Browsing by Subject "neuroottisuus"

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  • Mrena, Maria Kristiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives – The objective of this study was to examine whether there is a connection between the Big Five personality traits and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Finnish adults. The MetS is a rapidly increasing syndrome among the Finnish population, which predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiac diseases. Previous research suggests that single personality traits may be connected to the MetS and its risk factors. However, only a few studies have examined theoretically well based personality models in relation to the MetS. Identifying the psychosocial risk factors for the MetS is important in predicting and preventing its occurrence. The following hypotheses were made based on previous research: (1) high neuroticism and (2) low agreeableness are positively associated with the MetS. Methods – This is a cross-sectional study of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study from the year 2007. There were 1 580 Finnish adults aged 30–45 participating in the study, of which 919 were women and 661 were men. The participants answered a personality questionnaire, the Finnish version of the NEO-FFI (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory), which measured the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness). The MetS is diagnosed when at least three of the following five factors are present: (1) central obesity, (2) raised fasting glucose, (3) raised triglycerides, (4) lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and (5) hypertension. The associations between personality traits and the MetS were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results and Conclusions – In men, low agreeableness was statistically significantly associated with higher risk of having the MetS (OR=.70, 95 % CI=.57–.87, p=.001), adjusting for age and level of education. There were no statistically significant associations found between any of the personality traits and the MetS in women. On the basis of these results, it can be proposed that men with low agreeableness, that is, men low in cooperation, empathy, and kindness, might comprise a risk group for the MetS. This study was cross-sectional by design, which precludes conclusions about cause and effect relationships. Mechanisms linking personality to the MetS were not examined in the current study, and thus, future research should examine the direction of the associations and the mechanisms linking such associations.
  • Jantunen, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives: Optimism is usually defined as a stable outcome expectancy. Optimism is known to be positively connected to well-being and health but there are few studies to examine the development of optimism. Traumatic experiences are known to have various negative effects on well-being and mental health. There are also studies that show an association between traumas and personality development and change. Because optimism and pessimism are thought to be concepts similar to personality traits, it is justifiable to study if traumas are also related to optimism and/or pessimism. There are no studies to investigate this earlier. The aim of this study is to examine whether lifetime trauma experiences are associated with optimism-pessimism in early adulthood and whether different traumas or the age of trauma experience have differential effects. Methods: This study is part of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (AYLS). All newborns born between 1985 and 1986 in the county of Uusimaa, Finland, who needed hospital care during ten days after birth were invited to participate. Also controls not admitted to the hospital wards were recruited. The current 25-year-old follow-up study consisted of 902 participants who completed a self-report questionnaire for optimism (LOT-R) and a retrospective self-report for traumatic experiences (TEC). The associations between lifetime traumas and optimism-pessimism in early adulthood were analyzed statistically using linear regression and analysis of variance and t tests when examining different groups for the amount of traumas and for different age groups. Results and conclusions: Reporting of any traumatic experience was associated to lower optimism and higher pessimism. The more traumatic experiences one had the lower was optimism and the higher was pessimism. By contrast, the age of traumatic experiences was not statistically significantly associated with the trait of optimism-pessimism. These results remained after controlling demographic variables. However, after controlling neuroticism, only the connection between emotional traumas and optimism-pessimism remained statistically significant. Because optimism and pessimism are known to have an impact on well-being and coping in future adversities, the association between traumas and optimism-pessimism can be considered noteworthy. The results of this study give ground for discussion about whether optimism interventions could be targeted to people who have experienced traumatic events to reduce the negative effects of trauma.
  • Hirvelä, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objective: Depression and anxiety disorders are mood disorders which may result from a number of psychological, social and biological reasons. Dysregulation of HPA-axis, such as hypercortisolism and hypocortisolism, is thought to be connected to depression and anxiety. On the other hand depression and anxiety are also connected to the personality characteristics like high neuroticism. The aim of this study was to examine the connections of personality characteristics and evening cortisol to depression, anxiety and their comorbidity. These have not been previously studied together. Methods: This study used data from the second wave of the MIDUS (Midlife in the United States) longitudinal study. The data was collected by the Institute on Aging at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during 2004-2006. Personality characteristics were assessed by the short personality scale of MIDUS, where respondents assessed the suitability of 25 adjectives to themselves in a four-step scale. Depression and anxiety were measured by MASQ (Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire) which had been modified for MIDUS. Cortisol was measured from saliva at four different time points during four days. ANOVA, linear regression and multi-nominal logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results and conclusions: Low evening cortisol level appears to be predictive of anhedonic depression in low educated young people. The personality characteristics of high neuroticism and low conscientiousness predicted all symptom groups, which is in line with previous studies. High neuroticism was the biggest risk for comorbid depression and anxiety. In addition to high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, female sex, middle and low level education also predicted somatic anxiety and hypocortisolism, female sex, low extraversion and middle and low level education predicted anhedonic depression. Furthermore, a low level of education was positively associated with comorbidity. Neuroticism is a risk for mood disorders and understanding its development in childhood requires further research. Neuroticism should be taken in account in clinical practice. Psychotherapy might be effective to reduce neuroticism.
  • Virtanen, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Depression is a psychiatric disorder composed of several clusters of symptoms, which do not necessarily reflect common pathways of pathophysiological processes. Thus, a new conceptualization of depression has been proposed, which suggests that depression should be dissected to its key components instead of treating it as one homogeneous concept. Personality trait neuroticism is a risk factor that is consistently linked with depression. Several models have been suggested for the association between neuroticism and depression. One of them is a so-called common cause -model, which assumes that a shared etiology explains the co-occurrence of the two. Research from twin studies supports this notion, as neuroticism and depression have been found to share a large proportion of their genetic basis. However, earlier research has examined depression as a composite concept, and there are no studies to date which would have examined the shared genetic basis of specific symptoms of depression in relation with neuroticism. This study tests the common cause -model by estimating, whether the same genetic and environmental components are relevant in explaining the covariation between neuroticism and specific symptoms of depression. The data used in this study was from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study (n = 1515, av. age = 62.0). Depression was measured with The Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D), and separate analyses were conducted for three factors: somatic complaints, (lack of) positive affect and depressed affect. The results showed that all of the depressive symptoms shared the same genetic and environmental components when modeling the association with neuroticism, which supports the common cause -model. Over a half of the phenotypic correlation was explained by genetic influences between neuroticism and somatic complaints, as well as neuroticism and positive affect. Half of the co-variation between neuroticism and depressed affect was due to genetic influences. Findings of the current study suggest, that genetic and individual specific environmental influences are important in explaining the relationship in all of the symptoms. For future endeavors, it is suggested to search for concrete risk factors and neurobiological endophenotypes that are shared between specific symptoms and neuroticism. While the use of composite concept of depression was supported in this study, the research question has not been yet examined in molecular genetic studies. A twin model can only differentiate sources of variation, not concrete risk factors. Thus, the results presented here only apply in the context of twin modeling. Also, the robustness of the results should be tested by replicating the results among younger samples.
  • Tikanto, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives: Late-life depression is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and more information about its specific risk factors and mechanisms is needed. Early life stress has been shown to predict depressive symptoms in adults as well as a poor course of depression; it is unclear, however, whether this association is still present in older adults. The present study investigated how emotional and physical stress in childhood predicted depressive symptoms in Finns who were older than 60 years. Depressive symptoms were selfrated at two separate measurement points. The effect of neuroticism as a mediator was also examined. Methods: The study sample was a subsample of Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, which consists of 13,345 subjects born in Helsinki in 1934–1944. The sample included those subjects who completed the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC) and either Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) or Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) in either 2004 or 2010. Sample size varied between 764–1332, depending on the analysis. Linear and logistic regression as well as mediation analyses were used to analyze the data. Results and conclusions: Both types of early life stress were shown to predict more depressive symptoms and higher risk of clinically significant depressive symptoms at both measurement points. High neuroticism mediated the relationship between early life stress and depressive symptoms. Contrary to hypothesis, early life stress did not predict the duration of depressive symptoms. The results indicate that early life stress plays a role in late-life depression, and this effect is mediated by neuroticism.