Browsing by Subject "neonatal"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Kallo, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the brain development, GABAergic neurons, also referred as interneurons, migrate tangentially from the subpallium to the pallium. After intracortical dispersion, the interneurons start radial migration towards their final location in the cortex. Although the radial migration of interneurons is extensively studied, mechanisms guiding the migration remain relatively unknown. Here we studied how manipulation of cortical activity affects the radial migration and allocation of the cortical GABAergic neurons in the developing mouse brain. For this purpose, we utilized whisker trimming induced sensory deprivation in GAD67-GFP mice at postnatal days 2-5 (P2-P5) followed by cell counting in brain slices derived from P5 and P10-aged mice. In addition, we performed live-imaging of migrating neurons in organotypic cultures derived from P2 SST-TdTomato and 5HT3aR-GFP mice and cultured for 1 day in vitro. These two mouse lines roughly represent early- and late-born subpopulations of the GABAergic neurons. Live-imaging was accompanied by activity manipulations using different drugs and the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD) technology. Analysis of the interneurons’ allocation on the barrel cortex after the unilateral sensory deprivation revealed misallocation of GAD67+ neurons on deep cortical layers of the contralateral hemisphere of the ablation group at P5. Analysis of the tracks from the live-imaged migrating interneurons revealed altered saltatory movement behaviour of 5HT3aR+ interneurons when clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) was used to activate the electroporated GFP-GCaMP3-mCherry-hM3Dq neurons located on L2/3 of the cortex. Moreover, we observed reduced motility of migrating interneurons in the organotypic cultures treated with a KCC2 inhibitor that alters GABAA-receptor mediated transmission. Altogether, our results suggest that activity is important in promoting the radial migration of late-born interneurons during the first days of the postnatal development.
  • Olander, R. F. W.; Sundholm, J. K. M.; Ojala, T. H.; Andersson, S.; Sarkola, T. (2020)
    Objectives Both excessive and restricted fetal growth are associated with changes in cardiac geometry and function at birth. There are significant issues when indexing cardiac parameters for body size in the neonatal period. The aims of this study were to determine to what extent cardiac geometry is dependent on body size in term and preterm neonates with restricted or excessive fetal growth and how this is affected by adiposity. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of neonates born between 31 and 42 weeks of gestation, divided into three groups: (1) small-for-gestational age (SGA, birth weight > 2 SD below the mean); (2) large-for-gestational age (LGA, birth weight > 2 SD above the mean); and (3) appropriate-for-gestational-age controls (AGA, birth weight Results In total, 174 neonates were included, of which 39 were SGA, 45 were LGA and 90 were AGA. Body size was reflected in cardiac dimensions, with differences in cardiac dimensions disappearing between the SGA and AGA groups when indexed for body surface area (BSA) or thoracic circumference. The same was true for the differences in atrial and ventricular areas between the LGA and AGA groups. However, left ventricular inflow and outflow tract dimensions did not follow this trend as, when indexed for BSA, they were associated negatively with adiposity, resulting in diminished dimensions in LGA compared with AGA and SGA neonates. Adiposity was associated positively with left ventricular mass, right ventricular length and area and right atrial area. The SGA group showed increased right ventricular fractional area change, possibly reflecting differences in the systolic function of the right ventricle. We found evidence of altered diastolic function between the groups, with the mitral valve inflow E-to lateral E'-wave peak velocity ratio being increased in the LGA group and decreased in the SGA group. Conclusions Cardiac geometry is explained by body size in both term and preterm AGA and SGA infants. However, the nature of the relationship between body size and cardiac dimensions may be influenced by adiposity in LGA infants, leading to underestimation of left ventricular inflow and outflow tract dimensions when adjusted for BSA. Adjustments for thoracic circumference provide similar results to those for BSA. Copyright (C) 2020 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Stampalija, T.; Thorton, J.; Marlow, N.; Napolitano, R.; Bhide, A.; Pickles, T.; Bilardo, C.M.; Gordijn, S.J.; The TRUFFLE-2 Group; Macharey, Georg (2020)
  • Rissanen, Annu-Riikka S.; Gissler, Mika; Nupponen, Irmeli K.; Nuutila, Mika E.; Jernman, Riina M. (2022)
    Introduction Although the perinatal mortality of monochorionic twins has been reported to be higher, the role of chorionicity is debated and data from Finland are still lacking. To examine the effect of chorionicity on the main outcome measures, perinatal and neonatal mortality and neonatal morbidity of Finnish twins, a comprehensive population-based historical cohort study was performed at Helsinki University Hospitals. Material and methods All 1034 dichorionic and monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies managed at Helsinki University Hospital area during 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018 were collected from patient databases. Information on chorionicity was retrieved from ultrasound reports and all relevant clinical information from patient records. Differences in perinatal and neonatal mortality and neonatal morbidity were analyzed by performing group comparisons between the twins and chorionicity. The role of chorionicity was also assessed in logistic regression analyses. Results There were 1034 dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA, n = 789, 76.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 73.6-78.9) and monochorionic-diamniotic (MCDA, n = 245, 23.7%, 95% CI 21.4-26.0) twin pregnancies during the studied years. Most (n = 580, 56.1%, 95% CI 52.8-59.2) twins were born at term, but 151 (61.6%, 95% CI 55.8-67.3) of MCDA twins were preterm and had lower birthweight and Apgar scores and higher risk of death of one twin. Perinatal and neonatal mortality did not differ between twins A and B, but the immediate outcome of twin B was worse, with lower arterial pH and Apgar scores and increased need of neonatal intensive care unit treatment. Conclusions Chorionicity contributes to the perinatal and neonatal outcome in favor of dichorionic twins. This disadvantage of MCDA twinning is likely explained by earlier gestational age at birth and inequal placental sharing. Irrespective of chorionicity, twin B faces more complications.
  • Summanen, Milla; Back, Susanne; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai (2018)
    Mammalian birth is accompanied by a period of obligatory asphyxia, which consists of hypoxia (drop in blood O-2 levels) and hypercapnia (elevation of blood CO2 levels). Prolonged, complicated birth can extend the asphyxic period, leading to a pathophysiological situation, and in humans, to the diagnosis of clinical birth asphyxia, the main cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The neuroendocrine component of birth asphyxia, in particular the increase in circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), has been extensively studied in humans. Here we show for the first time that normal rat birth is also accompanied by an AVP surge, and that the fetal AVP surge is further enhanced in a model of birth asphyxia, based on exposing 6-day old rat pups to a gas mixture containing 4% O-2 and 20% CO2 for 45 min. Instead of AVP, which is highly unstable with a short plasma half-life, we measured the levels of copeptin, the C-terminal part of prepro-AVP that is biochemically much more stable. In our animal model, the bulk of AVP/copeptin release occurred at the beginning of asphyxia (mean 7.8 nM after 15 min of asphyxia), but some release was still ongoing even 90 min after the end of the 45 min experimental asphyxia (mean 1.2 nM). Notably, the highest copeptin levels were measured after hypoxia alone (mean 14.1 nM at 45 min), whereas copeptin levels were low during hypercapnia alone (mean 2.7 nM at 45 min), indicating that the hypoxia component of asphyxia is responsible for the increase in AVP/copeptin release. Alternating the O-2 level between 5 and 9% (CO2 at 20%) with 5 min intervals to mimic intermittent asphyxia during prolonged labor resulted in a slower but quantitatively similar rise in copeptin (peak of 8.3 nM at 30 min). Finally, we demonstrate that our rat model satisfies the standard acid-base criteria for birth asphyxia diagnosis, namely a drop in blood pH below 7.0 and the formation of a negative base excess exceeding -11.2 mmol/l. The mechanistic insights from our work validate the use of the present rodent model in preclinical work on birth asphyxia.
  • Husso, Aleksi; Lietaer, Leen; Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina; Grönthal, Thomas; Govaere, Jan; Van Soom, Ann; Iivanainen, Antti; Opsomer, Geert; Niku, Mikael (2021)
    The development of a healthy intestinal immune system requires early microbial exposure. However, it remains unclear whether microbial exposure already begins at the prenatal stage. Analysis of such low microbial biomass environments are challenging due to contamination issues. The aims of the current study were to assess the bacterial load and characterize the bacterial composition of the amniotic fluid and meconium of full-term calves, leading to a better knowledge of prenatal bacterial seeding of the fetal intestine. Amniotic fluid and rectal meconium samples were collected during and immediately after elective cesarean section, performed in 25 Belgian Blue cow-calf couples. The samples were analyzed by qPCR, bacterial culture using GAM agar and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. To minimize the effects of contaminants, we included multiple technical controls and stringently filtered the 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to exclude putative contaminant sequences. The meconium samples contained a significantly higher amount of bacterial DNA than the negative controls and 5 of 24 samples contained culturable bacteria. In the amniotic fluid, the amount of bacterial DNA was not significantly different from the negative controls and all samples were culture negative. Bacterial sequences were identified in both sample types and were primarily of phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, with some individual variation. We conclude that most calves encounter in utero maternal-fetal transmission of bacterial DNA, but the amount of bacterial DNA is low and viable bacteria are rare.