Browsing by Subject "obesity"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 99
  • Chew, Tracy; Haase, Bianca; Bathgate, Roslyn; Willet, Cali E.; Kaukonen, Maria K.; Mascord, Lisa J.; Lohi, Hannes T.; Wade, Claire M. (2017)
    Progressive retinal atrophy is a common cause of blindness in the dog and affects >100 breeds. It is characterized by gradual vision loss that occurs due to the degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Similar to the human counterpart retinitis pigmentosa, the canine disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and the underlying cause remains unknown for many cases. We use a positional candidate gene approach to identify putative variants in the Hungarian Puli breed using genotyping data of 14 family-based samples (CanineHD BeadChip array, Illumina) and whole-genome sequencing data of two proband and two parental samples (Illumina HiSeq 2000). A single nonsense SNP in exon 2 of BBS4 (c.58A > T, p.Lys20*) was identified following filtering of high quality variants. This allele is highly associated (P-CHISQ = 3.425e(-14), n = 103) and segregates perfectly with progressive retinal atrophy in the Hungarian Puli. In humans, BBS4 is known to cause Bardet-Biedl syndrome which includes a retinitis pigmentosa phenotype. From the observed coding change we expect that no functional BBS4 can be produced in the affected dogs. We identified canine phenotypes comparable with Bbs4-null mice including obesity and spermatozoa flagella defects. Knockout mice fail to form spermatozoa flagella. In the affected Hungarian Puli spermatozoa flagella are present, however a large proportion of sperm are morphologically abnormal and
  • Thorgeirsson, T. E.; Gudbjartsson, D. F.; Sulem, P.; Besenbacher, S.; Styrkarsdottir, U.; Thorleifsson, G.; Walters, G. B.; Furberg, H.; Sullivan, P. F.; Marchini, J.; McCarthy, M. I.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.; TAG Consortium; Oxford-GSK Consortium; ENGAGE Consortium; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Shen, Huei-Yi (2013)
  • Maukonen, Mirkka; Mannisto, Satu; Tolonen, Hanna (2018)
    Aims: Up-to-date information on the accuracy between different anthropometric data collection methods is vital for the reliability of anthropometric data. A previous review on this matter was conducted a decade ago. Our aim was to conduct a literature review on the accuracy of self-reported height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) against measured values for assessing obesity in adults. To obtain an overview of the present situation, we included studies published after the previous review. Differences according to sex, BMI groups, and continents were also assessed. Methods: Studies published between January 2006 and April 2017 were identified from a literature search on PubMed. Results: Our search retrieved 62 publications on adult populations that showed a tendency for self-reported height to be overestimated and weight to be underestimated when compared with measured values. The findings were similar for both sexes. BMI derived from self-reported height and weight was underestimated; there was a clear tendency for underestimation of overweight (from 1.8%-points to 9.8%-points) and obesity (from 0.7%-points to 13.4%-points) prevalence by self-report. The bias was greater in overweight and obese participants than those of normal weight. Studies conducted in North America showed a greater bias, whereas the bias in Asian studies seemed to be lower than those from other continents. Conclusions: With globally rising obesity rates, accurate estimation of obesity is essential for effective public health policies to support obesity prevention. As self-report bias tends to be higher among overweight and obese individuals, measured anthropometrics provide a more reliable tool for assessing the prevalence of obesity.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following an application from Marks and Spencer PLC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a CHO:P ratio = 3.0 on overweight and obese adults in the context of energy restriction. Four out of seven studies lasting <12 weeks reported an effect of a CHO: P ratio
  • Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Pekkinen, Minna; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Katayama, Shintaro; Kere, Juha; Mäkitie, Outi; Viljakainen, Heli (2019)
    Objective: The effect of vitamin D at the transcriptome level is poorly understood, and furthermore, it is unclear if it differs between obese and normal-weight subjects. The objective of the study was to explore the transcriptome effects of vitamin D supplementation. Design and methods: We analysed peripheral blood gene expression using GlobinLock oligonucleotides followed by RNA sequencing in individuals participating in a 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention study. The study involved 18 obese and 18 normal-weight subjects (of which 20 males) with mean (+/- s.D.) age 20.4 (+/- 2.5) years and BMIs 36 (+/- 10) and 23 (+/- 4) kg/m(2), respectively. The supplemental daily vitamin D dose was 50 mu g (2000 IU). Data were available at baseline, 6- and 12-week time points and comparisons were performed between the vitamin D and placebo groups separately in obese and normal-weight subjects. Results: Significant transcriptomic changes were observed at 6 weeks, and only in the obese subjects: 1724 genes were significantly upregulated and 186 genes were downregulated in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Further analyses showed several enriched gene categories connected to mitochondrial function and metabolism, and the most significantly enriched pathway was related to oxidative phosphorylation (adjusted P value 3.08 x 10(-14)). Taken together, our data suggest an effect of vitamin D supplementation on mitochondrial function in obese subjects. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation affects gene expression in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. The altered genes are enriched in pathways related to mitochondrial function. The present study increases the understanding of the effects of vitamin D at the transcriptome level.
  • Ollila, Meri-Maija; Piltonen, Terhi T.; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Morin-Papunen, Laure (2020)
    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in their reproductive years age present with metabolic dysfunction and thus increased likelihood of long-term health consequences and diminished well-being in later life. Due to their larger ovarian reserve, however, they may experience menopause at later age and protection from metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that late reproductive aged, normal-weight women with PCOS do not seem to have the expected high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), as previously thought. Health related quality of life (HRQoL), nevertheless, is decreased in women with PCOS up until late fertile age, warranting attention and actions from the health care personnel. Given conflicting reports regarding the risk of cardiovascular diseases, future research with well characterized and adequately sized PCOS populations are needed as well as studies aiming to improve their HRQoL.
  • Kibble, Milla; Khan, Suleiman A.; Ammad-ud-din, Muhammad; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Palviainen, Teemu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Ollikainen, Miina (2020)
    We combined clinical, cytokine, genomic, methylation and dietary data from 43 young adult monozygotic twin pairs (aged 22-36 years, 53% female), where 25 of the twin pairs were substantially weight discordant (delta body mass index > 3 kg m(-2)). These measurements were originally taken as part of the TwinFat study, a substudy of The Finnish Twin Cohort study. These five large multivariate datasets (comprising 42, 71, 1587, 1605 and 63 variables, respectively) were jointly analysed using an integrative machine learning method called group factor analysis (GFA) to offer new hypotheses into the multi-molecular-level interactions associated with the development of obesity. New potential links between cytokines and weight gain are identified, as well as associations between dietary, inflammatory and epigenetic factors. This encouraging case study aims to enthuse the research community to boldly attempt new machine learning approaches which have the potential to yield novel and unintuitive hypotheses. The source code of the GFA method is publically available as the R package GFA.
  • Meemken, Marie-Theres; Horstmann, Annette (2019)
    Altered eating behavior due to modern, food-enriched environments has a share in the recent obesity upsurge, though the exact mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to assess whether higher weight or weight gain are related to stronger effects of external cues on motivation-driven behavior. 51 people with and without obesity completed an appetitive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) paradigm. During training, button presses as well as presentation of fractal images resulted in three palatable and one neutral taste outcome. In the subsequent test phase, outcome-specific and general behavioral bias of the positively associated fractal images on deliberate button press were tested under extinction. While all participants showed signs of specific transfer, general transfer was not elicited. Contrary to our expectations, there was no main effect of weight group on PIT magnitude. Participants with obesity exhibited higher scores in the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Disinhibition scale, replicating a very robust effect from previous literature. Individual Restraint scores were able to predict body-mass index (BMI) change after a three-year period. Our data indicate that PIT is an important player in how our environment influences the initiation of food intake, but its effects alone cannot explain differences in—or future development of—individual weight.
  • Heilmann, Romy M.; Guard, Melissa M.; Toresson, Linda; Unterer, Stefan; Grellet, Aurélien; Grützner, Niels; Suchodolski, J. S.; Steiner, Joerg (2021)
    Background: Fecal S100/calgranulin (S100A12 and calprotectin) concentrations are useful markers of gastrointestinal inflammation in dogs. In people, fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations are affected by age, obesity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Knowledge about the effects of such factors on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in dogs is currently scarce. Objective: To evaluate the association between several factors and fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in a large cohort of healthy adult dogs. Methods: Single-spot fecal samples from 181 healthy pet dogs and data derived from a standard questionnaire served to evaluate the effect of age, sex, reproductive status, body weight and body condition, breed type and size, vaccination, endoparasite treatment, diet, environment and travel history on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations and the fecal calgranulin ratio (fCalR). Results: Univariate analysis showed a significant association of reproductive status (in female dogs) and breed size with fecal S100A12, fecal calprotectin and fCalR. Breed type was linked to fecal S100A12 concentrations and fCalR; recent vaccination (particularly with a vaccine against canine parvovirus) to fCalR. In multivariate models, breed size was linked to fecal S100A12 and calprotectin concentrations, and recent vaccination affected S100A12 concentrations. Conclusions: Breed size, recent vaccination and reproductive status in female dogs can affect fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations, and these biomarkers should be interpreted in light of those confounding factors. The utility of reference intervals for fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations might be improved through stratification by sex/reproductive status and breed size. Fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations are not confounded by age, body condition, deworming, diet, environment or travel history.
  • Haapala, Eero A.; Gao, Ying; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Vanhala, Anssi; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lakka, Timo A.; Finni, Taija (2021)
    We investigated the associations of motor competence (MC) with peak oxygen uptake (V.O-2peak), peak power output (W-max), and body fat percentage (BF%) and whether measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modify the associations between MC and BF%. Altogether, 35 children (aged 7-11 years) in the CHIPASE Study and 297 in PANIC Study (aged 9-11 years) participated in the study. MC was assessed using KTK and modified Eurofit tests. V.O-2peak and W-max were measured by maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean mass (LM) or body mass (BM). BF% was assessed either by bioimpedance (CHIPASE) or DXA (PANIC). MC was not associated with V.O-2peak/LM (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.073-0.188, P > .083). V.O-2peak/BM and W-max/LM and BM were positively associated with MC (beta = 0.158-0.610, P < .05). MC ( = -0.186 to -0.665, P < .01), but not V.O-2peak/LM ( = -0.169-0.035, P > .381), was inversely associated with BF%. Furthermore, the associations of MC with BF% were not modified by CRF. These results suggest that the positive associations between MC and CRF scaled by BM are a function of adiposity and not peak aerobic power and that CRF is not modifying factor in the associations of MC and BF%.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliovaara, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Liira, Helena Johanna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira (2011)
  • Fan, Yuxin; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Tian, Huiguang; Shen, Yun; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang; Liu, Ming (2020)
    Introduction To evaluate the single association of postpartum beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance (IR), as well as different combinations of postpartum beta-cell dysfunction, IR, obesity, and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with postpartum type 2 diabetes risk. Research design and methods The study included 1263 women with prior GDM and 705 women without GDM. Homeostatic model assessment was used to estimate homeostatic model assessment of beta-cell secretory function (HOMA-%beta) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results Multivariable-adjusted ORs of diabetes across quartiles of HOMA-%beta and HOMA-IR were 1.00, 1.46, 2.15, and 6.25 (p(trend) Conclusions beta-cell dysfunction or IR was significantly associated with postpartum diabetes. IR and beta-cell dysfunction, together with obesity and a history of GDM, had the highest ORs of postpartum diabetes risk.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause and cause-specific disability retirement. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from their inception to May 2019. A total of 27 (25 prospective cohort and 2 nested case-control) studies consisting of 2 199 632 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We used a random effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. There were a large number of participants and the majority of studies were rated at low or moderate risk of bias. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and disability retirement. Underweight (hazard ratio (HR)/risk ratio (RR)=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41), overweight (HR/RR=1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19) and obese individuals (HR/RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.71) were more commonly granted all-cause disability retirement than normal-weight individuals. Moreover, overweight increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.39) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.41), and obesity increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.94), mental disorders (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.24). The association between excess body mass and all-cause disability retirement did not differ between men and women and was independent of selection bias, performance bias, confounding and adjustment for publication bias. Obesity markedly increases the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders. Since the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, disease burden associated with excess body mass and disability retirement consequently are projected to increase. Reviewregistrationnumber: CRD42018103110.
  • Salmela, Jatta; Lallukka, Tea; Mauramo, Elina; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2020)
    Economic disadvantage is related to a higher risk of adulthood obesity, but few studies have considered whether changes in economic circumstances depend on a person’s body mass index (BMI) trajectory. We identified latent BMI trajectories among midlife and ageing Finns and captured individual-level changes in economic circumstances within the BMI trajectories utilizing sequence analysis. We used the Helsinki Health Study cohort data of initially 40–60-year-old Finnish municipal employees, with four survey questionnaire phases (2000–2017). Each survey included identical questions on height and weight, and on economic circumstances incorporating household income and current economic difficulties. Based on computed BMI, we identified participants’ (n = 7105; 82% women) BMI trajectories over the follow-up using group-based trajectory modeling. Four BMI trajectories were identified: stable healthy weight (34% of the participants), stable overweight (42%), overweight to class I obesity (20%), and stable class II obesity (5%). Lower household income level and having economic difficulties became more common and persistent when moving from lower- to higher-level BMI trajectories. Differences in household income widened over the follow-up between the trajectory groups, whereas economic difficulties decreased equally in all trajectory groups over time. Our study provides novel information on the dynamic interplay between long-term BMI changes and economic circumstances.
  • Biesiekierski, Jessica R.; Jalanka, Jonna; Staudacher, Heidi M. (2019)
    Dietary intervention is a challenge in clinical practice because of inter-individual variability in clinical response. Gut microbiota is mechanistically relevant for a number of disease states and consequently has been incorporated as a key variable in personalised nutrition models within the research context. This paper aims to review the evidence related to the predictive capacity of baseline microbiota for clinical response to dietary intervention in two specific health conditions, namely, obesity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical trials and larger predictive modelling studies were identified and critically evaluated. The findings reveal inconsistent evidence to support baseline microbiota as an accurate predictor of weight loss or glycaemic response in obesity, or as a predictor of symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome, in dietary intervention trials. Despite advancement in quantification methodologies, research in this area remains challenging and larger scale studies are needed until personalised nutrition is realistically achievable and can be translated to clinical practice.
  • Zhang, Kaiyi; Tao, Cong; Xu, Jianping; Ruan, Jinxue; Xia, Jihan; Zhu, Wenjuan; Xin, Leilei; Ye, Huaqiong; Xie, Ning; Xia, Boce; Li, Chenxiao; Wu, Tianwen; Wang, Yanfang; Schroyen, Martine; Xiao, Xinhua; Fan, Jiangao; Yang, Shulin (2021)
    Anti-inflammatory therapies have the potential to become an effective treatment for obesity-related diseases. However, the huge gap of immune system between human and rodent leads to limitations of drug discovery. This work aims at constructing a transgenic pig model with higher risk of metabolic diseases and outlining the immune responses at the early stage of metaflammation by transcriptomic strategy. We used CRISPR/Cas9 techniques to targeted knock-in three humanized disease risk genes, GIPR(dn) , hIAPP and PNPLA3(I148M) . Transgenic effect increased the risk of metabolic disorders. Triple-transgenic pigs with short-term diet intervention showed early symptoms of type 2 diabetes, including glucose intolerance, pancreatic lipid infiltration, islet hypertrophy, hepatic lobular inflammation and adipose tissue inflammation. Molecular pathways related to CD8(+) T cell function were significantly activated in the liver and visceral adipose samples from triple-transgenic pigs, including antigen processing and presentation, T-cell receptor signaling, co-stimulation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine and chemokine secretion. The similar pro-inflammatory signaling in liver and visceral adipose tissue indicated that there might be a potential immune crosstalk between the two tissues. Moreover, genes that functionally related to liver antioxidant activity, mitochondrial function and extracellular matrix showed distinct expression between the two groups, indicating metabolic stress in transgenic pigs' liver samples. We confirmed that triple-transgenic pigs had high coincidence with human metabolic diseases, especially in the scope of inflammatory signaling at early stage metaflammation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable large animal model for the clinical study of metaflammation and metabolic diseases.
  • Vogt, Susanne; Wahl, Simone; Kettunen, Johannes; Breitner, Susanne; Kastenmueller, Gabi; Gieger, Christian; Suhre, Karsten; Waldenberger, Melanie; Kratzsch, Juergen; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Peters, Annette; Grallert, Harald; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Thorand, Barbara (2016)
    Background: Numerous observational studies have observed associations between vitamin D deficiency and cardiometabolic diseases, but these findings might be confounded by obesity. A characterization of the metabolic profile associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, in general and stratified by abdominal obesity, may help to untangle the relationship between vitamin D, obesity and cardiometabolic health. Methods: Serum metabolomics measurements were obtained from a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)- and a mass spectrometry (MS)-based platform. The discovery was conducted in 1726 participants of the population-based KORA-F4 study, in which the associations of the concentrations of 415 metabolites with 25(OH)D levels were assessed in linear models. The results were replicated in 6759 participants (NMR) and 609 (MS) participants, respectively, of the population-based FINRISK 1997 study. Results: Mean [standard deviation (SD)] 25(OH)D levels were 15.2 (7.5) ng/ml in KORA F4 and 13.8 (5.9) ng/ml in FINRISK 1997; 37 metabolites were associated with 25(OH) D in KORA F4 at P <0.05/415. Of these, 30 associations were replicated in FINRISK 1997 at P <0.05/37. Among these were constituents of (very) large very-low-density lipoprotein and small low-density lipoprotein subclasses and related measures like serum triglycerides as well as fatty acids and measures reflecting the degree of fatty acid saturation. The observed associations were independent of waist circumference and generally similar in abdominally obese and non-obese participants. Conclusions: Independently of abdominal obesity, higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a metabolite profile characterized by lower concentrations of atherogenic lipids and a higher degree of fatty acid polyunsaturation. These results indicate that the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiometabolic diseases is unlikely to merely reflect obesity-related pathomechanisms.
  • Hasan, Amal; Kochumon, Shihab; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Ahmad, Rasheed (2020)
    Purpose: The suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) has two main splice variants including a membrane bound (ST2) form, which activates the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) signaling pathway, and a secreted soluble form (sST2), which acts as a decoy receptor for ST2 ligand, interleukin (IL)-33. The IL-33/ST2 axis is protective against obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In humans, adipose tissue IL-33 displays distinct correlation profiles with glycated hemoglobin, ST2, and other immunometabolic mediators, depending on the glycemic health of the individuals. We determined whether adipose tissue ST2 displays distinct correlation profiles with immunometabolic mediators and whether ST2 and/or IL-33 are correlated with intracellular signaling molecules. Patients and Methods: A total of 91 adults with normal glycemia, prediabetes, and T2D were included. After measuring their anthropometric and biochemical parameters, subcutaneous adipose tissues were isolated and mRNA expression of biomarkers was measured. Results: In individuals with normal glycemia, adipose tissue ST2 was directly correlated with chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-2, CCL5, IL-12, fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-4, but inversely correlated with cytochrome C oxidase subunit 7A1. IL-33 and ST2 were directly correlated with tumor necrosis factor receptorassociated factor 6 (TRAF6), NF-kappa B, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5). In individuals with prediabetes, ST2 was inversely correlated with IL-5, whereas IL-33 but not ST2 was directly correlated with MyD88 and NF-kappa B. In individuals with T2D, ST2 was directly correlated with CCL2, IL-1 beta, and IRF5. IL-33 and ST2 were directly correlated with MyD88, TRAF6, and NF-kappa B. Conclusion: Adipose tissue ST2 and IL-33 show different correlation profiles with various immunometabolic biomarkers depending on the metabolic state of the individuals. Therefore, targeting the IL-33/ST2 axis might form the basis for novel therapies to combat metabolic disorders.
  • Karpik, Elena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In general the amount of fat in cow’s milk, what consists mostly of fatty acids, is about 4%, and more than half of the milk fatty acids are saturated. Dairy fat, due to its saturated fat and cholesterol content, is related to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Moreover, energy from fat can also be related to obesity. These relations also concern cow’s milk, however, its fat content remains around 4% and besides fat, there are a lot of positive effects on health, as milk is a good source of some vitamins and minerals. Milk consumption in Finland per capita has been the largest in the world for many years. There is also a market for milk substitutes, i.e. non-dairy drinks, produced mostly from oat, soy, and almond. This master’s thesis focuses on cow’s milk fat content and its relations to human health, especially the cardiovascular health and obesity. According to the hypothesis, consumer attitude towards cow’s milk is strongly affected by assumptions associated with the impact of dairy fat on health as well as the impact of dairy industry on climate change. The aim of this research was to study how detrimental or beneficial the dairy fat in milk is for human health on the basis of cow’s milk chemical composition, health related reports by authorities, research findings, historical perspectives, and consumer preferences. According to the literature, the chemical composition and nutrients properties of whole milk show that more nutrients of health benefit are present in comparison than of detrimental compounds. Most of present evidence suggest that milk and dairy products have neutral or beneficial effect on human cardiovascular health alhtough it is generally recognized in dietary recommendations that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The experimental part investigated Finnish consumers attitudes and preferences regarding milk consumption and overall preferences and issues affecting attitude toward food choice. It appears that the study hypothesis partly refuted, as the majority of participants were not much affected by assumptions associated with the impact of dairy fat on health. However, the impact of dairy industry on climate change was a very important issue related to attitude and preference regarding milk consumption. The majority of the study participants made their choice of drinking milk on the basis of taste, and the impact on health was considered mainly as beneficial rather than detrimental.
  • Petäjä, Elina M.; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2016)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. "Obese/Metabolic NAFLD" is closely associated with obesity and insulin resistance and therefore predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. NAFLD can also be caused by common genetic variants, the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) or the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2). Since NAFL, irrespective of its cause, can progress to NASH and liver fibrosis, its definition is of interest. We reviewed the literature to identify data on definition of normal liver fat using liver histology and different imaging tools, and analyzed whether NAFLD caused by the gene variants is associated with insulin resistance. Histologically, normal liver fat content in liver biopsies is most commonly defined as macroscopic steatosis in less than 5% of hepatocytes. In the population-based Dallas Heart Study, the upper 95th percentile of liver fat measured by proton magnetic spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in healthy subjects was 5.6%, which corresponds to approximately 15% histological liver fat. When measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques such as the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), 5% macroscopic steatosis corresponds to a PDFF of 6% to 6.4%. In contrast to "Obese/metabolic NAFLD", NAFLD caused by genetic variants is not associated with insulin resistance. This implies that NAFLD is heterogeneous and that "Obese/Metabolic NAFLD" but not NAFLD due to the PNPLA3 or TM6SF2 genetic variants predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.