Browsing by Subject "nitrogen"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 26
  • Paczkowska, J.; Rowe, Owen; Schluster, L.; Legrand, C.; Karlson, B.; Andersson, A. (2017)
    It is well-known that nutrients shape phytoplankton communities in marine systems, but in coastal waters allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) may also be of central importance. We studied how humic substances (proxy of ADOM) and other variables influenced the nutritional strategies, size structure and pigment content of the phytoplankton community along a south-north gradient in the Baltic Sea. During the summer, the proportion of mixotrophs increased gradually from the phosphorus-rich south to the ADOM-rich north, probably due to ADOM-fueled microbes. The opposite trend was observed for autotrophs. The chlorophyll a (Chl a): carbon (C) ratio increased while the levels of photoprotective pigments decreased from south to north, indicating adaptation to the darker humic-rich water in the north. Picocyanobacteria dominated in phosphorusrich areas while nanoplankton increased in ADOM- rich areas. During the winter-spring the phytoplankton biomass and concentrations of photoprotective pigments were low, and no trends with respect to autotrophs and mixotrophs were observed. Microplankton was the dominant size group in the entire study area. We conclude that changes in the size structure of the phytoplankton community, the Chl a: C ratio and the concentrations of photoprotective pigments are indicative of changes in ADOM, a factor of particular importance in a changing climate.
  • Aaltonen, Heidi; Tuukkanen, Tapio; Palviainen, Marjo; Laurén, Annamari (Ari); Tattari, Sirkka; Piirainen, Sirpa; Mattsson, Tuija; Ojala, Anne; Launiainen, Samuli; Finér, Leena (2021)
    Understanding the anthropogenic and natural factors that affect runoff water quality is essential for proper planning of water protection and forest management, particularly in the changing climate. We measured water quality and runoff from 10 unmanaged and 20 managed forested headwater catchments (7-12,149 ha) located in Finland. We used linear mixed effect models to test whether the differences in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) export and concentrations observed can be explained by catchment characteristics, land use, forest management, soil fertility, tree volume and hydrometeorological variables. Results show that much of variation in TOC, TN and TP concentrations and export was explained by drainage, temperature sum, peatland percentage and the proportion of arable area in the catchment. These models explained 45-63% of variation in concentrations and exports. Mean annual TOC export in unmanaged catchments was 56.4 +/- 9.6 kg ha(-1) a(-1), while in managed it was 79.3 +/- 3.3 kg ha(-1) a(-1). Same values for TN export were 1.43 +/- 0.2 kg ha(-1) a(-1) and 2.31 +/- 0.2 kg ha(-1) a(-1), while TP export was 0.053 +/- 0.009 kg ha(-1) a(-1) and 0.095 +/- 0.008 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for unmanaged and managed, respectively. Corresponding values for concentrations were: TOC 17.7 +/- 2.1 mg L-1 and 28.7 +/- 1.6 mg L-1, for TN 420 +/- 45 mu g L-1 and 825 +/- 51 mu g L-1 and TP 15.3 +/- 2.3 mu g L-1 and 35.6 +/- 3.3 mu g L-1. Overall concentrations and exports were significantly higher in managed than in unmanaged catchments. Long term temperature sum had an increasing effect on all concentrations and exports, indicating that climate warming may set new challenges to controlling nutrient loads from catchment areas.
  • Allen, John A.; Setälä, Heikki; Kotze, David Johan (2020)
    Urban residents and their pets utilize urban greenspaces daily. As urban dog ownership rates increase globally, urban greenspaces are under mounting pressure even as the benefits and services they provide become more important. The urine of dogs is high in nitrogen (N) and may represent a significant portion of the annual urban N load. We examined the spatial distribution and impact of N deposition from dog urine on soils in three urban greenspace typologies in Finland: Parks, Tree Alleys, and Remnant Forests. We analyzed soil from around trees, lampposts and lawn areas near walking paths, and compared these to soils from lawn areas 8 m away from pathways. Soil nitrate, ammonium, total N concentrations, and electrical conductivity were significantly higher and soil pH significantly lower near path-side trees and poles relative to the 8 m lawn plots. Also, stable isotope analysis indicates that the primary source of path-side N are distinct from those of the 8 m lawn plots, supporting our hypothesis that dogs are a significant source of N in urban greenspaces, but that this deposition occurs in a restricted zone associated with walking paths. Additionally, we found that Remnant Forests were the least impacted of the three typologies analyzed. We recommend that landscape planners acknowledge this impact, and design parks to reduce or isolate this source of N from the wider environment.
  • Happel, Elisabeth M.; Trine, Markussen; Teikari, Jonna E.; Huchaiah, Vimala; Alneberg, Johannes; Andersson, Andres F.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Middelboe, Matthias; Kisand, Veljo; Riemann, Lasse (2019)
    Heterotrophic bacteria are important drivers of nitrogen (N) cycling and the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Projected increases in precipitation will potentially cause increased loads of riverine DOM to the Baltic Sea and likely affect the composition and function of bacterioplankton communities. To investigate this, the effects of riverine DOM from two different catchment areas (agricultural and forest) on natural bacterioplankton assemblages from two contrasting sites in the Baltic Sea were examined. Two microcosm experiments were carried out, where the community composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing), the composition of a suite of N-cycling genes (metagenomics) and the abundance and transcription of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes involved in nitrification (quantitative PCR) were investigated. The river water treatments evoked a significant response in bacterial growth, but the effects on overall community composition and the representation of N-cycling genes were limited. Instead, treatment effects were reflected in the prevalence of specific taxonomic families, specific N-related functions and in the transcription of amoA genes. The study suggests that bacterioplankton responses to changes in the DOM pool are constrained to part of the bacterial community, whereas most taxa remain relatively unaffected.
  • Kivela, Jukka; Chen, Lin; Muurinen, Susanna; Kivijarvi, Pirjo; Hintikainen, Veikko; Helenius, Juha (2015)
    Meat and bone meal (MBM) is a by-product of the meat industry and is an important pathway for recycling of N and P. MBM contains about 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. Field trials compared the effects of MBM and mineral fertilizer on yield and quality of sugar beet (2008-2009) and carrot (2010-2011) in Finland. MBM fertilisation of sugar beet grown on clay loam and sandy clay soil gave 11.4% (2008) and 19.6% (2009) lower yields than mineral fertilizers. The lower root yield in 2008 was compensated by higher extractable sugar content and lower amino-N, K and Na in root but no such compensation in root quality was detected for 2009. Mixing MBM with mineral NPK fertilizers had similar effects as MBM-alone. MBM (80 kg N ha(-1) 2010 and 60 kg N ha(-1) 2011) together with K fertilizer (Patentkali (R), 180 kg K ha(-1)) were applied for carrot to a fine sandy till soil in 2010 and sandy loam in 2011. MBM alone gave 14% lower total and marketable root yield than mineral fertilization. The lower yield was compensated by improved quality, lower NO3- content in the carrot and good storability. Adding extra fertilizer during growth or separating fertilization applications had no effect on root yield or quality. MBM performed in these cases mainly as an organic N fertilizer. The N supply from MBM is not sufficient for achieving same yields as with mineral fertilizers. The relative N efficiency of total N of MBM was 83% that of mineral fertilizers. MBM should be targeted on soils with low P status. We conclude that MBM is a reasonably competitive alternative to mineral fertilizers, and as a recycled fertilizer it is a good option for organic production.
  • Bäcklund, Kirsi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Boreal forest soil contains large nitrogen resources. Most of the nitrogen is bound to humified material and proteins. However, plants can directly utilize only simple nitrogen compounds as ammonium, nitrate and simple amino acids. The amount of these simple nitrogen compounds is very small in forest soil. Trees form ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with a large number of fungi. Ectomycorrhizal fungi receive carbon compounds from host trees and trees receive nutrients from fungi. Some ectomycorrhizal fungi produce proteases which are enzymes that hydrolyze proteins. This symbiosis might be important in utilizing the large nitrogen resources in forest soils and supplying nitrogen to host plants. The main aim of this study was to measure if ectomycorrhizas produce proteases in the field and to find out if the mycorrhizal protease activities change during the year. The aim was also to find out if proteolytic activity is found in the soil fluid and to see if the activities in soil fluid are related to mycorrhizal activities. Mycorrhizal fungi were isolated to form pure cultures and their protease activities were measured and species were identified. As background information mycorrhizal, nonmycorrhizal and dead root tips were calculated to see how their amounts change during the year. Also different kinds of protease producing mycorrhizal morphotypes were calculated. Samples were taken in Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station in Central Finland monthly from March to October. Fifteen soil cores were collected each month. If possible, eight ectomycorrhizas were randomly picked from the pine roots in the humus layer of each soil core. Protease activities were measured from the ectomycorrhizas and from the soil solution obtained from the homogenized humus layer using Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit (PF0100-1KT, SIGMA). Detection limit of the kit was enzyme activity that is equivalent to 5 ng of trypsin control activity. Results were read from the trypsin standard curve so the protease activities of the samples are equivalent to fluorescence of certain amount of trypsin control. Pure cultures were isolated to Hagem’s agar plates and species were identified by doing PCR from the ITS gene region and sequencing. Root tip and morphotype calculations were done by using a microscope. 12 % of all ectomycorrhizal root tips produced proteases. The smallest activities couldn’t be detected because of the detection limit of the kit. Ectomycorrhizal protease production varied between 0–12 ?g/m2 of soil. Statistically non-significant protease production peaks were observed in spring and autumn. The protease activity of the soil fluid varied mainly between 0–200 ?g/m2 of soil. The highest activity was detected in the frozen soil in March, when the variation was large and an average of 800 ?g of protease was measured per m2 of soil. The protease activities in the soil fluids were not related to the protease activities of the ectomycorrhizas. 17 pure cultures were achieved. Some of them couldn’t be identified to species level. Part of the pure cultures produced proteases. Number of mycorrhizal root tips was large in spring, decreasing in early summer and increasing again towards autumn. About half of the mycorrhizal morphotypes produced proteases. The most important conclusions are that ectomycorrhizal fungi produce proteases in the field and a lot of protease activity is also found in the soil fluid. The used method is sensitive and suitable for measuring protease activities directly from mycorrhizal root tips and soil fluid. Seasonal variation in the protease activities may occur both in mycorrhizas and in soil fluid.
  • Seppälä, J.; Tamminen, T.; Kaitala, S. (Elsevier Science B.V., 1999)
    Phytoplankton nutrient limitation was studied in the Gulf of Riga during spring bloom April 1995., early summer stage June 1994., cyanobacterial bloom July 1994. and post cyanobacterial bloom August 1993.. Each year six factorial nutrient enrichment experiments were carried out in various locations in the Gulf; including outer Irbe Strait, northern Gulf and southern Gulf. The responses of natural phytoplankton communities to the nutrient additions 80 mg NH4-N ly1, 20 mg PO4-P ly1 and two levels of combined additions. were followed for 3 days using 6 l experimental units. To evaluate the nutrient limitation patterns, time series of chlorophyll a were analysed using polynomial regression models and ranking method, taking advantage of the relatively constant experimental error. Apparent nutrient depletion rates and ratios were estimated, and compared with the changes in particulate nutrient ratios. During the spring diatom bloom in 1995, ambient inorganic nutrient concentrations were still high, and thus phytoplankton biomass did not respond to additions of nutrients. Chlorophyll a specific nutrient depletion rates were low 0.01-0.12 mg Nmg chl a.y1 hy1 and 0.002-0.016 mg P mg chl a.y1 hy1. and linear over time, thus also revealing that phytoplankton was not limited by these nutrients in that time. In June 1994, there was an areal shift from N limitation in the outer Irbe Strait towards co-limitation in the southern Gulf. Later in July 1994, during the bloom of N-fixing Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the N limitation was obvious for the whole study area. For this period chlorophyll a specific nutrient depletion rates were high 0.360.67 mg N mg chl a.y1 hy1 and 0.089-0.135 mg Pmg chl a.y1 hy1., and added nutrients were almost totally depleted during the first light period. After the collapse of cyanobacterial bloom in August 1993, the experiment carried out in the southern Gulf indicated P limitation of phytoplankton. The central Gulf was obviously co-limited, while the area between northern Gulf and outer Irbe Strait was N-limited. Our results indicate that phytoplankton in the Gulf of Riga, earlier considered strictly as P-limited, is at least until late-summer period N- or co-limited. It seems also obvious that there exists a spatial tendency in the phytoplankton limitation patterns, generally from more P- or co-limited southern Gulf towards more N-limited northern basin.
  • Sokka, L.; Antikainen, R.; Kauppi, P.E. (Inderscience Enterprises, 2004)
    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two nutrients contributing to several environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of surface waters. Leakages of these nutrients occur through human activity. In this study, the flows of N and P in the Finnish municipal waste system in 1952–1999 were determined and analysed using substance flow analysis (SFA). Nutrient flows in both wastewaters and solid waste peaked in 1990, after which they declined until 1994 but thereafter increased again although remaining lower than in 1990. At the end of the 1990s the wastewater and solid waste from municipalities and rural households contained ca. 7.0 kg N person–1 a–1 and 1.1 kg P person–1 a–1. Untreated wastewater contained three times more N and four times more P than solid waste. The amounts of N and P involved in recycling increased over the study period being 10% for N and 50% for P at the end of the 1990s.
  • Marttinen, Eeva (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Nitrogen is usually the growth limiting nutrient in boreal forest soils. Most of the nitrogen is bound to organic fraction, and low bioavailability of nitrogen delimits plant growth in boreal forest soils. Amino acids are easily available nitrogen compounds and thus they are important nitrogen sources for soil microorganisms. Almost all boreal forest trees form mycorrhizal assoociations with fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi produce wide variety of enzymes which break down organic nitrogen compounds. So far there is little knowledge of amino acid mineralization mechanisms of ectomycorrhizal fungi. L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) catalyses the mineralization of amino acids to ammonium. The ectomycorrhizal fungi Hebeloma spp. and Laccaria spp. have been shown to possess LAO enzyme activities. It has been proposed that LAO is one of the nitrogen mineralization mechanisms in ectomycorrhizal fungi, but so far no LAO genes have been described from basidiomycete fungi. In this study the first LAO gene sequences from the basidiomycete fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum was described. The RACE-PCR -method was used to determine the 3´ and 5´ end sequences of the cDNA of the LAO1 gene. Based on the obtained sequences, primers to isolate the genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of the LAO1 gene were designed. The structure of the LAO1 gene, which is composed of five exons and four introns, was determined. Binding site of nitrogen regulating protein was found from upstream region of LAO1-gene. The partial genomic DNA sequence of gene adjacent to LAO1-gene was also measured. In the L. bicolor genome the gene preceding the LAO1 gene has been annotated as a putative pyruvate decarboxylase. In this study the partial cDNA sequence of another LAO-homolog of H. cylindrosporum was also determined. The LAO gene from another basidiomycete fungus, Laccaria bicolor, was also recognised. The gene model of LAO gene of L. bicolor was unannotated in the NCBI database. Based on the phylogenetic tree of LAO-related protein sequences, the ancestral form of LAO gene has been duplicated. This study provides molecular biological information on the catabolic mechanisms of amino acids in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ammonium ions, produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi, might be a significant source of nitrogen for plants and other soil microbes. It is possible that LAO is an important factor of nitrogen cycle in soils of boreal forests.
  • Kauppi, Katja; Rajala, Ari; Huusela, Erja; Kaseva, Janne; Ruuttunen, Pentti; Jalli, Heikki; Alakukku, Laura; Jalli, Marja (2021)
    The effect of weeds, plant diseases and insect pests on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain and nutrient yield was examined. Long-term field trial data was used to assess the impact of different pests on grain yield. In the absence of pesticides, fungal diseases caused the largest annual yield-reduction in spring wheat and spring barley, 500 kg ha(-1) on average. Converting yield loss to nutrient yield loss this represented reductions of 8.1 and 9.2 kg ha(-1) in nitrogen and 1.5 and 1.6 kg ha(-1) in phosphorus, respectively. Likewise, it was estimated that weeds decrease the yield of spring barley and spring wheat for 200 kg ha(-1), which means reductions of 3.7 and 3.2 kg ha(-1) in nitrogen and 0.6 kg ha(-1) in phosphorus, respectively. For insect pests yield-reduction in spring barley and spring wheat varied between 418 and 745 kg ha(-1) respectively. However, because bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) incidence data was limited, and aphids are highly variable annually, nutrient yield losses caused by insect pests were not included. Based on the current study, the management of weeds, plant diseases and insects maintain cereal crop yield and may thus decrease the environmental risks caused by unutilized nutrients.
  • Jokinen, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Dead wood includes everything between small branches and large trunks. Dead wood is created by abiotic and biotic factors like wind, lightning, competition and diseases. The amount of dead wood in Finland varies significantly between managed and natural forests. Approximately 50 % of the biomass of dead wood is carbon and thus dead wood is a notable carbon storage. Carbon may remain in dead wood for decades after the tree death. The amount of nitrogen in dead wood is small and it increases when the decay process proceeds. The aim of this study was to research the amount and quality of dead wood near the SMEAR II -station. The study also examined how the amount of carbon and nitrogen in dead wood varies between tree species and decay classes. Dead wood measurements were done at the ICOS-plots (24 pcs.) near the SMEAR II -station. At every plot there was a measurement area of 60 m2 where every piece of dead wood at the diameter of 2 cm or more was measured. Only dead wood inside the measurement area was measured. The length and top and down diameters of downed dead wood were measured. In case of standing dead wood the length and diameter at breast height were measured. The height and top diameter of stumps were measured as well. The decay class and appearance of dead wood were determined according to national forest inventory´s criteria. Based on the measurements the amount of dead wood at the plots and the whole area was calculated. Dead wood samples were taken from the plots. The samples were dried, milled and their carbon and nitrogen concentrations were analysed. The study revealed that the amount of dead wood in the study area is larger than in managed forests on average. Downed dead wood was the most common dead wood type while standing dead wood was the rarest type. The number of stumps was quite large. The most common species were Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch. The amount of dead wood varied significantly between the plots. The concentration of carbon in dead wood was on average 49 % and there were no differences between tree species and decay classes. The concentration of nitrogen was on average 0,8 % which is relatively high compared to other studies, and the concentration increased with increased decaying. There was a significant variation on nitrogen concentration between decay classes but not between tree species. This study supports other studies´ results that dead wood has an important role on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the forest.
  • de Wit, Heleen A.; Lepistö, Ahti; Marttila, Hannu; Wenng, Hannah; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Eklöf, Karin; Futter, Martyn N.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Kronvang, Brian; Kyllmar, Katarina; Rakovic, Jelena (Wiley, 2020)
    Hydrological Processes 34, 25 (2020)
    Agricultural, forestry-impacted and natural catchments are all vectors of nutrient loading in the Nordic countries. Here, we present concentrations and fluxes of total nitrogen (totN) and phosphorus (totP) from 69 Nordic headwater catchments (Denmark: 12, Finland:18, Norway:17, Sweden:22) between 2000 and 2018. Catchments span the range of Nordic climatic and environmental conditions and include natural sites and sites impacted by agricultural and forest management. Concentrations and fluxes of totN and totP were highest in agricultural catchments, intermediate in forestry-impacted and lowest in natural catchments, and were positively related %agricultural land cover and summer temperature. Summer temperature may be a proxy for terrestrial productivity, while %agricultural land cover might be a proxy for catchment nutrient inputs. A regional trend analysis showed significant declines in N concentrations and export across agricultural (−15 μg totN L−1 year−1) and natural (−0.4 μg NO3-N L−1 year−1) catchments, but individual sites displayed few long-term trends in concentrations (totN: 22%, totP: 25%) or export (totN: 6%, totP: 9%). Forestry-impacted sites had a significant decline in totP (−0.1 μg P L−1 year−1). A small but significant increase in totP fluxes (+0.4 kg P km−2 year−1) from agricultural catchments was found, and countries showed contrasting patterns. Trends in annual concentrations and fluxes of totP and totN could not be explained in a straightforward way by changes in runoff or climate. Explanations for the totN decline include national mitigation measures in agriculture international policy to reduced air pollution and, possibly, large-scale increases in forest growth. Mitigation to reduce phosphorus appears to be more challenging than for nitrogen. If the green shift entails intensification of agricultural and forest production, new challenges for protection of water quality will emerge possible exacerbated by climate change. Further analysis of headwater totN and totP export should include seasonal trends, aquatic nutrient species and a focus on catchment nutrient inputs.
  • Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Possen, Boy J. M. H.; Rousi, Matti (2018)
    Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H-2 = 0.28-0.65). The genotype means of N resorption efficiency varied from 46% to 65% and correlated negatively with the genotype means of litter N concentration, cumulative patch N-input and litter N release. NH4+ yield under patches had a positive genotypic correlation with the cumulative patch N-input. During the first year of litter decomposition, genotypes varied from N immobilization (max 2.71 mg/g dry litter) to N release (max 1.41 mg/g dry litter), creating a genotypic tradeoff between the N conserved by resorption and the N available for root uptake during the growing season. We speculate that this tradeoff is one likely reason for the remarkably wide genotypic range of N resorption efficiencies in our birch population.
  • Mikola, Peitsa (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1958)
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Sallantaus, Tapani (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232 (2021), 371
    Contradictory results for the long-term evolution of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in waters discharging from drained peatland forests need reconciliation. We gathered long-term (10–29 years) water quality data from 29 forested catchments, 18 forestry-drained and 11 undrained peatlands. Trend analysis of the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration data indicated variable trends from clearly decreasing to considerably increasing temporal trends. While the variations in phosphorus concentration trends over time did not correlate with any of our explanatory factors, trends in nitrogen concentrations correlated positively with tree stand volume in the catchments and temperature sum. A positive correlation of increasing nitrogen concentrations with temperature sum raises concerns of the future evolution of nitrogen dynamics under a warming climate. Furthermore, the correlation with tree stand volume is troublesome due to the generally accepted policy to tackle the climate crisis by enhancing tree growth. However, future research is still needed to assess which are the actual processes related to stand volume and temperature sum that contribute to increasing TN concentrations.
  • Poudel, Hari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Meat bone meal contains considerable amount of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10 % Ca). Therefore, it can be used as fertilizer for different crops. Whether meat bone meal (LL) can achieve similar effect in increasing the grain yield and grain quality of oat as meat bone meal mixed with biotite (LB), meat bone meal mixed with blast furnace slag (LB) and meat bone meal mixed with lime (LK) or not were analyzed in this study. Two field experiments: one in Viikki experimental farm, and other in suitia experimental farm of the University of Helsinki were carried out in the summer of 2005. LL, LB, LM, and LK were applied in three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1 in Viikki and Suitia experimental farms. In both experimental farm, oat grain yield, oat grain test weight, and oat 1000-grain weight did not differ between the fertilizer types. In Suitia experimental farm, oat grain yield and 1000-grain weight increased with increasing the N-levels but not oat test weight whereas in Vikki experimental farm, oat grain yield, oat test weight, and oat 1000-grain weight did not increase with increasing the N levels. Since the N/P ratio of meat bone meal is considerably narrower than the normal nutrient uptake ratio of cereals, hence, if it is applied to meet the N demand of crops then P in soil would be surplus. Therefore, due to the P residual effect, it is recommended not to use meat bone meal in the following year or even for the whole crop rotation but recommended to grow green manure crops as for nitrogen resources to organic farms after using meat bone meal. Since K content of meat bone meal is rather low therefore, to balance the nutrient contents in meat bone meal, some of the most viable alternatives for additional K such as biotite, vinasse, potassium sulphate could be added to meat bone meal to achieve meat bone meal-NPK contents more optimal for crops.
  • Chen, Lin (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Meat bone meal (MBM) contains considerable amount of nutrients (~8% N, ~5% P and ~10 Ca). So it can be a potential organic fertilizer for different crops. Traditionally, the production of mineral N and P fertilizers is unsustainable due to the reliance on fossil fuels in case on N, and limited mineral resource stocks in case of P. Using complementary fertilizers which originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. On the other hand, organic farms are usually lacking nutrient sources if animals are not kept on farm at the same time. Whether MBM can achieve similar crop yield and quality as the mineral fertilizer was studied. To quantify and qualify MBM use as an N and P fertilizer, two field experiments were done on spring barley and oat in 2000 and 2001. MBM and two types fur animal manure based fertilizers (FAMB and FAMBCF) were compared to mineral fertilizer PellonY3 in three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha. MBM and FAMBCF gave the same grain yield as PY3. There was no additional yield increase by increasing N rate from 90 to 120 kg/ha. Four aspects of grain quality, namely 1000grain weigh, test weigh, protein content and protein yield were tested. MBM, FAMBCF and PY3 tended to have similar effect while FAMB had lower effect. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, when it is applied to meet crop's N demand, P will be at surplus. So using crop rotation and green manure for organic farm and only applying N fertilizer for conventional farm after using MBM is recommended. Adding K in MBM is also necessary when there is a lack of K in soil since MBM had only ~1% K.
  • Lahtinen, Maria; Salmi, Anna-Kaisa (2019)
    A stable isotope investigation of a large Medieval population buried in Iin Hamina, northern Finland, has been used to reconstruct palaeodiet. Iin Hamina is situated approximately 30 km away from the modern city Oulu, in close proximity to the Bothnian Bay coast and the river Ii. The material used in this study is human skeletal material from an Iin Hamina cemetery dated as 15 to 17th centuries AD and animal bones excavated in Northern Ostrobothnia from pre-industrial contexts. Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved collagen indicate that both freshwater and marine fish was the dominant protein source for the people buried at the Iin Hamina cemetery.
  • Rankinen, Katri; Turtola, Eila; Lemola, Riitta; Futter, Martyn; Cano Bernal, José Enrique (Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021)
    Water 2021, 13(4), 450
    Increased nutrient loading causes deterioration of receiving surface waters in areas of intensive agriculture. While nitrate and particulate phosphorus load can be efficiently controlled by reducing tillage frequency and increasing vegetation cover, many field studies have shown simultaneously increased loading of bioavailable phosphorus. In the latest phase of the Rural Programme of EU agri-environmental measures, the highest potential to reduce the nutrient loading to receiving waters were the maximum limits for fertilization of arable crops and retaining plant cover on fields with, e.g., no-till methods and uncultivated nature management fields. Due to the latter two measures, the area of vegetation cover has increased since 1995, suggesting clear effects on nutrient loading in the catchment scale as well. We modeled the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen loads to waters and additionally tested the performance of the dynamic, process-based INCA-P (Integrated Nutrients in Catchments—Phosphorus) model to simulate P dynamics in an agricultural catchment. We concluded that INCA-P was able to simulate both fast (immediate) and slow (non-immediate) processes that influence P loading from catchments. Based on our model simulations, it was also evident that no-till methods had increased bioavailable P load to receiving waters, even though total P and total N loading were reduced.
  • Stefanski, T.; Ahvenjarvi, S.; Vanhatalo, A.; Huhtanen, P. (2020)
    The present study was conducted to investigate ruminal N metabolism in dairy cows using N-15 labeled N sources [ammonia N (AN), soluble non-ammonia N (SNAN) from rapeseed meal, and insoluble nonammonia N (NAN) from rapeseed meal]. To describe the observed pattern of N-15 transactions in the rumen, dynamic compartmental models were developed. The experiment consisted of 3 experimental treatments allocated to 4 cows according to a changeover design. The results from 2 treatments (AN and rapeseed meal SNAN) are reported in this paper. Ammonia N and rapeseed SNAN, both labeled with N-15, were administered intraruminally. Rumen evacuations in combination with grab samples from the rumen contents were used to determine ruminal N pool sizes. The N-15-atom% excess was determined in N fractions of rumen digesta samples that were distributed between 0 and 82 h after dosing. For the AN treatment, a 2-compartment model was developed to describe the observed pattern in N-15-atom% excess pool sizes of AN and bacterial NJ and to estimate kinetic parameters of ruminal N-15 transactions. For the SNAN treatment, an additional compartment of SNAN was included in the model. Model simulations were used to estimate N fluxes in the rumen. Both models described the observed pattern of N-15-atom% excess pool sizes accurately, based on small residuals between observed and predicted values. Immediate increases in N-15-atom% excess of bacterial N with AN treatment suggested that microbes absorbed AN from extracellular pools rapidly to maintain sufficient intracellular concentrations. Proportionally 0.69 of the AN dose was recovered as NAN flow from the rumen. A rapid disappearance of labeled SNAN from rumen fluid and appearance in bacterial N pool indicated that, proportionally, 0.56 of SNAN was immediately either adsorbed to bacterial cell surfaces or taken up to intracellular pools. Immediate uptake of labeled SNAN was greater than that of AN (proportionally 0.56 vs. 0.16 of the dose). Degradation rate of SNAN to AN was relatively slow (0.46/h), but only 0.08 of the SNAN dose was estimated to escape ruminal degradation because of rapid uptake by the bacteria. Overall, losses of the N-15 dose as AN absorption and outflow from the rumen were higher (P <0.01) for the AN than the SNAN treatment (0.31 and 0.11 of the dose, respectively). Consequently, recovery as NAN flow was greater for SNAN than for AN treatment (0.89 vs. 0.69 of the dose). Estimated rate of bacterial N recycling to AN was on average 0.006/h, which suggests that N losses due to intraruminal recycling are small in dairy cows fed at high intake levels. We conclude that SNAN isolated from rapeseed meal had better ruminal N utilization efficiency than AN, as indicated by smaller rurninal N losses as AN (0.11 vs. 0.31 of the dose) and greater bacterial N flow (0.81 vs. 0.69 of the dose). Furthermore, the current findings indicate that rapid adsorption of soluble proteins to bacterial cells plays an important role in ruminal N metabolism.