Browsing by Subject "nutrients (plants)"

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  • Hashemi, Fatemeh; Pohle, Ina; Pullens, Johannes W. M; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Kyllmar, Katarina; Marttila, Hannu; Lepistö, Ahti; Klove, Bjorn; Futter, Martyn; Kronvang, Brian (MDPI, 2020)
    Water 12 6 (2020)
    Optimal nutrient pollution monitoring and management in catchments requires an in-depth understanding of spatial and temporal factors controlling nutrient dynamics. Such an understanding can potentially be obtained by analysing stream concentration–discharge (C-Q) relationships for hysteresis behaviours and export regimes. Here, a classification scheme including nine different C-Q types was applied to a total of 87 Nordic streams draining mini-catchments (0.1–65 km2). The classification applied is based on a combination of stream export behaviour (dilution, constant, enrichment) and hysteresis rotational pattern (clock-wise, no rotation, anti-clockwise). The scheme has been applied to an 8-year data series (2010–2017) from small streams in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland on daily discharge and discrete nutrient concentrations, including nitrate (NO3−), total organic N (TON), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and particulate phosphorus (PP). The dominant nutrient export regimes were enrichment for NO3− and constant for TON, DRP, and PP. Nutrient hysteresis patterns were primarily clockwise or no hysteresis. Similarities in types of C-Q relationships were investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) considering effects of catchment size, land use, climate, and dominant soil type. The PCA analysis revealed that land use and air temperature were the dominant factors controlling nutrient C-Q types. Therefore, the nutrient export behaviour in streams draining Nordic mini-catchments seems to be dominantly controlled by their land use characteristics and, to a lesser extent, their climate.
  • Lehtoranta, Jouni; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Lännergren, Christer; Saarijärvi, Erkki; Lindström, Magnus; Pitkänen, Heikki (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Engineering
    We studied the effects of pumping surface water down through the pycnocline (i.e. artificial ventilation) on hydrodynamics, oxygen concentrations, hydrogen sulfide, and nutrients in two anoxic coastal basins (Lännerstasundet and Sandöfjärden). In addition, in a corresponding laboratory aquarium experiment, pumping of less saline surface water entrained dense bottom water with a mixing ratio of 6.8 and illustrated dispersal below the pycnocline. Oxygen saturation increased from 0 to 20%; oxygen penetrated poorly into the sediment of the aquarium. In the salinity-stratified Lännerstasundet basin, ventilation also oxidized the anoxic bottom water. The ventilation removed hydrogen sulfide and decreased the sub-pycnocline water pools of phosphorus and ammonium, which was not observed in a neighboring reference basin. The summertime ventilation warmed and made the sub-pycnocline water less saline. In the autumn, the inflows of cooled water from the surroundings with equal or higher salinity promoted its sinking in the relatively warm ventilated basin. The inflows maintained oxygen concentrations between 4 and 8 mg L−1 for months after the ventilation ended. In contrast to Lännerstasundet, ventilation did not prevent formation of anoxia and release of nutrients in the temperature-stratified Sandöfjärden. Here, the ventilation capacity was less than that in Lännerstasundet and ventilation expanded the sub-thermocline bottom area, warmed the bottom sediments, and probably displaced oxic water from the experimental area. The ventilation did not promote density conditions for inflows and no marked inflow-induced oxidation was observed after midsummer. We conclude that a significant amount of anoxic water was entrained into the ascending plume which reduced the oxygen content below the pycnocline ventilation in aquarium experiment. Additionally, summertime ventilation may improve the status of the salinity-stratified basins for further oxidation. The improvement occurs due to autumn cooling and favorable basin topography, which promote inflows of oxic water with larger density and thereby, renewal of bottom water in the pumped basin. The semi-enclosed and temperature-stratified basin cannot form such favorable density conditions for inflows and thus ventilation is less efficient.
  • Poikane, Sandra; Kelly, Martyn G.; Várbíró, Gábor; Borics, Gábor; Erős, Tibor; Hellsten, Seppo; Kolada, Agnieszka; Lukács, Balázs András; Lyche Solheim, Anne; Pahissa López, José; Willby, Nigel J.; Wolfram, Georg; Phillips, Geoff (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Nutrient targets based on pressure-response models are essential for defining ambitions and managing eutrophication. However, the scale of biogeographical variation in these pressure-response relationships is poorly understood, which may hinder eutrophication management in regions where lake ecology is less intensively studied. In this study, we derive ecology-based nutrient targets for five major ecoregions of Europe: Northern, Central-Baltic, Alpine, Mediterranean and Eastern Continental. As a first step, we developed regressions between nutrient concentrations and ecological quality ratios (EQR) based on phytoplankton and macrophyte communities. Significant relationships were established for 13 major lake types; in most cases, these relationships were stronger for phosphorus than for nitrogen, and stronger for phytoplankton than for macrophytes. Using these regressions, we estimated the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations at which lakes of different types are likely to achieve good ecological status. However, in the very shallow lakes of the Eastern Continental region, relations between nutrient and biological communities were weak or non-significant. This can be attributed to high nutrient concentrations (in the asymptotic zone of phosphorus-phytoplankton models) suggesting other factors (light, grazing) limit primary production. However, we also show that fish stocking is a major pressure on Eastern Continental lakes, negatively affecting ecological status: lakes with low fish stocking show low chlorophyll-a concentrations and good ecological status despite high nutrient levels, while the lakes with high fish stocking show high chlorophyll-a and low ecological status. This study highlights the need to better understand lakes in biogeographic regions that have been, for historical reasons, less studied. This, in turn, helps reveal factors that challenge the dominant paradigms of lake assessment and management.
  • Wang, Huan; García Molinos, Jorge; Heino, Jani; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Peiyu; Xu, Jun (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 153 (2021), 106494
    Eutrophication is a major problem currently impacting many surface water ecosystems. Impacts of increased nutrient concentrations on biodiversity may differ between different scales, different organism groups, and different trophic states. Surveys at different spatial scales have suggested that biodiversity of different taxa may exhibit significant cross-taxon congruence. In our study, we examined the diversity of zooplankton and zoobenthos across 261 lakes in the Lake Taihu watershed, an area that is undergoing a severe eutrophication process. We tested the cross-taxon congruence in species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity between zooplankton and zoobenthos along a nutrient gradient across the lakes. Our findings were consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, considering nutrient input as the disturbance. Also, we found significant cross-taxon congruence between zooplankton and zoobenthos diversities. Our results confirmed that excess nutrient levels resulted in diversity loss and community simplification. Zoobenthos were more sensitive to nutrient increases compared with zooplankton, which decreased cross-taxon congruence because these organism groups did not respond similarly to the anthropogenic disturbance.
  • Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Lehosmaa, Kaisa; Aroviita, Jukka; Turunen, Jarno; Rajakallio, Maria; Marttila, Hannu; Tolkkinen, Mikko; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Indicators 121 (2021), 106986
    Degradation of freshwater ecosystems requires efficient tools for assessing the ecological status of freshwater biota and identifying potential cause(s) for their biological degradation. While diatoms and macroinvertebrates are widely used in stream bioassessment, the potential utility of microbial communities has not been fully harnessed. Using data from 113 Finnish streams, we assessed the performance of aquatic leaf-associated fungal decomposers, relative to benthic macroinvertebrates and diatoms, in modelling-based bioassessment. We built multi-taxon niche -type predictive models for fungal assemblages by using genus-based and sequence-based identification levels. We then compared the models’ precision and accuracy in the prediction of reference conditions (number of native taxa) to corresponding models for macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Genus-based fungal model nearly equalled the accuracy and precision of our best model (macroinvertebrates), whereas the sequence-based model was less accurate and tended to overestimate the number of taxa. However, when the models were applied to streams disturbed by anthropogenic stressors (nutrient enrichment, sedimentation and acidification), alone or in combination, the sequence-based fungal assemblages were more sensitive than other taxonomic groups, especially when multiple stressors were present. Microbial leaf decomposition rates were elevated in sediment-stressed streams whereas decomposition attributable to leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates was accelerated by nutrients and decelerated by sedimentation. Comparison of leaf decomposition results to model output suggested that leaf decomposition rates do not detect effectively the presence of multiple simultaneous disturbances. The rapid development of global microbial database may soon enable species-level identification of leaf-associated fungi, facilitating a more precise and accurate modelling of reference conditions in streams using fungal communities. This development, combined with the sensitivity of aquatic fungi in detecting the presence of multiple human disturbances, makes leaf-associated fungal assemblages an indispensable addition in a stream ecologist’s toolbox.
  • Truchy, Amélie; Sarremejane, Romain; Muotka, Timo; Mykrä, Heikki; Angeler, David G.; Lehosmaa, Kaisa; Huusko, Ari; Johnson, Richard K.; Sponseller, Ryan A.; McKie, Brendan G. (Wiley, 2020)
    Global Change Biology 26 6 (2020)
    Ongoing climate change is increasing the occurrence and intensity of drought episodes worldwide, including in boreal regions not previously regarded as drought prone, and where the impacts of drought remain poorly understood. Ecological connectivity is one factor that might influence community structure and ecosystem functioning post-drought, by facilitating the recovery of sensitive species via dispersal at both local (e.g. a nearby habitat patch) and regional (from other systems within the same region) scales. In an outdoor mesocosm experiment, we investigated how impacts of drought on boreal stream ecosystems are altered by the spatial arrangement of local habitat patches within stream channels, and variation in ecological connectivity with a regional species pool. We measured basal ecosystem processes underlying carbon and nutrient cycling: (a) algal biomass accrual; (b) microbial respiration; and (c) decomposition of organic matter, and sampled communities of aquatic fungi and benthic invertebrates. An 8-day drought event had strong impacts on both community structure and ecosystem functioning, including algal accrual, leaf decomposition and microbial respiration, with many of these impacts persisting even after water levels had been restored for 3.5 weeks. Enhanced connectivity with the regional species pool and increased aggregation of habitat patches also affected multiple response variables, especially those associated with microbes, and in some cases reduced the effects of drought to a small extent. This indicates that spatial processes might play a role in the resilience of communities and ecosystem functioning, given enough time. These effects were however insufficient to facilitate significant recovery in algal growth before seasonal dieback began in autumn. The limited resilience of ecosystem functioning in our experiment suggests that even short-term droughts can have extended consequences for stream ecosystems in the world's vast boreal region, and especially on the ecosystem processes and services mediated by algal biofilms.
  • Andersson, Anna; Brady, Mark V.; Pohjola, Johanna (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2022)
    This paper systematically reviews the literature on how to reduce nutrient emissions to the Baltic Sea cost-effectively and considerations for allocating these costs fairly among countries. The literature shows conclusively that the reduction targets of the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) could be achieved at considerably lower cost, if countries would cooperate to implement the least costly abatement plan. Focusing on phosphorus abatement could be prudent as the often recommended measures—wastewater treatment and wetlands—abate nitrogen too. An implication of our review is that the potential for restoring the Baltic Sea to good health is undermined by an abatement strategy that is more costly than necessary and likely to be perceived as unfair by several countries. Neither the BSAP nor the cost-effective solution meet the surveyed criteria for fairness, implying a need for side-payments.
  • Knuuttila, Seppo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 38/2015
    The report describes the results of pilot project aimed at improving the quality of data on transboundary nutrient loads, in particular, in the rivers Daugava and Nemunas. Two sampling rounds (in May and November 2013) were organised and executed by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) in close cooperation with representatives from the participating countries, one laboratory from Latvia, two from Lithuania, three from Belarus and one from Finland. The results from the total nitrogen analyses of the different laboratories were in general comparable, while the total phosphorus results varied between the laboratories. One explanation might be that the analytical methods applied were not fully comparable; for example, the filtration of the samples before analysis of total phosphorus may have affected the results. Highest concentrations were observed at the Belarusian border. Both absolutely and relatively high concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in the rivers give an indication of a clear anthropogenic influence. A key finding of the project was that a reasonably good consensus and comparability has been reached on the phosphorus and nitrogen loads originating in the upstream catchment area and flowing into Latvia and Lithuania – even if the results were produced through separate data sets and by partly different methods. This is a good starting point for the efforts to further estimate the retention in the lower reaches in the Latvian and Lithuanian territories of the two rivers and the percentage of the transboundary nutrient loads which finally enter into the Baltic Sea. An equally important result of the project is the ability to now present – in connection with the data on the total riverine loads measured at the mouth of the rivers Daugava and Nemunas – complete data sets on nutrient loads at the border between Latvia or Lithuania and Belarus. This data also sup-ports the assessment of transboundary nutrient loads originating in the territory of Belarus (and Russia) in the catchment area of these two rivers.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Sallantaus, Tapani (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232 (2021), 371
    Contradictory results for the long-term evolution of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in waters discharging from drained peatland forests need reconciliation. We gathered long-term (10–29 years) water quality data from 29 forested catchments, 18 forestry-drained and 11 undrained peatlands. Trend analysis of the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration data indicated variable trends from clearly decreasing to considerably increasing temporal trends. While the variations in phosphorus concentration trends over time did not correlate with any of our explanatory factors, trends in nitrogen concentrations correlated positively with tree stand volume in the catchments and temperature sum. A positive correlation of increasing nitrogen concentrations with temperature sum raises concerns of the future evolution of nitrogen dynamics under a warming climate. Furthermore, the correlation with tree stand volume is troublesome due to the generally accepted policy to tackle the climate crisis by enhancing tree growth. However, future research is still needed to assess which are the actual processes related to stand volume and temperature sum that contribute to increasing TN concentrations.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sallantaus, Tapani (Suoseura, 2020)
    Suo 72(1) (2020)
  • Ropponen, Janne; Arola, Hanna; Kiuru, Petri; Huttula, Timo (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 36/2013
    The City of Lappeenranta is considering options for its wastewater discharge sites in the future. One possibility is to release the treated wastewater into River Vuoksi, flowing through the City of Imatra, approximately 35 kilometres northeast from Lappeenranta. This report contains results from nutrient and fecal bacteria water quality modelling along River Vuoksi. The model endeavours to answer how the possible changes in wastewater discharge amounts and locations affect the river water quality near the freshwater intake at Svetogorsk, Russia. The river model was built using a river modelling system SOBEK from Deltares Systems. Calibration was done using data from the year 2010 and actual scenario simulations used 2011 data. According to the simulations there are no major water quality deviations compared to the current situation in normal operating scenarios, but there is some risk of water quality deterioration in certain catastrophic scenarios. The location of the discharge site might have some effect on the water quality due to the time required for the effluent to fully mix with the river water. Additionally a 3D research model of the southern Lake Saimaa was built to study passive tracer transport from two different sites near the City of Lappeenranta. The open source modelling software COHERENS was used to simulate scenarios during the open water period in years 2010 and 2011.
  • Laitinen, Jarmo; Ojanen, Paavo; Aapala, Kaisu; Hotanen, Juha-Pekka; Kokko, Aira; Punttila, Pekka; Rehell, Sakari; Tiainen, Juha; Vasander, Harri (Suoseura, 2020)
    Suo 71 (2) (2020)
    Suoluonto on hyvin vaihtelevaa, koska suolla vaihtelevat märkyys ja ravinteisuus ja niiden seurauksena myös puustoisuus. Suoluonnon tärkein säätelijä on märkyys – lähellä maanpintaa oleva vedenpinta. Vaikka kaikki suot ovat märkiä, suon märkyys myös vaihtelee paljon. Kuivimmillaan suo muistuttaa kivennäismaan metsää, ja usein suo vaihettuukin saumattomasti ympäröiväksi metsäksi. Märimmillään suo muistuttaa jo matalaa vesistöä ja vaihettuu rantakosteikoihin ja vesistöihin. Suo voi olla ravinteisuudeltaan rehevä tai karu. Rehevässä ääripäässä suolle valuu ravinteikasta vettä ympäristöstä tai kasvillisuus saa ohuen turvekerroksen läpi ravinteita ravinteikkaasta kivennäismaasta. Karussa ääripäässä turvetta on kertynyt niin paksu kerros, että kasvien juuret eivät yllä ottamaan ravinteita alla olevasta kivennäismaasta. Myöskään ympäristöstä ei valu ravinteikasta vettä suon reunaa korkeammaksi kohonneelle suon keskiosalle, ja kasvillisuus on sadeveden mukana tulevien ravinteiden varassa. Lisäksi turpeen kertyminen ja suon läpi virtaavan veden väheneminen happamoittavat turvetta, mikä vaikeuttaa kasvien ravinteiden ottoa. Ravinteisuuden ja märkyyden lisäksi aluskasvillisuuden kasvuoloihin vaikuttaa valon määrä, jota säätelee puuston varjostus. Runsaspuustoisimmat suot ovat varjoisia ja reheviä kuusi- ja lehtipuuvaltaisia korpia tai karumpia mäntyvaltaisia rämeitä. Mitä märempi ja karumpi suo on, sitä vähäisempää puusto on. Märimmät suot ovat ravinteisuudesta riippumatta puuttomia lettoja ja nevoja. Karuimmilla puustoisilla soilla kasvaa niin kitukasvuinen ja harva männikkö, ettei se käytännössä varjosta aluskasvillisuutta. Ojitus vähentää suoluonnon vaihtelua. Kun suo ojitetaan metsätaloutta varten, märkyyden vaihtelu vähenee ja jäljelle jää ravinteisuuden vaihtelu. Tällöin suo alkaa kehittyä aluskasvillisuudeltaan kivennäismaan metsää muistuttavaksi turvekankaaksi. Myös metsänhoito ja hakkuut muuttavat kasvillisuutta. Jos suo raivataan maataloutta varten, kuivatuksen lisäksi suo muokataan viljelyyn sopivaksi kalkituksin ja lannoituksin ja suokasvillisuus raivataan viljelykasvien tieltä. Turpeennostoa varten suo raivataan kasvittomaksi turvekentäksi.
  • Brady, Mark V.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Andersson, Anna; Kilis, Emils; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Hvarregaard Thorsøe, Martin (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2022)
    In this perspective article, we provide recommendations for strengthening the policy framework for protecting the Baltic Sea from agricultural nutrient pollution. The most striking weakness is the lax implementation of prescribed abatement measures, particularly concerning manure management, in most countries. Institutions of the EU should also be leveraged for achieving Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) goals. In contrast to the Helsinki Convention, the European Union has economic, political and legal mandates to further implementation and compliance. Equally important is the need for strengthening of local institutions, particularly Water Boards and independent agricultural advisory services in the eastern Baltic Sea Region countries. There is also an urgent need for implementation of voluntary land-use measures where EU funding available to farmers is more broadly and effectively used by providing it on the basis of estimated abatement performance, which can be realized through modelling. The enormous potential for funding performance-based schemes, manure management infrastructure and advisory services through the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy are currently underutilized.
  • Lehtoranta, S.; Malila, R.; Särkilahti, M.; Viskari, E.-L. (Elsevier., 2022)
    Environmental research
    In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methods were applied for the new city district of Hiedanranta, where source-separating sanitation systems are being considered. Two source-separating systems were compared to the conventional sanitation system with a centralized wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). With a separating system, three to 10 times more nitrogen could be recovered compared to the conventional system. If the nutrient potential of the reject water of the sludge digestion were to be utilized, the recovery rate would be even higher. For phosphorus, the recovered amount would be at the same level for all the alternatives. However, the plant availability of phosphorus is higher in separating systems. Based on the environmental impacts of separating systems with improved nutrient recovery, the climate and eutrophication impacts could be reduced, but the acidification impact may be higher. However, the actual climate benefits depend on how the avoided emissions will be realized, which is highly dependent on the policy and decision-making processes in the society. The life cycle costs of the alternative source-separating systems are higher at current prices. Source-separating sanitation produces new recycled nutrient products of human origin that contain fewer contaminants and could therefore be more easily accepted for end use when certain boundary conditions are met.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Seppälä, Jukka; Schwenk, Dagmar; Rischer, Heiko; Tamminen, Timo (Springer, 2021)
    Journal of Applied Phycology 33: 3
    There is a growing demand for marine omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) that is produced in high amounts by some microalgae. Here we determined the FA profiles of two cold water adapted diatoms, Chaetoceros wighamii and Thalassiosira baltica. The cultures were acclimated to different temperatures (3, 7, 11, 15, and 19 °C) and irradiance (20, 40, 130, and 450 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and the FA profiles were determined in exponential and stationary growth phases, the latter induced by different nutrient limitation (N, P, and Si). The maximum growth rate was obtained by both species at 11 °C, ≥ 130 μmol photons m−2 s−1 and was 0.8 day−1 and 0.6 day−1 for C. wighamii and T. baltica, respectively. Both species contained relatively high amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Thalassiosira baltica accumulated maximally ~ 30 mg EPA g−1 ash-free dry weight (AFDW) under Si-limitation. The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was lower, reaching up to 4 mg DHA g−1 AFDW in T. baltica. The concentration of EPA correlated positively with the chlorophyll a:carbon ratio, suggesting that it is bound to membranes in the photosynthetic apparatus and the EPA content in T. baltica was high enough to consider it as a potent candidate for cultivation under cold (< 15 °C) conditions. Covering a wide range of environmental conditions, the strongest differentiation in FA profiles was observed between the species with the growth phase/nutrient limitation pattern as the second most important driver of the FA composition.