Browsing by Subject "negotiation"

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  • Lizotte, Christopher (2020)
    Laicite, France's idiosyncratic form of secularism, is a complex concept that is dense with historical genealogy, practical contradictions and - crucially - political geographies. In particular, contemporary Laicite is characterized by a state-sponsored model of universal citizenship that regards French Muslims' identity claims with mistrust. This tension, always latent, was brought to the fore by a series of attacks perpetrated self-styled jihadists in January 2015, centered on the offices of the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo notorious for its provocations against Islam. The attacks and their aftermath also highlighted a key space where conflicts over Laicite often play out: the French public school, the ecole republicaine. This institution was conceived in its modern form as a mechanism to assimilate through laique pedagogy. Today it is a highly visible space where the optics of race and gender contribute to a narrative of Muslim communautarisme, a willful and defiant communalism that rejects the republican community of citizens. Following a handful of incidents in which students refused to participate in a moment of silence for the victims of the January 2015 attacks, the Ministry of Education undertook an initiative involving disciplinary and pedagogical supports for Laicite in the schools, called the Great Mobilisation for the Republic's Values. Like other past interventions in this area, it operationalizes an assimilating vision of Laicite to bring recalcitrant peripheries into compliance with republican norms. At the same time, though, it reveals the agency of the peripheries to negotiate the terms of Laicite according to local knowledge and needs. On the basis of interviews with educators serving in schools where elements of the Grand Mobilisation were carried out, I show how they push back against the overarching narratives that characterize the initiative and in so doing construct localized and nuanced understandings of the laique social pact.
  • Hiillos, Minna (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004)
    Economics and Society
    This study focuses on personnel managers in crisis situations. The interviewed personnel managers referred to emotions as a central element to be dealt with in a crisis. However, until recently, the exploration of emotions in organisational life has been de-emphasised or ignored. This study aims to bring to the surface aspects of personnel work that have so far been neglected or remained invisible. It specifically examines how personnel managers handle employees’ and their own emotions in a crisis. Based on the interviews, a number of emotional episodes were constructed. They describe the type and context of the crisis and the person(s) whose emotions are handled. The main findings of the study are the five emotion-handling strategies that could be constructed from the data. The negotiation-like manner in which personnel managers handled emotions in crisis situations proved especially interesting. They were actually negotiating emotional value for their organisations. Further, they handled their own emotions within the frame of two logics of appropriateness labelled mothering and guide-following. The episodes described also enabled identification of the values enacted by the personnel managers in handling emotions. The study provides descriptive information on emotion handling, a current and relevant feature in the practice of personnel management. It seeks to offer a frame for developing practical principles that can be helpful in a crisis. It also offers the opportunity to consider a variety of difficult situations that personnel managers may confront in their work.
  • Yu, Tommi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The current thesis analyses the reasons why Japan and North Korea have never entered into diplomatic relations and examines the prospects and opportunities for the normalization of their bilateral ties. The period of seven decades since Japanese colonial rule over the Korean Peninsula had ceased, has not been sufficient for either side to come up in good terms with history and politics. The existing historical tensions between the two nations and the absence of diplomatic relations has also constituted over the years to be an omnipresent threat to regional stability and security within the Northeast Asian region. This thesis focuses on both sides’ perceptions of conflict and further outlines and analyzes the priorities both Japan and North Korea strongly desire to retain within their bilateral agenda. Interviews carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Japan and North Korea constitute the empirical part of this study. Since all interviews were conducted not in the distant past, their impact on the thesis is significant but not self-sufficient; analysis of academic literature, press and official documents has been necessary to validate or cast aside main arguments in this thesis. The theoretical framework used in the entire study is the negotiation theory and its Integrative Bargaining Approach (IBA) that is also widely known as Interest-Based Bargaining (IBB). The most important feature of this theoretical framework is it provides a rationale for analyzing the Japan-North Korea ties by examination and inclusion of any issues while reducing them to a core of mutual interests, or shared interests with identifiable mutual gains. Normalization of diplomatic relations in the bilateral context of Japan and North Korea translates to practically enabling the two states to communicate with each other, ensuring certainty of diplomatic representation and interactions on more personal level that could transcend further to economic, cultural, socio-political and business realms. Therefore, by recognizing deductive processes in qualitative research, and by utilizing deductive qualitative research, the study suggests that there is a potential for both Japan and North Korea interests to be integrated in such manner, so to create joint value and attain the normalization of diplomatic relations. The qualitative data analysis suggests it has always been omnipresent chronic failure of negotiation efforts, outlining that in the past the parties have not identified shared interests and opportunities to realize mutual gains through trades across multiple issues, which gap this study is aimed to fill in. There are two key findings in this thesis. First, there are identifiable, shared interests and opportunities for realizing mutual gains, which could be used in initiating and nurturing negotiations between Japan and North Korea towards the goal for diplomatic normalization. Second, the IBA/IBB is the theoretical approach, prescribing proper techniques on how to reduce the bulk of multiple conflicts and enable engagement by the two neighboring states that reflects only issues in which they both recognize mutual interests and possible gains.