Browsing by Subject "nurmikasvilaji"

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  • Timonen, Petteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The self-sufficiency of protein concentrates in Finland is low. Forage plants grow well under Finnish climatic conditions and they can produce a lot of crude protein per hectare. It is possible to press juice with a high protein concentration from ensiled forage and this juice is suitable feed for pigs. The aim of this thesis was to find out how forage plant species and silage additives affect juice proportion, dry matter yield and dry matter concentration of the juice when juice is pressed from silage. The effects of different kinds of pressing equipment and silage dry matter concentration to pressing results was also examined. The study was conducted as part of the Innofeed project. The experiments were conducted at Natural Resources Institute Finland in Jokioinen. The silages were harvested during growing season 2016. First and second cut grass and clover forages were ensiled in experimental size silos and third cut grass was ensiled in round bales. Two different prewilting periods were used for first cut grasses. Additive treatments were: water as a control, formic acid based additive, fibre hydrolysing entzyme (2nd and 3rd cut) and lactic acid bacteria inoculant (1st cut). Liquid and solid fractions were separated with four different kind of equipments. Silages and liquid fractions were analysed from all cuts and solid fraction was analysed from 3rd cut. Silages were mostly well preserved and only a few were spoiled. Silage additives prevented spoilage. Dry matter concentration of silages differed a lot between cuts (137 – 306 g/kg). There were higher concentrations of crude protein and ash in clover silages than in grass silages, but dry matter concentration was lower. Juice proportion (0,487 vs. 0,350 kg/kg) was higher from clover silages than from grass silages. Crude protein (179 vs. 163 g/kg ka) and ash (189 vs. 128 g/kg ka) concentrations in juice were higher in clover than in grasses. Also dry matter (0,197 vs. 0,130 kg/kg), crude protein (0,167 vs. 0,160 kg/kg) and ash (0,433 vs. 0,270 kg/kg) yields were higher from clover silages than from grass silages. On the contrary, dry matter concentration (72,0 vs. 87,5 g/kg) in juice was lower in clover than in grass. Silage additives secured the quality of silages but they did not help to get more juice out of silage. Formic acid (0,384 kg/kg) was even worse than control (0,404 kg/kg) regarding juice proportion from silages. Red clover was better plant species than grasses for production of silage juice, but the difference may originate from differences in dry matter concentration between plant species. The pressing equipment greatly affected the results. When the efficiency of the pressing equipment rised differences between the silage additives decreased. When the dry matter concentration of the silage rised the proportion of juice decreased but dry matter concentration of juice rised. There is possibilities in silage juice production for pig protein feed, but more information about the effects of silage additives on crude protein quality of silage juice is still needed.