Browsing by Subject "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease"

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  • Lim, Soo; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Boren, Jan (2019)
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic condition characterized by fat accumulation combined with low-grade inflammation in the liver. A large body of clinical and experimental data shows that increased flux of free fatty acids from increased visceral adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis can lead to NAFLD and insulin resistance. Thus, individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia are at the greatest risk of developing NAFLD. Conversely, NAFLD is a phenotype of cardiometabolic syndrome. Notably, researchers have discovered a close association between NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism and focused on the role of NAFLD in the development of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, recent studies provide substantial evidence for an association between NAFLD and atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic disorders. Even if NAFLD can progress into severe liver disorders including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, the majority of subjects with NAFLD die from cardiovascular disease eventually. In this review, we propose a potential pathological link between NAFLD/NASH and cardiometabolic syndrome. The potential factors that can play a pivotal role in this link, such as inflammation, insulin resistance, alteration in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, genetic predisposition, and gut microbiota are discussed.
  • Lallukka-Brück, Susanna; Isokuortti, Elina; Luukkonen, Panu K.; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Sutinen, Jussi; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2020)
    Background: Abnormal glucose metabolism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ patients), but longitudinal data are lacking. We determined the natural course of NAFLD (liver fat [LFAT]) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in HIV+ patients with and without lipodystrophy (LD+ and LD-, respectively) during a 16-year longitudinal study. Methods: LFAT (by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and clinical characteristics were measured in 41 HIV+ patients at baseline and after 16 years. Liver fibrosis was estimated by measuring liver stiffness using transient elastography (TE) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at 16 years. We also longitudinally studied 28 healthy subjects. Results: During follow-up, the HIV+ patients gained more body fat (8.6% 0.7%) than the control patients (4.5% 0.6%, P <.001). Features of insulin resistance increased significantly in the HIV+ patients but not the control patients. A significant proportion (20%, P <.01 vs 0% at baseline) of the HIV+ but none of the control patients developed T2DM. LFAT was significantly higher at baseline in the LD+ (4.3 [1.9-11.8]) than the LD- (1.0 [0.5-1.5]; P <.001) HIV+ patients. LFAT remained stable during follow-up in all groups. At follow-up, liver stiffness measured with TE was similar among all HIV, LD+, LD-, and control patients and between the LD+ and LD- patients measured with MRE. Advanced fibrosis by MRE was observed in 3 of LD+ and none of LD- patients. Conclusions: During 16 years of follow-up, progression of NAFLD is rare compared to development of T2DM in HIV+ patients.
  • Ruhanen, Hanna; Perttila, Julia; Holtta-Vuori, Maarit; Zhou, You; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Ikonen, Elina; Kakela, Reijo; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2014)