Browsing by Subject "observation"

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  • Roiha, Petra (2019)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 157
    Managing the sea environment is a complicated interdisciplinary task. To understand changes in the sea, knowledge of the present state is essential. Many variables are monitored constantly, and long historical data sets exist. However, the spatial and temporal data coverage varies widely over the Baltic Sea. The preparation for the emerging circumstances demands the ability to forecast the future marine conditions. Thus, improved modelling and forecasting systems are needed. In this thesis, methods were developed to 1) understand the present state of the sea and 2) predict future conditions. The study areas were the Bothnian Sea and the Eastern Gotland Basin. Argo floats are a common tool in the oceans, but so far they have not been used in shallow marginal seas, such as the Baltic Sea. The autonomous measurement device brings possibilities to fill the gaps in the existing observation network (e.g. research vessels, moorings) as well as to enable new scientific experiments. To better understand the present state of the Northern Baltic Sea, methods were developed using the Argo floats. The salinity, temperature and GPS data collected with these floats from the area is analysed in this thesis for the first time and its applicability for studying the different physical phenomena, such as currents at the float diving depth and wind induced mixing, are evaluated. The usability of Argo data was compared with the ship-borne CTD data. Due to the higher frequency of the Argo data, the seasonal variations can be studied in detail with this method. However, the spatial coverage of the Argo data is not as good as the CTD data collected with a research vessel due to the fact that the floats only operate near the deep areas of the Baltic Sea. To be able to predict the future conditions of the Baltic Sea, monthly ensemble forecasting system was developed. A 3D biogeochemical model was forced with monthly ensembles of the atmospheric forcing and the results were applied to forecast upwelling events and harmful algal blooms. The monthly ensemble forecasts for upwelling events were evaluated. The result was that the upwelling events could be forecasted on a weekly scale. This enables, for example, better planning of the scientific study of upwelling events or the improvement of local-scale weather forecasts. The same probability-based ensemble prediction system was used to produce harmful algal bloom forecasts. The forecasts showed the effects of the weather scenarios on marine biogeochemistry. In the future, it will be possible to interconnect the observations and forecasts better than before. The more dense observations can be used to improve the computational methods, for example, by assimilation. The probability-based forecasts can help, for example, to mitigate the environmental risks.
  • Ranta, Marjo (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aim. Several study claim that the childhood eating habits have effect until adultery. Increasing the knowledge of nutrition information in Finland has not provided wanted results. To address this problem new methods to implement food education is under development. Recent study evaluating food education method called "taste lessons" (org. "clases du gout") has showed results that show positive effects on children eating habits. The method focuses mainly on inquiry learning and sensory education. During fall 2015 Ruukku ry. implemented a tour called "Makumestarikiertue" that offered knowledge about nutrition in positive fashion by using taste lessons. The basis of this study was to obtain information from Makumestarikiertue. One central aspect of the tour was a track called "aistirata". (transl. sensory track) This track included various food oriented tasks. The study focused on reviewing children and their parent's experiences, interaction created during various tasks, reception of the event and practical functionality of the track itself. Methods. Target audience of the study was event participants (n=1574, in which k=367 were observed). Study material was obtained by observing group k. The material consisted of observational material and notes created during the events. Overall material was acquired from six different events that took place between August and November. Method used for content analysis was qualitative. Grounded method approach was also used during the analysis. Results and conclusions. The results of the study show that the event described in the thesis is capable of inspire participants to express and interpret their experience of senses and create positive experiences with food. The participants were interested of laying thought to their experience towards food and express and describe their reactions. However, this requires that the participants are guided and encouraged enough during the event as the track can otherwise be passed without much reasoning. In addition, the participants require information and tools to connect "aistirata" tasks to their personal behavior towards nutrition. Connection helps the participants to utilize newly acquired information at their own surroundings after the event has taken place.
  • Hoegaerts, Josephine (2018)
    This paper argues for an embodied approach to the scientist’s persona, using ‘experience’ as its focal point. Rather than noting that embodied experiences influenced scientists’ practices and identities amidst (or despite) ideals of objectivity, I want to draw attention to the ways in which personal, embodied experiences were celebrated in nineteenth century science, and presented as primordial for the practice of competent research. I am focusing on those scientists involved in the study of the voice in order to do so. Because the physical workings of the voice are largely hidden inside the body, fields such as laryngology and phoniatry developed a number of touch-based, experiential scientific practices before and alongside tools of visual observation. These non-visual practices were very closely connected to researchers’ sensations of their own bodies, and connected to their identity (as a middle-class amateur singer, a hoarse professor, a stammerer, e.g). As scientific disciplines studying the voice developed over the century, personal ‘experience’ (understood both as particular practices and notions of personal background and identity) was increasingly brought forward as a unique source of understanding and expertise. This resulted in a highly diverse field of experts on the voice, in which otherwise non-elite researchers could participate and even rise to fame. They did so because, and not despite, their physical and social impediments. Studying the experiential practices and memories brought forward by this network of experts allows me to look at the construction of their scientific personae from an intersectional perspective. A focus on the nineteenth century notion of ‘experience’ and its inclusion in scientific discourse allows us an insight into the various constituent elements of a ‘persona’ built within the context of a particular field, and drawing liberally on aspects of identification that do not always fit the classic categories of gender, class, age, health, etc.
  • Melleri, Malin (2004)
    Tillsammans (på finska Käsikynkkä) är en gruppmetod som stöder interaktionen mellan föräldrar och barn under skolåldern. Tillsammans har utvecklats av två talterapeuter i Tavastehus som ett samarbete mellan dagvården och socialservicen. Metoden grundar sig på teorier av bl.a. Berg Brodén (1997), vars bok Mor och Barn i Ingenmansland har fungerat som en viktig källa. Syftet var att utvärdera den svenska Tillsammans-verksamheten i Helsingfors samt att besvara följande frågor: Stöder Tillsammans-gruppen föräldra-barn-paren att uppnå sina mål? Vem har nytta av gruppen? På vilket sätt förändras interaktionen mellan föräldern och barnet? Två Tillsammans-grupper genomfördes och utvärderades hösten 2003. Den ena gruppen bestod av mammor och barn i åldern 2–4 år, den andra av barn i förskolan med sina mammor. Allt som allt åtta mammor observerades tillsammans med sina barn två gånger, första gången före gruppstart och andra gången efter avslutad grupp. Dessutom intervjuades föräldrarna några månader efter att gruppverksamheten avslutats. Utvärderingen visar att alla åtta par hade mycket individuella beteenderepertoarer. Aktivitet som kontaktform var allmän bland de yngre barnen med föräldrar. Allmänt kan konstateras, att ögonkontakten ökade efter grupp, medan beröringen minskade. Också dialogresponsen ökade efter grupp. De yngre barnen var aktiva initiativtagare, medan föräldrarna till de äldre barnen var aktivare än barnen. Observationsresultaten ger vid handen att de föräldrar som hade som mål att få stöd att möta 6-års trots hade barn med en bredare beteenderepertoar än de övriga sexåringarna. De mammor som ville tillbringa tid tillsammans med bara ett av sina barn regelbundet och ostört en timme i veckan, upplevde alla att de uppnått sitt mål. Observationsstudien visar att dessa mammor använde mindre beröring än de övriga mammorna i kontakten till sina barn. En stor del av föräldrarna ansåg att Tillsammans bidragit till en förändring eller att Tillsammans lärt dem något om dem själva. Föräldrarna lärde sig att uppmärksamma sitt eget beteende gentemot barnet och de upptäckte att de är utvecklingsdugliga och tillräckligt bra som föräldrar.
  • Malmström, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Children's involvement is a key quality factor in Early Years Education. As a process variable it concentrates on children's actions and experiences. The involved children are operating in their zone of proximal development. The aim of this study was to find out how the children involved themselves in the Finnish day care centres. The problems of the study were: (1) how the children are involved in different situations between the hours 8.00 and 12.00, (2) how do the skills of children whose involvement level is high differ from the skills of children whose involvement level is low and (3) how do the learning environments of the children whose involvement level is high differ from the learning environments of the children whose involvement level is low? The research method was observation and children's involvement levels were assessed using LIS-YC Scale. In addition, the kindergarten teachers evaluated the children's skills and the team workers did the evaluations of the educational settings. The data used in this study was a part of the 'Orientaation lähteillä' research. The 802 children, who took part in the study, were from 48 different groups of eight different municipalities in Central Uusimaa. There were 18358 observations of children's involvement and the quantitative data was analyzed using correlation, cross tabulation and t-test. Children's involvement was an average at a moderate level. The involvement levels were the highest during playing time and adult guided tasks and lowest during eating and basic care situations. The level of involvement was higher if the children were adaptable, proactive, self-motivated and good players. The involvement lever was lower if the children needed some special care. The children's involvement is supported if the educators had at least once a week a meeting and if children's confidence and identity construction was frequently considered in educational discussions. Furthermore, the appreciation of the ethical issues and positive atmosphere appeared to confirm the involvement. The children's involvement is decreased if the educators had been perpetually short of time or resources or there has been lack of joy and humour in the group.
  • Virtanen, Marjo (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Targets. The purpose of this Master's Thesis is to clarify how the tasks of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) educators are shared during the first half of the day when their work is focused on a group of children. In this study, it was examined how the activities of the ECEC educators at daycare are related to the activities of the children in, among other things, basic care situations, eating and different play situations. The theoretic basis of the study consists of documents guiding the ECEC education, the child's growth and development, the ECEC pedagogy and the communication skills of the educators. The adults, who are close to the child, must create a safe environment which supports the child's growth and development, and where the child can grow and develop, play and learn with confidence. In the theory section, the child's involvement and small group activities at the daycare were examined, too. Methods. The research material is based on the observation material of daycare collected from the municipalities, which were involved in the Orientation Project (Reunamo, 2014). The material was collected in spring 2010 in Uusimaa and Hämeenlinna. The total of 892 children, aged 1–7 year, from 65 different day care, ECEC or family care groups participated in this study. The observations were systematically made in spring 2010, and they were made by the kindergarten teachers who participated in the study. This study focuses on the ECEC educator, who is closest to the child during the observation period. By observing the activity of the educators we learn about their behaviour in different situations. This study represents a quantitative study of the activities of ECEC educators of daycare. Results and conclusions. This study showed that the educators are the closest to the children of age 1-3 years. As the children grow, the time of interaction with one or more children reduces. The study found that the educators very seldom play an interactive role in the children's games. 36.5% of the educators leave the children to play by themselves or other children inside. The children received most of the attention of the adults in different teaching situations. Indoors, the play activities directed by the educators represented 2% of the daily activities. The main part of the play was directed and selected by the children by themselves, the part of the guided outdoors play was 3%.