could have both life forms. An analysis of natural regeneration of five important tree species in the natural forest showed that Aningeria adolfi-friederici had the best regeneration results. An analysis of population structure (as determined by height classes) of two commercially important woody species in the forest, Aningeria adolfi-friederici and Podocarpus falcatus, showed a marked difference: Aningeria had a typical “reversed J” frequency distribution, while Podocarpus showed very low values in all height classes. Multi dimensional scaling (MDS) was used to map the sample plots according to their similarity in species composition, using the Sørensen quantitative index, coupled with indicator species analysis .Three groups were identified with respective indicator species: Group 1 – Adhatoda schimperiana, Group 2 – Olea hochstetteri , Group 3 – Acacia senegal and Aningeria adolfi-friederici. Thirty questionnaire interviews were conducted with farmers in the village of Gotu Onoma that use the nearby remant forest patch. Their tree preferences were exotic species such as Eucalyptus globulus for construction and fuelwood and Grevillea robusta for shade and fertility. Considering forest land degradation farmers were aware of the problem and suggested that the governmental institutions address the problem by planting more Eucalyptus globulus. The natural forest seemed to have moderate levels of disturbance and it was still floristically diverse. However, the low rate of natural regeneration of Podocarpus falcatus suggested that this species is threatened and must be a priority in conservation actions. Plantations and agroforestry seem to be possible solutions for rehabilitation of the surrounding degraded lands, thereby decreasing the existent pressure in the remnant natural forest.