Browsing by Subject "nonhuman"

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  • Malkamäki, S.; Näreaho, A.; Lavikainen, A.; Oksanen, A.; Sukura, A. (2019)
    Berries and vegetables are potential transmission vehicles for eggs of pathogenic parasites, such as Echinococcus spp. We developed a SYBR Green based semi-quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis DNA from berry samples. A set of primers based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene was designed and evaluated. To assess the efficacy of the assay, we spiked bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) with a known amount of E. multilocularis eggs. The detection limit for the assay using the NAD1_88 primer set was 4.37 × 10−5 ng/μl of E. multilocularis DNA. Under artificial contamination of berries, 50 E. multilocularis eggs were reliably detected in 250 g of bilberries. Analytical sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 100% with three eggs. As an application of the assay, 21 bilberry samples from Finnish market places and 21 bilberry samples from Estonia were examined. Previously described sieving and DNA extraction methods were used, and the samples were analyzed for E. multilocularis and E. canadensis DNA using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and a melting curve analysis of the amplified products. Echinococcus DNA was not detected in any of the commercial berry samples. This easy and fast method can be used for an efficient detection of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis in bilberries or other berries, and it is applicable also for fruits and vegetables. © 2019 The Authors
  • Tiškina, Valentina; Lindqvist, E.-L.; Blomqvist, A.-C.; Orav, Merle; Stensvold, C.R.; Jokelainen, P. (2019)
    Angiostrongylus vasorum has spread farther north in Europe. In this study, two autochthonous findings from dogs from Finland are described: In February 2014, the infection was diagnosed in a 10-month-old labrador retriever, and in February 2017, in a three-year-old French bulldog. These diagnoses were based on direct detection of the larvae from faeces of the dogs. The dogs had no history of travel to or import from abroad; the first lived in Southern Finland and the other in Western Finland, about 150 km apart. The dogs had no clinical signs attributable to angiostrongylosis. An online questionnaire was used to survey the extent to which veterinarians in Finland have self-reportedly observed canine A vasorum infections. A total of 38 veterinarians authorised to work in Finland answered the questionnaire in December 2017, and 9 (24%) of them reported having seen one or more dogs with A vasorum infection in Finland. The results suggest that at least five individual dogs with A vasorum infection would have been seen in Finland, three of which had an apparently autochthonous infection. While the geographical distribution of A vasorum in Finland remains largely unknown, findings have started to appear from domestic dogs. It remains possible that some veterinarians could have misdiagnosed, for example, Crenosoma vulpis larvae as those of A vasorum, and the findings without confirmation using antigen test could be due to coprophagy and passage of ingested larvae; however, this does not change the main conclusion that can be made: A vasorum is already multifocally present in Finland. Increasing awareness about A vasorum is important in areas where it is emerging and spreading. © 2019 British Veterinary Association.
  • Surin, Alexander M.; Khiroug, Serguei; Gorbacheva, Lubov R.; Khodorov, Boris I.; Pinelis, Vsevolod G.; Khiroug, Leonard (2013)
    ATP in neurons is commonly believed to be synthesized mostly by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation. Neuronal mitochondria have been studied primarily in culture, i.e., in neurons isolated either from embryos or from neonatal pups. Although it is generally assumed that both embryonic and postnatal cultured neurons derive their ATP from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, this has never been tested experimentally. We expressed the FRET-based ATP sensor AT1.03 in cultured hippocampal neurons isolated either from E17 to E18 rat embryos or from P1 to P2 rat pups and monitored [ATP]c simultaneously with mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm; TMRM) and NAD(P)H autofluorescence. In embryonic neurons, transient glucose deprivation induced a near-complete decrease in [ATP]c, which was partially reversible and was accelerated by inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose. In the absence of glucose, pyruvate did not cause any significant increase in [ATP]c in 84% of embryonic neurons, and inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthase with oligomycin failed to decrease [ATP]c. Moreover, ΔΨm was significantly reduced by oligomycin, indicating that mitochondria acted as consumers rather than producers of ATP in embryonic neurons. In sharp contrast, in postnatal neurons pyruvate added during glucose deprivation significantly increased [ATP]c (by 54 ± 8%), whereas oligomycin induced a sharp decline in [ATP]c and increased ΔΨm. These signs of oxidative phosphorylation were observed in all tested P1-P2 neurons. Measurement of ΔΨm with the potential-sensitive probe JC-1 revealed that neuronal mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced in embryonic cultures compared to the postnatal ones, possibly due to increased proton permeability of inner mitochondrial membrane. We conclude that, in embryonic, but not postnatal neuronal cultures, ATP synthesis is predominantly glycolytic and the oxidative phosphorylation-mediated synthesis of ATP by mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase is insignificant. © 2013 Surin, Khiroug, Gorbacheva, Khodorov, Pinelis and Khiroug.
  • Shetty, S.A.; Ritari, J.; Paulin, L.; Smidt, H.; de Vos, Willem Meindert (2017)
    The complete genome sequence of Eubacterium hallii strain L2-7 is reported here. This intestinal strain produces butyrate from glucose as well as lactate when acetate is provided in the growth medium. In addition, strain L2-7 has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in db/db mice, indicating its application potential. © 2017 Shetty et al.
  • Miller, W.G.; Yee, E.; Revez, J.; Bono, J.L.; Rossi, M. (2017)
    Campylobacter cuniculorum is a thermotolerant species isolated from farmed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although C. cuniculorum is highly prevalent in rabbits farmed for human consumption, the pathogenicity of this organism in humans is still unknown. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. cuniculorum type strain LMG 24588 (=CCUG 56289T). © 2017 Miller et al.
  • Miller, W.G.; Chapman, M.H.; Yee, E.; Revez, J.; Bono, J.L.; Rossi, M. (2017)
    Campylobacter avium is a thermotolerant Campylobacter species that has been isolated from poultry. C. avium was also the second hippuricase-positive species to be identified within Campylobacter. Here, we present the genome sequence of the C. avium type strain LMG 24591 (= CCUG 56292T), isolated in 2006 from a broiler chicken in Italy. © 2017 Miller et al.
  • Savarese, Marco; Välipakka, Salla; Johari, Mridul; Hackman, Peter; Udd, Bjarne (2020)
    Human genes have a variable length. Those having a coding sequence of extraordinary length and a high number of exons were almost impossible to sequence using the traditional Sanger-based gene-by-gene approach. High-throughput sequencing has partly overcome the size-related technical issues, enabling a straightforward, rapid and relatively inexpensive analysis of large genes. Several large genes (e.g. TTN, NEB, RYR1, DMD) are recognized as disease-causing in patients with skeletal muscle diseases. However, because of their sheer size, the clinical interpretation of variants in these genes is probably the most challenging aspect of the high-throughput genetic investigation in the field of skeletal muscle diseases. The main aim of this review is to discuss the technical and interpretative issues related to the diagnostic investigation of large genes and to reflect upon the current state of the art and the future advancements in the field. © 2020 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
  • Balic, A. (Humana press, 2019)
    Methods in Molecular Biology
    Continuous growth of the rodent incisor is enabled by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells (ESCs and MSCs) which unceasingly replenish enamel and dentin, respectively, that wear by persistent animal gnawing. Lineage tracing studies have provided evidence that ESCs contribute to all epithelial lineages of the tooth in vivo. Meanwhile, in the mouse incisor, MSCs continuously contribute to odontoblast lineage and tooth growth. However, in vitro manipulation of ESCs has shown little progress, mainly due to lack of appropriate protocol to successfully isolate, culture, expand, and differentiate ESCs in vitro without using the co-culture system. In this chapter we describe the isolation of the Sox2-GFP+ cell population that is highly enriched in ESCs. Isolated cells can be used for various types of analyses, including in vitro culture, single cell-related analyses, etc. Furthermore, we describe ways to obtain populations enriched in the incisor MSCs using FACS sorting of antibody-labeled cells. Easily accessible FACS sorting enables easy and relatively fast isolation of the cells labeled by the fluorescent protein. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019.
  • Santos-Cortez, R.L.P.; Bhutta, M.F.; Earl, J.P.; Hafrén, Lena; Jennings, M.; Mell, J.C.; Pichichero, M.E.; Ryan, A.F.; Tateossian, Hilda; Ehrlich, G.D. (2020)
    Objective: To review the most recent advances in human and bacterial genomics as applied to pathogenesis and clinical management of otitis media. Data sources: PubMed articles published since the last meeting in June 2015 up to June 2019. Review methods: A panel of experts in human and bacterial genomics of otitis media was formed. Each panel member reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a merged draft was created. The panel met at the 20th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2019, discussed the review and refined the content. A final draft was made, circulated, and approved by the panel members. Conclusion: Trans-disciplinary approaches applying pan-omic technologies to identify human susceptibility to otitis media and to understand microbial population dynamics, patho-adaptation and virulence mechanisms are crucial to the development of novel, personalized therapeutics and prevention strategies for otitis media. Implications for practice: In the future otitis media prevention strategies may be augmented by mucosal immunization, combination vaccines targeting multiple pathogens, and modulation of the middle ear microbiome. Both treatment and vaccination may be tailored to an individual's otitis media phenotype as defined by molecular profiles obtained by using rapidly developing techniques in microbial and host genomics. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
  • De Marinis, Yang; Sunnerhagen, Torgny; Bompada, Pradeep; Bläckberg, Anna; Yang, Runtao; Svensson, Joel; Ekström, Ola; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Hansson, Ola; Groop, Leif; Gonçalves, Isabel; Rasmussen, Magnus (2020)
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a global health- and economic crisis. Detection of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19 by serological methods is important to diagnose a current or resolved infection. In this study, we applied a rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibody test and performed serology assessment of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. In PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients (n = 45), the total antibody detection rate is 92% in hospitalized patients and 79% in non-hospitalized patients. The total IgM and IgG detection is 63% in patients with 2 weeks disease duration; and 91% in hospitalized patients with >2 weeks disease duration. We also compared different blood sample types and suggest a higher sensitivity by serum/plasma over whole blood. Test specificity was determined to be 97% on 69 sera/plasma samples collected between 2016-2018. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG serology test, and mapped antibody detection patterns in association with disease progress and hospitalization. Our results support that the rapid COVID-19 IgM/IgG test may be applied to assess the COVID-19 status both at the individual and at a population level. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Olsen, A.; Berg, R.; Tagel, M.; Must, K.; Deksne, G.; Enemark, H.L.; Alban, L.; Johansen, M.V.; Nielsen, H.V.; Sandberg, M.; Lundén, A.; Stensvold, C.R.; Pires, S.M.; Jokelainen, P. (2019)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonotic parasite. Meat of infected animals is presumed to constitute a major source of human infection and may be a driver of geographical variation in the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in humans, which is substantial in the Nordic-Baltic region in northern Europe. However, data on seroprevalence of T. gondii in different animal species used for human consumption are scattered. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of seroprevalence studies and meta-analysis to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in five animal species that are raised or hunted for human consumption in the Nordic-Baltic region: domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus), wild boars (Sus scrofa), and moose (Alces alces). We searched for studies that were conducted between January 1990 and June 2018, and reported in articles, theses, conference abstracts and proceedings, and manuscripts. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables influencing the seroprevalence. Findings: From a total of 271 studies identified in the systematic review, 32 were included in the meta-analysis. These comprised of 13 studies on domestic pigs, six on sheep, three on cattle, six on wild boars, and four on moose. The estimated pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii was 6% in domestic pigs (CI 95% : 3–10%), 23% in sheep (CI 95% : 12–36%), 7% in cattle (CI 95% : 1–21%), 33% in wild boars (CI 95% : 26–41%), and 16% in moose (CI 95% : 10–23%). High heterogeneity was observed in the seroprevalence data within each species. In all host species except wild boars, the pooled seroprevalence estimates were significantly higher in animals >1 year of age than in younger animals. Not all studies provided information on animal age, sensitivity and specificity of the serological method employed, and the cut-off values used for defining an animal seropositive. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region had tested positive for T. gondii. This indicates widespread exposure to T. gondii among animals raised or hunted for human consumption in the region. Large variations were observed in the seroprevalence estimates between the studies in the region; however, studies were too few to identify spatial patterns at country-level. © 2019
  • Baczynska Kimberley, Dominika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This Master’s thesis examines Jeff VanderMeer’s postapocalyptic New Weird novel Borne (2017) in terms of the creator-creation myth as made famous by Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818), and uses French philosopher Bruno Latour’s essay “Love Your Monsters” (2013) as a starting point. Reading Frankenstein as a parable for modern political ecology, Latour argues that, like Frankenstein, who famously neglected his creation, humanity’s real crime is not the creation of technologies, but rather the failure to love and care for them as we would our own children. Borne depicts a poignant relationship between a human, Rachel, and an orphaned nonhuman, Borne, whom she adopts as her child. The study reads this relationship as a narrative in which a human attempts, as Latour insists we do, to love their monster, thereby making the novel a bold reconfiguration and subversion of the Frankenstein myth. The primary theoretical perspective of the study is critical posthumanism, and Cary Wolfe’s posthumanism in particular. Posthumanism’s objective to destabilise western humanism and decentralise the human aligns perfectly with VanderMeer’s work which is also known for challenging and transgressing boundaries. The study begins by outlining the key elements of the Frankenstein myth and then proceeds to apply the myth to Borne. Through an analysis of how Rachel and Borne both comply with and challenge the conventional creator and creation figures, the study asserts that the main aspects of the myth that Borne challenges are the antagonism between creator and creation, and the monstrous status of the nonhuman creation. While both novels are engaging and poignant studies on mentality, intelligence, emotion, the right to knowledge, and the relationship between humans and nonhumans, the study concludes that Borne extends this study to all life, regardless of form. Moreover, by reconfiguring the myth in this way, the novel poses profound philosophical questions about personhood, agency, nonhuman sentience, and human exceptionalism, thereby encouraging a posthuman widening of perspective and the development of a more inclusive empathy cultivation across species lines—if indeed we are to think of species lines at all.