Browsing by Subject "noki"

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  • Mori, Tatsuhiro; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Kondo, Yutaka; Ogawa-Tsukagawa, Yoshimi; Miura, Kazuhiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Oshima, Naga; Koike, Makoto; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Ohata, Sho; Sinha, P.R.; Sugiura, Konosuke; Aoki, Teruo; Schneebeli, Martin; Steffen, Konrad; Sato, Atsushi; Tsushima, Akane; Makarov, Vladimir; Omiya, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Takano, Shinya; Nagatsuka, Naoko (Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres
    Black carbon (BC) deposited on snow lowers its albedo, potentially contributing to warming in the Arctic. Atmospheric distributions of BC and inorganic aerosols, which contribute directly and indirectly to radiative forcing, are also greatly influenced by depositions. To quantify these effects, accurate measurement of the spatial distributions of BC and ionic species representative of inorganic aerosols (ionic species hereafter) in snowpack in various regions of the Arctic is needed, but few such measurements are available. We measured mass concentrations of size-resolved BC (CMBC) and ionic species in snowpack by using a single-particle soot photometer and ion chromatography, respectively, over Finland, Alaska, Siberia, Greenland, and Spitsbergen during early spring in 2012–2016. Total BC mass deposited per unit area (DEPMBC) during snow accumulation periods was derived from CMBC and snow water equivalent (SWE). Our analyses showed that the spatial distributions of anthropogenic BC emission flux, total precipitable water, and topography strongly influenced latitudinal variations of CMBC, BC size distributions, SWE, and DEPMBC. The average size distributions of BC in Arctic snowpack shifted to smaller sizes with decreasing CMBC due to an increase in the removal efficiency of larger BC particles during transport from major sources. Our measurements of CMBC were lower by a factor of ~13 than previous measurements made with an Integrating Sphere/Integrating Sandwich spectrophotometer due mainly to interference from coexisting non-BC particles such as mineral dust. The SP2 data presented here will be useful for constraining climate models that estimate the effects of BC on the Arctic climate.
  • Böttcher, Kristin; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Matveev, Alexey; Savolahti, Mikko; Savolahti, Mikko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Väätäinen, Sampsa; Lamberg, Heikki; Karvosenoja, Niko (Elsevier, 2021)
    Atmospheric Environment 254 (2021), 118390
    Gas flaring in the oil and gas industry has been identified as an important source of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) affecting the climate, particularly in the Arctic. Our study provides spatially-explicit estimates of BC emissions from flaring in Russia utilising state-of-the-art methodology for determining the emission factors. We utilised satellite time series of the flared gas volume from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) for the period 2012 to 2017, supplemented with information on the gas and oil field type. BC emissions at flaring locations were calculated based on field type-specific emission factors, taking into account different gas compositions in each field type. We estimate that the average annual BC emissions from flaring in Russia were 68.3 Gg/year, with the largest proportion stemming from oil fields (82%). We observed a decrease in the yearly emissions during the period 2012 to 2017 with regional differences in the trend. Our results highlight the importance of detailed information on gas composition and the stage of oil and gas separation of the flared gas to reduce uncertainties in the BC emission estimates.
  • Hildén, Mikael; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Forsius, Martin; Salonen, Raimo O. (Finnish Environment Institute, 2017)
    SYKE Policy Brief
  • Hildén, Mikael; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Forsius, Martin; Salonen, Raimo O. (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    SYKE Policy Brief