Browsing by Subject "non-timber forest products"

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  • Vuola, Matleena (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    While export of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been promoted as a sustainable development strategy, the literature suggests that local and regional markets are also potentially important, not only for producers but also for traders and consumers (Shackleton et al. 2007). For producers, regional markets are thought to offer more accessible and more stable markets, while for traders, these markets offer employment, and for consumers, reasonably priced, diverse, fresh food. Consumption habits are changing in developing countries primarily due to urbanization and commercialized food systems as described by Johns and Maundu (2006). One result is the so-called “nutrition transition,” in which people adopt diets that are higher in energy (more added sugar and fat) but have less nutritional quality (Popkin, 2004). In this context, Johns and Sthapit (2004) argue that it should be a policy priority to promote a diverse diet including a lot of indigenous foods (fruits, vegetables and whole grain products) and a proper amount of animal products. In addition to their potential dietary contributions, forests also offer a diversity of traditional medicinal plants. Many people rely on these plants as a health care option because they are cheap, efficient and have cultural meaning. Medicinal plants are important for both the rural and urban poor in the Brazilian Amazon where the healthcare system is weak and unemployment is increasing (Shanley & Luz, 2003). In this thesis, I characterize the market for NTFPs in a major regional market in the Brazilian Amazon (the city of Belém), drawing on a survey of consumers in 2006 through 2009 (overall sample n=2635 consumers) that focused on seven popular NTFPs native to the area: a?ai palm fruit, medicinal oils (andiroba and copaiba), fruits (piquía, uxí, bacuri), and Brazil nut. In the first section, I describe who is buying NTFPs and identify trends in consumption across the four years of the survey. In the second section, I develop a market segmentation analysis, identifying, characterizing, and describing trends among different types of NTFP consumers. The market segments are identified based on two-step cluster analysis in SPSS. The results confirm that people in Belém use a wide variety of NTFPs, with fruits being the most commonly consumed. The seven focal NTFPs were popular during the study period, with over 95% of respondents reporting use of at least one of these products. However, the people who use NTFPs are not necessarily aware that they are consuming products from the native forest: according to the cluster analysis, half of the consumers fall into market segments that either do not consider themselves as NTFP consumers or are not aware that they consume NTFPs. These segments are comprised of people with less education and lower income, more females, and more long-term urban residents including natives of Belém. The other consumer segments, characterized by higher income and education and more recent migration to Belém, have greater awareness of NTFPs. If these segments grow, that could imply growth in demand for forest products. However, over the four years of the study, there was actually a decreasing trend in consumption of NTFPs, indicated by declining average counts of NTFPs and declining proportions of respondents who consume the focal products. This could be due to increasing prices, also observed in the data, which in turn may be due to the on-going forest degradation that is well-documented in the literature on the Brazilian Amazon.
  • Córdova Castro, Raúl Clemente (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are seen as an important part of sustainable forest management practices principally for their undoubted role in poverty reduction when used as safety nets for the poor in rural livelihoods. The aim of this study was to analyse the perceptions, uses and importance of the different NTFPs for the people of Santa Rosa’s community through the evaluation and categorization of the different NTFPs components, such as species (plants and animals), utilized parts, products and categories of use. Data of 143 NTFPs (89 plants & 54 animal sp) were scientifically collected, registered, identified, categorized and analysed in order to have a wider understanding of their importance, perceptions and resource availability from the point of view of the community people. To measure qualitatively and quantitatively the importance of the different NTFPs a simple and participative method named by the researcher “simple selection & elimination” was applied. The results show a clear tendency of prioritization of plant and animal use as NTFPs. In both NTFP groups, community people prioritized the products with medicinal applications (medicinal plants and some animal parts are the first health care resources) followed by products used as food. Many of the plant species are cultivated in small scale, and the contribution of wild fruits is important. In the case of animal species, wild meat is in the majority of the cases the only protein source which balances the diet of the people. The availability of wild animals, specially rodents, is still good. The NTFPs with some commercial value are the least prioritized mainly due to the isolation of the community and the lack of a well established commercialization chain. Finally, it is important to remark the great role of NTFPs in sustaining the rural livelihoods of Santa Rosa’s people by contributing to medicinal, nutritional, cash income generation, construction, cultural and religious needs
  • Savolainen, Unna (2008)
    This study is based on and contributes to the multidisciplinary debate of the extractive reserves as a method of sustainable development of the Brazilian Amazonia. It is a case study of a rubber tappers’ cooperative that aims to improve the livelihoods of the residents of an extractive reserve through the promotion of wild rubber production in the northern state of Pará. By looking at the difficulties the cooperative was facing the challenges for the sustainability of the extractive reserves and wild rubber production in general are explored. The objective is to know what are the possibilities of wild rubber extraction as a livelihood strategy. The research topic is explored from a historical perspective, taking into account the political and market dynamics that have affected the social logics of the groups in question. The theoretical framework is multidisciplinary, mainly drawing from the tradition of peasant economics. The research is based on the fieldwork conducted in the extractive reserve of Tapajós-Arapiuns and the city of Santarém, consisting of participant observation, interviews, and acquiring documents about the cooperative and the extractive reserve. On the basis of my study I argue that the model of the extractive reserve should take into consideration the varying realities of the different parts of Amazonia. Wild rubber production has income-generating potential as the global market prices are rising, although wild rubber suffers from a disadvantaged market position typical to extractive economies. In order for a cooperative to be able to strengthen the livelihoods of the members, it has to be able to function as a business. Increasing production is a political process, challenged by the fact that the producer price is not considered sufficient by the rubber tappers. Rubber production has a special history in the region and is not attributed with such cultural or social values as manioc, another cash crop, also the staple of the diet.