Browsing by Subject "nursing home"

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  • Salminen, K. S.; Suominen, M. H.; Soini, H.; Kautiainen, H.; Savikko, N.; Saarela, R. K. T.; Muurinen, S.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2019)
    ObjectivesWe evaluated the associations between nutritional status and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) among older long-term care residents in Helsinki.Design and participantsAll 3767 older (65 years) long-term care residents in Helsinki in 2017 were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. After refusals and exclusions of residents without sufficient information, 2160 residents remained.MeasurementsData on characteristics, nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA) and HRQoL (15D) were collected by trained nurses.ResultsOf the participants, 64% were at-risk of malnutrition and 18% suffered from malnutrition. Residents in the malnourished group were more dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) functioning, suffered more often from dementia, had lower cognitive level, used less medications, and were eating more often inadequately. HRQoL was statistically significantly associated with MNA total score in both female and male residents. There was a curvilinear correlation between MNA and 15D score in females: 0.50 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.53) and males: 0.56 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.61). In partial correlation analysis, all dimensions of 15D, except for sleeping and breathing, were positively associated with MNA score. In these analyses no significant differences emerged between males and females when the results were adjusted for age and dementia.ConclusionsNutrition plays an important role in HRQoL among older long-term care residents.
  • Saarela, R. K. T.; Savikko, N. M.; Soini, H.; Muurinen, S.; Suominen, M. H.; Kautiainen, H.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2019)
    Objectives Poor oral health may complicate eating and deteriorate nutritional status. However, little is known about how the burden of oral symptoms (OS) is associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of vulnerable older people in institutional settings. This study explores how the burden of certain OS (chewing problems, swallowing difficulties, dry mouth) is associated with functioning, morbidity, nutritional status and eating habits. It also examines the association between the OS burden and HRQoL. Design A cross-sectional study in 2017. Setting All long-term care wards in Helsinki, Finland. Participants 2401 older residents (74% females, mean age 83.9). Measurements Nurses assessed the residents and completed questionnaires on the participants' demographics, functional status, diagnoses, OS and eating habits. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and HRQoL with a 15-dimensional instrument (15D). Results Of the residents, 25.4% had one OS and 16.6% two or three OS. OS burden was associated linearly with poorer cognitive and physical functioning and a higher number of comorbidities, edentulousness without dentures, and less frequent teeth brushing/denture cleaning. OS burden was also associated with malnutrition, lower BMI and eating less during main meals. In the multivariate analyses adjusted for various confounding factors, a higher number of OS was associated with lower HRQoL. OS burden correlated with nearly all dimensions of HRQoL. Conclusion Oral symptoms are associated with generic HRQoL. Therefore, OS should be regularly assessed and managed in daily care.
  • Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Kautiainen, Hannu; Aalto, Ulla L.; Ohman, Hannareeta; Laurila, Jouko; Pitkala, Kaisu H. (2019)
    Objectives: The use of psychotropic drugs in long-term care (LTC) is very common, despite their known adverse effects. The prevalence of opioid use is growing among older adults. This study aimed to investigate trends in the prevalence of psychotropics, opioids, and sedative load in a LTC setting over a 14-year period. We also explored the interaction of psychotropic and opioid use according to residents' dementia status in nursing home (NH) and assisted living facility (ALF) settings. Design: Four cross-sectional studies. Setting: Institutional settings in Helsinki, Finland. Participants: Older residents in NHs in 2003 (n = 1987), 2011 (n = 1576), and 2017 (n = 791) and in ALFs in 2007 (n = 1377), 2011 (n = 1586), and 2017 (n = 1624). Measures: Comparable assessments were conducted among LTC residents at 4 time points over 14 years. The prevalence of regular psychotropics, opioids, and other sedatives and data on demographics and diagnoses were collected from medical records. Results: Disabilities and severity of dementia increased in both settings over time. The prevalence of all psychotropics decreased significantly in NHs (from 81% in 2003 to 61% in 2017), whereas in ALFs there was no similar linear trend (65% in 2007 and 64% in 2017). There was a significant increase in the prevalence of opioids in both settings (30% in NHs and 22% in AFLs in 2017). Residents with dementia used less psychotropics and opioids than those without dementia in both settings and at each time point. Conclusions/Implications: NHs show a favorable trend in psychotropic drug use, but the rates of psychotropic use remain high in both NHs and ALFs. In addition, the rates of opioid use have almost tripled, leading to a high sedative load among LTC residents. Clinicians should carefully consider the risk-to-benefit ratio when prescribing in LTC. (C) 2018 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.
  • Porru, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Medication-related errors have been identified as the single most important risk factor for patient safety across the world. According to previous research, medication errors are common in nursing homes. However, the existing data on medication errors in Finnish nursing homes is scarce, although the challenges and defects in nursing home care services, including drug treatments, are well known. Furthermore, nursing home residents are typically characterized by old age, multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Therefore, they are particularly vulnerable to potential adverse events caused by medication errors. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates and causes of medication errors reported in nursing homes and evaluate their impact on medication safety. Additionally, the proportions of potentially inappropriate medication (PIMs) and high-risk medication involved in the medication errors were determined. The data of the study consisted of 251 medication errors reports that were submitted to the safety incident report system (HaiPro) in nursing homes located in Central Uusimaa healthcare and social welfare joint municipal authority (Keusote) in 2019. Quantitative analysis of the data provided an overview of the medication errors that had occurred in nursing homes and the medicines most commonly involved in them. Content analysis and simplified root cause analysis enabled to study more in-depth the contributing factors of medication errors and potential risks associated with the medication process in nursing homes, as well as the possibilities of preventing similar errors in the future. James Reason's human error theory and in particular its system perspective was applied as a theoretical framework in this study. Medication errors were reported regularly in nursing homes during the follow-up period of the study. The most frequent medication error type was administration error. The majority of these errors were medication omissions, followed by the wrong time of administration and administration to the wrong patient. The most common drug classes causing medication errors were antithrombotics, opioids, antidementia drugs, diuretics, antipsychotics, antidiabetics, and antidepressants. Nearly a quarter of the reported medicines were high-risk medications, most commonly opioids, antithrombotics, or antidiabetic drugs. PIMs accounted for approximately 13% of all medications in the data. Errors were most often caused by unsafe medication practices, communication problems, and deficiencies in the work environment such as excessive workload or time pressure. A significant part of the medication errors were related to transdermal medication patches. The study also showed that the quality of medication error reporting in nursing homes is in part insufficient and should be improved so that the reports can be better used for learning purposes. The results of the study provide valuable additional information on medication errors in Finnish nursing homes and their contributing factors. The information can be used to improve medication safety practices in nursing homes. Safe and uninterrupted medication use process is a goal that should be pursued not only in health care but also in social welfare services such as nursing homes.
  • Niittymäki, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    There are many challenges in use of dosage forms in medication of elderly people. Especially swallowing of solid dosage forms can be difficult. Dosage forms are often altered to enhance drug intake. Medication adherence is a major contributor to the success of therapy. Adherence is a multidimensional phenomenon which is also affected by properties of medicinal product. Theoretical framework of this thesis is World Health Organization's multidimensional adherence model. Only few studies exist on how properties of dosage forms affect to the success of medical treatment of elderly. The aim of this study was to find out what kind of difficulties related to dosage forms occur in medical treatment of elderly people living in nursing homes. Future goal is to develop dosage forms better suited to elderly and hence improve their medication adherence. This study consisted of interviews and e-survey. This study was carried out in six nursing homes where 322 elderly residents fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study. Nurses (n = 48) were interviewed to explore their views on difficulties related to dosage forms. Other difficulties in use of dosage forms were also surveyed as well as frequency of tablet crushing. Difficulties in use of dosage forms on the medical treatment of the elderly were gathered in the e-survey. Also, the need to crush tablets and open capsules was surveyed as well as need to split tablets to obtain the dose needed. Difficulties in use of dosage forms are common in medical treatment of elderly people. Majority of the interviewed nurses has encountered these difficulties at least few times a week. The most common problematic dosage form was the tablet. About half of the nurses named the big size of tablets and capsules as the most important difficulty in the use of current oral or peroral dosage forms. Over half of the nurses have crushed or given crushed drug daily. The most common reason for dosage form altering was the big size of the medicinal product. Majority of the nurses has often encountered also other than dosage form related difficulties of which the most common challenges are related to suspiciousness. In e-survey, nurses submitted entries regarding 111 elder people. Most cases were related to splitting of a tablet to obtain the desired drug dose. Tablet crushing was reported for little less than one-fifth of the elderly people. Both the splitting and crushing entries were distributed over multiple different medicinal products. Some other difficulties related to dosage forms were reported for less than one-tenth of the elderly people. Based on this study more appropriate dosage forms should be developed for the medical treatment of elderly people. Oral solutions, orodispersible tablets as well as transdermal patches all have advantages. Pharmaceutical research and development can facilitate medical treatment of elderly people and hence improve their medication adherence by introducing more appropriate dosage forms.
  • Aalto, Ulla L.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Kautiainen, H.; Öhman, H.; Roitto, H.-M.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2021)
    Objectives Anticholinergic burden defined by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS) has been associated with cognitive and functional decline. Associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to examine the association between anticholinergic burden and HRQoL among older people living in long-term care. Further, we investigated whether there is an interaction between ARS score and HRQoL in certain underlying conditions. Design and participants Cross-sectional study in 2017. Participants were older people residing in long-term care facilities (N=2474) in Helsinki. Measurements Data on anticholinergic burden was assessed by ARS score, nutritional status by Mini Nutritional Assessment, and HRQoL by the 15D instrument. Results Of the participants, 54% regularly used ARS-defined drugs, and 22% had ARS scores >= 2. Higher ARS scores were associated with better cognition, functioning, nutritional status and higher HRQoL. When viewing participants separately according to a diagnosis of dementia, nutritional status or level of dependency, HRQoL was lower among those having dementia, worse nutritional status, or being dependent on another person's help (adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities). Significant differences within the groups according to ARS score were no longer observed. However, interactions between ARS score and dementia and dependency emerged. Conclusion In primary analysis there was an association between ARS score and HRQoL. However, this relationship disappeared after stratification by dementia, nutritional status and dependency. The reasons behind the interaction concerning dementia or dependency remain unclear and warrant further studies.
  • Lamppu, Pauli J; Pitkälä, Kaisu (2021)
    Objectives: The aim was to review evidence from all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using palliative care education or staff training as an intervention to improve nursing home residents' quality of life (QOL) or quality of dying (QOD) or to reduce burdensome hospitalizations. Design: A systematic review with a narrative summary. Setting and Participants: Residents in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar, references of known articles, previous reviews, and recent volumes of key journals. RCTs were included in the review. Methodologic quality was assessed. Results: The search yielded 932 articles after removing the duplicates. Of them, 16 cluster RCTs fulfilled inclusion criteria for analysis. There was a great variety in the interventions with respect to learning methods, intensity, complexity, and length of staff training. Most interventions featured other elements besides staff training. In the 6 high-quality trials, only 1 showed a reduction in hospitalizations, whereas among 6 moderate-quality trials 2 suggested a reduction in hospitalizations. None of the high-quality trials showed effects on residents' QOL or QOD. Staff reported an improved QOD in 1 moderatequality trial. Conclusions and Implications: Irrespective of the means of staff training, there were surprisingly few effects of education on residents' QOL, QOD, or burdensome hospitalizations. Further studies are needed to explore the reasons behind these findings. (C) 2020 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.