Browsing by Subject "nitraatti"

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  • Salovaara, Anna-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Jääsalaattia (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) tuotetaan ympärivuotisesti kasvihuoneessa ja se on kuluttajien keskuudessa suosittu lehtivihannes. Jääsalaatti kerää monien muiden lehtivihannesten tapaan nitraattia ja sen nitraattipitoisuudet voivat nousta melko suuriksikin. Jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuuteen vaikuttavat useat eri tekijät, kuten laji, lajike, lannoitustaso ja valon intensiteetti. Tehokkailla nitraattipitoisuuden hallintakeinoilla voidaan parantaa tuottajan mahdollisuuksia vaikuttaa sadon laatuun. Valtaosa ravinnon mukana saatavasta nitraatista on peräisin lehtivihanneksista. Euroopan unioni on asettanut katteen alla kasvatetun salaatin nitraattipitoisuudelle talvi- ja kesäkauden raja-arvot. Nitraatti on ihmisen terveydelle haitallinen yhdiste, sillä osa siitä muuttuu elimistössä nitriitiksi, mikä kasvattaa etenkin pienten lasten methemoglobinemian riskiä. Glysiinibetaiini on osmolyytti ja solun metabolian kanssa yhteensopiva yhdiste. Monet viljelykasvit syntetisoivat glysiinibetaiinia vasteena abioottisille stresseille ja se parantaa kasvien stressinkestävyyttä myös eksogeenisesti annettuna. Glysiinibetaiinia saadaan ravinnon mukana esimerkiksi viljatuotteissa ja se on ihmisille turvallinen yhdiste, jota voidaan käyttää myös ravintolisänä. Glysiinibetaiinia eristetään muun muassa sokerijuurikkaan melassista ja sitä voidaan käyttää orgaanisena lannoitteena tai kasvunedistäjänä kasvintuotannossa. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää glysiinibetaiinin käyttömahdollisuuksia jääsalaatin tuotannon edistäjänä. Kasvihuonekokeessa seitsemän vuorokautta kestänyt glysiinibetaiinikäsittely aloitettiin jääsalaattien ollessa 29 vuorokauden ikäisiä. Glysiinibetaiinikäsittelyjen pitoisuudet olivat 0, 1, 7,5 ja 15 mM. Jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuus, glysiinibetaiinipitoisuus sekä tuore- ja kuivamassa määritettiin 24, 29, 36, 41 ja 49 vuorokauden ikäisistä kasveista. Tutkimus toteutettiin kiertovesiviljelyjärjestelmässä ja glysiinibetaiinikäsittely annettiin ravinneliuoksessa. Jääsalaatit ottivat eksogeenisesti annettua glysiinibetaiinia. Glysiinibetaiinikäsittely pienensi jääsalaatin nitraattipitoisuutta seitsemän vuorokauden käsittelyn jälkeen merkitsevästi kontrolliin verrattuna ja alenema oli suoraan verrannollinen käsittelyn pitoisuuteen. Lisäksi glysiinibetaiinikäsittely pienensi jääsalaatin tuorepainoa ja suurensi kuiva-ainepitoisuutta. Määrityksissä myös jääsalaatin glysiinibetaiinipitoisuuden havaittiin olevan suoraan verrannollinen käsittelyn pitoisuuteen.
  • Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Hallikainen, Anja; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi; Savela, Kirsti (Evira, 2013)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 2/2013
    Nitraattia esiintyy luonnostaan monissa kasviksissa ja talousvedessä. Osa syödystä nitraatista muuttuu elimistössä nitriitiksi. Nitraattia ja nitriittiä käytetään myös elintarvikelisäaineina, koska ne hillitsevät haitallisten mikrobien kasvua. Toisaalta niiden suuren saannin katsotaan aiheuttavan terveyshaittoja. Esitetty probabilistinen riskinarviointi perustuu vuosina 2004 – 2012 tutkittuihin valvonta- ja tutkimusprojektinäytteisiin sekä kirjallisuustietoihin. Lisäksi käytettiin Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitokselta saatuja Finravinto 2007- ja DIPP-ravintotutkimuksen tuottamia aikuisten ja lasten ruoankulutustietoja. Nitraattialtistus lisäainelähteistä on vähäistä. Valtaosa nitraattialtistuksesta saadaan luontaisista lähteistä: vihanneksista, hedelmistä ja vedestä. Kasvisten käsittely ja hyvä viljelykäytäntö vähentävät saantia. Paljon nitraattia sisältävien kasvisten suurkuluttajien altistus voi ylittää nitraatin hyväksyttävän päivittäissaannin (ADI). Nitriittialtistus elintarvikkeista ja talousvedestä voi ylittää ADI-arvon noin 14 %:lla 3-vuotiaista ja 11 %:lla 6-vuotiaista suomalaislapsista. Suurin altistuslähde ovat ruokamakkarat. Toisaalta jos nitriittipitoisuuksia alennettaisiin nykytasosta, hygieniavaatimuksia ja kylmäketjuhallintaa olisi tehostettava.
  • Soronen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Nitrogen (N) availability often limits plant growth in the boreal forest ecosystem. There has been a lack of reliable method to study soil N supply as in traditionally used potassium chloride (KCl) extraction sampling and sample preparation disturb soil structure and stimulate N mineralization, leading to the overestimation of inorganic N forms ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) and underestimation of organic N forms such as amino acids. Diffusion-based microdialysis technique for the sampling of soil diffusive N fluxes gives an opportunity to study soil N supply at a scale that is relevant for plant N uptake, as microdialysis probe has a membrane that reminds the plant fine root in its scale and also, to some extent, in its function. During sampling, the movement of water inside the microdialysis probe induces diffusive flux of solutes across the membrane surface along the concentration gradient. The aim of this study was to test the performance of microdialysis technique at different soil moisture content levels and its capability to monitor temporal changes in diffusive N fluxes in laboratory experiments (ex situ). Soil fine-scale N dynamics were further studied by comparing the diffusive N fluxes in the field (in situ) in boreal forest soil to multiple factors that are thought to affect forest soil N availability. In this study, soil diffusive NH4+, NO3- and amino acid N fluxes were sampled ex situ from sieved soils taken from three different sites – clear-cut, spruce stand (MT spruce) and pine stand (VT pine) in Lapinjärvi, Finland in November 2017. In ex situ microdialysis experiments, the diffusive N fluxes were observed at three different soil moisture content levels and after N addition. In situ microdialysis sampling was run at the logging residue experiment of the Lapinjärvi clear-cut site and at the MT spruce site in June 2018 and at the pine logging residue experiment in Kiikala, Finland in September 2018. The results from the in situ microdialysis were compared with soil moisture content, pH, C-to-N ratio and temperature as well as with the net N mineralization and net nitrification rates, microbial biomass C and N contents and the concentrations of volatile monoterpenes and condensed tannins, factors that are assumed to affect N availability in forest soil. Nitrogen fluxes sampled ex situ showed that the total amino acid flux in the soil taken from the clear-cut site was only half of that in the MT spruce soil whereas NO3- flux was two times higher at the clear-cut site than at the MT spruce site. MT spruce soil with a moisture content of 60 % water-holding capacity (WHC) had significantly higher NH4+ flux than the same soil in its field moisture content (44 % WHC). Nitrogen pulse was detected in all soil samples as increased NH4+ flux after the N addition, followed by a subsequent decrease near to the initial level. In situ microdialysis sampling showed that the total amino acid fluxes were 5–15 nmol N cm-2 h-1 and they dominated the total diffusive N fluxes in Lapinjärvi and Kiikala. On average, the smallest share of the total free amino acids (54 %) was observed at the control plots of the logging residue experiment in Lapinjärvi. No correlation between the KCl-extractable NH4+-N concentration and the diffusive NH4+ flux was found, but instead the KCl-extractable NH4+-N concentration showed a significant positive correlation with the diffusive fluxes of both total free amino acid N and nitrate. Moreover, the diffusive NH4+ flux correlated positively with the net N mineralization rate. In general, ex situ microdialysis sampling showed 2–10 times higher amino acid fluxes and 10–20 times higher ammonium fluxes than the in situ microdialysis that reflects the effect of sampling, sample storage and preparation. The effect of soil moisture on the diffusive N fluxes could be further studied in laboratory experiments and in situ. The results of this study showed that the diffusive fluxes of different N forms are decoupled from the bulk soil concentrations. Moreover, microdialysis could be possibly used to quantify the transformation processes of N compounds in soil. These results increase the evidence that microdialysis has potential to detect temporal changes in N fluxes and possibly give new information about the ongoing processes at soil microsites.
  • Ruuska, Anna-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Industry, transportation and agriculture release nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) into the atmosphere. These compounds deposit to the earth’s surface for example via rain as nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). It has been shown that nitrogen deposition has decreased the share of sphagnum mosses among mire vegetation. Mires are important carbon storages and sinks, and estimates show that in mires over half of the carbon is stored in peat originated from sphagna. Therefore it is important to study the phenomenon that has an impact on the function of mires and also mechanisms that effect sphagnum via nitrogen deposition. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of nitrogen deposition on sphagnum’s hyaline and chlorophyllous cell morphology. The function of hyaline cell is to store water and maintain optimal water content for sphagnum’s efficient growth. Therefore the relation between the water content of sphagnum and the changes in cell morphology was studied. Changes in cell morphology may decrease sphagnum’s drought tolerance and lead to the disappearance of sphagnum. Samples of sphagnum (Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw.) were collected from ombrotrophic Mer Bleue bog which is located in Ottawa, Canada. By the May 2016, plots in Mer Bleue had been fertilized with different forms (NH4+, NO3-, NH4NO3) and amounts (1,6, 3,2 and 6,4 g N m-2 v-1) of nitrogen between 4-16 years. Potassium phosphate (KH2PO4) had been added into some plots. Total number of different treatments was 11, each of which had three replicates. In this study, sample preparates of sphagnum were microscoped and photographed and cell areas (μm2) were determined. Cell material used for statistical analysis was in total 1138 of which half were hyaline cells and half chlorophyllous cells. In addition, this study contained data from sphagnum’s water and nutrient contents and water table measurements. The effects of different treatments were detected mainly as an increase of hyaline cell areas. Out of different forms of nitrogen, only NH4NO3 with amount of 6,4 g N m-2 increased hyaline cell area, and the effects of NH4+ and NO3- did not differ from control. KH2PO4 treatment did grow the area of hyaline cell both alone and when added together with NH4NO3. Between different treatments only minor changes in water content of sphagnum were observed. Even though the results of this study did not refer to impaired drought tolerance of sphagnum, morphological changes observed may hinder sphagnum’s vitality in some other way. This matter needs further research.
  • Jaakkola, Sauli (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Assessing and avoiding environmental impact of agriculture and forestry has become more and more important during recent years. In Finland, half of the phosphorus load and nearly 40 % of the nitrogen load in the water system is caused by agriculture and forestry. Traditionally water quality monitoring has been carried out with manual water sampling and laboratory analyses. The problem with manual sampling is low amount of samples. Continuously working water quality sensors have been used for a relatively short time, which is why continuous water quality monitoring needs more research. The objective of the study is to clarify the feasibility of optical sensors in monitoring water quality and nutrient loading in an agricultural and forest management area. The study was carried out in three monitoring stations of the Savijoki catchment in Southwest Finland. Two of the stations were identically equipped and were located in forested subcatchments. A third station was located at the Savijoki catchment discharge point, making it possible to study how sensors work in different water qualities. According to the study, monitoring with continuously working sensors will result in more accurate nutrient loading estimates. With sensors used in the study it is also possible to draw conclusions about dynamics between run-off and nutrient concentrations in water. A prerequisite for successful monitoring is utilizing the appropriate sensors in the correct location. For example, low nitrate levels in water in forested areas have to be taken into consideration when choosing sensors. During the monitoring it is important to actively keep track of the quality of data and to check that sensors are working properly. Water quality sensors always need good calibration and control water samples from the entire concentration range. Sensors also have to be equipped with an automatic cleaning mechanism.