Browsing by Subject "negatiivinen emotionaalisuus"

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  • Tuominen, Mirka (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. Anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms are common even as a child, and they cause a major burden to the child as well as to the society. In order to prevent anxiety disorders it is important to understand the predisposing factors to anxiety. The influence of child's temperament and parenting style on children's anxiety symptoms have both been studied, but the results are partly controversial, and there's only a limited number of longitudinal studies. The importance of interactions between temperament and parenting style has been emphasized, but the amount of interaction studies is scarce. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between child's temperament and anxiety symptoms, associations between parenting style and child's anxiety symptoms, and whether parenting style is a moderator between the association with temperament and anxiety symptoms. Methods. The sample consisted of 262 mother-child dyads participating in the Glychyrrhizin in Licorice-study. Mothers assessed their child's temperament with the Children's Behavior Questionnaire and their parenting style with the Parent Behavior Inventory when the children were 5,5 years old. Children assessed their anxiety symptoms with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders when they were 12 years old. The associations between the variables were analyzed using regression analyzes. Results and conclusions. High negative emotionality and its subfactors anger, fear, sadness and low soothability were associated with several anxiety symptoms. Extraversion was not associated with any anxiety symptoms, but its subfactor high impulsivity predicted increased anxiety symptoms. Low effortful control and its subfactor low inhibitory control were associated with symptoms of school phobia, and low intensity pleasure was associated with panic symptoms. Anxiety symptoms were associated with hostile/coercive parenting style, but not with supportive/engaged parenting style. Both parenting styles moderated some of the associations between temperament traits and anxiety symptoms. The findings give support both to the independent effect of temperament to children's anxiety symptoms and interactions between temperament and parenting. The findings give also some preliminary support to the "goodness of fit" –model, indicating that the effect of parenting style on children's anxiety symptoms may depend on child's temperament.
  • Montgomery, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that family environment can impact widely on children's development, including their personality. Harsh home environments, such as negative parental child-rearing attitudes, can lead into negative developmental paths. Associations between childhood internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour and development of personality traits are less researched. However, behavioural styles of young children have been linked to their later mental health and personality style. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the effects of childhood problem behaviour and maternal child-rearing attitudes on development of negative emotionality and sociability traits. The hypotheses were that childhood problem behaviour and maternal negative child-rearing attitudes predict higher negative emotionality, lower sociability as well as changes in those traits at the second point of personality trait measurement. Methods: The participants (n = 1352) were derived from the longitudinal "Cardiovascular risk in Young Finns" study that began in 1980. Childhood problem behaviour and child-rearing attitudes were self-rated by the participants' mothers' in 1983, when the participants age varied from 6 to 21. The participants then self-rated their negative emotionality and sociability twice in 1992 and 1997, aged between 15 to 35. The associations between childhood problem behaviour, maternal child-rearing attitudes and the later personality traits were examined by linear regression analysis. Results and conclusions: Both internalizing and externalizing childhood problem behaviour were associated with higher level of negative emotionality in youth and early adulthood, but only internalizing behaviour predicted lower sociability. Surprisingly there were no associations between maternal child-rearing attitudes and personality trait development. Also, problem behaviour and child-rearing attitudes did not predict any trait changes at the second point of personality trait measurement. Knowledge about possible long-term effects of childhood problem behaviour on personality development can be utilized in preventative child and youth work.
  • Mantere, Selena (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Goals: Earlier studies have shown that a low concentration of prenatal vitamin D is associated with child's psychological well-being. The connection between prenatal vitamin D level and, for example, eating disorders and neurocognitive development has been shown to exist. Child's temperament has shown to predict later mental health. It is commonly believed that temperament has roots in fetal period. However, there is no earlier research on the connection between prenatal vitamin D level and child's temperament. The goal of this study is to examine whether or not such a connection exists. Methods. This research is part of a Helsinki University Children's Vitamin D Intervention Study (VIDI). The material for VIDI has been gathered between January 2013 and June 2014 in Kätilöopisto Maternity Hospital in Helsinki. Current study includes participants with information on prenatal vitamin D levels and on maternal rated temperament at the age of one year (Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R)) (n=839). The connection between prenatal vitamin D level and the superfactors of the temperament dimensions were examined with regression analysis with confounding variables (child's gender, mother's maternal smoking habits, mother's education, marital status, age and BMI before pregnancy). The superfactors are Surgency/Extraversion, Negative Affectivity and Regulatory/Orienting. Prenatal vitamin D level was treated as a continuous and a dichotomous variable. Vitamin D levels were measured in early and late points of pregnancy, and categories low and high were created accordingly. Cut-points for categories were ≤ 73.70 nmol/L in the early point and ≤ 59.70 nmol/L in the latter point. Also, the association between the change in prenatal vitamin D level-or it staying low during pregnancy-with the superfactors of child's temperament was examined. Results and conclusions. Vitamin D level (25(OH)D) in the early-pregnancy was associated with child's negative emotionality: a higher vitamin D level predicted a lower negative emotionality score at the age of one year when examined as a continuous variable. The connection remained statistically significant after controlling for confounding variables. Vitamin D level in early pregnancy was not associated with any other superfactors of temperament. Moreover, early-pregnancy vitamin D categories were not associated with any temperament superfactors. Prenatal vitamin D level in late pregnancy was not related to temperament superfactors, measured either as a continuous or as dichotomous variable. Also, the change in prenatal vitamin D level, or it remaining in the low category in both measuring points, had no statistically significant associations with the superfactors of child's temperament. The results are in line with the earlier findings that vitamin D level-especially in early pregnancy-is associated with the child's psychological development. The functional mechanism of vitamin D level in early pregnancy is believed to be based especially on the sensitivity periods of the prenatal development of a brain. It is possible that a low prenatal vitamin D level modifies temperament through the development of the brain-which affects disorders of psychological development. In this case, temperament can account for at least a part of the connections that have already been found between prenatal vitamin D level and psychological development. This gives important knowledge of the origin of psychological disorders.
  • Linnankoski, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of the study. Maternal depression during pregnancy occurs in up to one in four women. It is a serious condition that can have long-term negative effects on the development of the foetus and the child through a harmful intrauterine environment. Maternal depression during pregnancy is for instance associated with internalizing mental health symptoms and temperament in children. However, there is little research evidence on the association of maternal depression during pregnancy with anxiety symptoms in school-aged children. Childhood anxiety symptoms can have serious and long-term consequences for an individual in terms of psychosocial, academic and professional functioning. This study examines whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy increases the risk of anxiety symptoms in school-age children. I also investigate whether infant negative emotionality mediates the association between maternal depression symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children. Methods. The sample of this study, which consists of 1625 mother-child pairs, was part of a larger PREDO (The Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction) follow-up study. Data from 3-12 months infancy follow-up and follow-up at the age of 7 to 11 years were used in this study. Mothers rated depressive symptoms during pregnancy using a self-assessment questionnaire (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Mothers assessed their children's negative emotionality (Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire) in the infant follow-up and their children's anxiety symptoms (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, parent report version & The Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised) in the school-age follow-up. The associations between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children were examined with linear regression analysis. Negative emotionality in infancy as a mediator of this relationship was examined with mediation analysis. Results and conclusions. According to this study, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased the risk of anxiety symptoms in school-age children. The observed associations between maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in children were independent of all the covariates selected for this study, such as maternal depression symptoms during follow-up at the age of 7 to 11. Preliminary research findings were also obtained on negative emotionality in infancy as partly mediating the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children. This study helps to increase understanding of the early risk factors of anxiety symptoms in children and the importance of preventive measures during pregnancy. High negative emotionality in early childhood is also a justified target for interventions.