Browsing by Subject "occupation"

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  • Tolonen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä Tiedekunta: Helsingin yliopisto lääketieteellinen tiedekunta Koulutusohjelma: Lääketieteen koulutusohjelma Opintosuunta: Lääketieteen lisensiaatti Tekijä: Suvi Tolonen Työn nimi: Ammattialtistus suunielun syövän riskitekijänä -kirjallisuuskatsaus Työn laji: Syventävä tutkielma Kuukausi ja vuosi: 12/2021 Sivumäärä: 22, liitteet 5 Avainsanat: oropharyngeal neoplasm, oropharynx, neoplasm, occupation, work Säilytyspaikka: E-thesis Muita tietoja: Tiivistelmä: Suunielun syöpä oli vuonna 2018 maailmanlaajuisesti 24. yleisin syöpätyyppi ja uusia suunielun syövän diagnooseja tehtiin yhteensä 92 887. Suunielun syövän tärkeimmät riskitekijät ovat nykytiedon mukaan tupakointi, runsas alkoholin käyttö sekä krooninen papilloomavirusinfektio suunielun alueella. Suunielun syövän ilmaantuvuus on lisääntynyt tasaisesti viimeisten vuosikymmenten aikana. Syytä tälle ei täysin tunneta, vaikkakin lisääntyneiden suunielun papilloomavirusinfektioiden ja niiden aiheuttamien suunielun syöpien on ajateltu selittävän osittain ilmaantuvuuden lisääntymistä. Tässä kirjallisuuskatsauksessa haluttiin selvittää ammatin ja työperäisten altisteiden vaikutusta suunielun syövän syntyyn. Kirjallisuuskatsausta varten etsittiin huhti-toukokuussa 2021 PubMed tietokannasta aihetta koskevat artikkelit. Yhteensä PubMed tietokannasta löydettiin 479 artikkelia, joista jäi karsimisen jälkeen jäljelle 18 ammatin ja suunielun syövän yhteyttä käsitelevää artikkelia. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen perusteella löytyi viitteitä siitä, että eräät ammatit, joissa altistutaan työuran aikana suurelle määrälle erilaisia kemikaaleja, viruksia, orgaanisia yhdisteitä tai erilaisia karsinogeenisiä yhdisteitä saattavat lisätä suunielun syövän syntymisen riskiä. Tällaisia riskiammatteja olivat artikkelien perusteella esimerkiksi asfaltti- ja asbestityöntekijän sekä automekaanikon ammatit. Joissain tapauksissa artikkelien tulokset ammatin ja suunielun syövän yhteydestä olivat ristiriitaisia. Esimerkiksi maataloudessa työskentelevien ja puupölylle altistuvien työntekijöiden kohdalla oli eriäviä näkemyksiä suunielun syöpään sairastumisen riskistä. Altistuminen radonille tai hitsauskaasuille työssä ei näyttänyt kirjallisuuskatsauksen perusteella lisäävän suunielun syövän synnyn riskiä. Suunielun syövän ja ammattialtistuksen välistä yhteyttä on tutkittu vielä melko vähän. Jatkossa tarvitaan lisää tutkimusta, jotta voidaan sanoa, onko tietyillä ammattiryhmillä kohonnut riski sairastua suunielun syöpään.
  • Rezende da Cunha Júnior, Fernando; Lemos, Monica Ferreira (2017)
    This article describes how secondary education students from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, protested against the closure of ninety-four schools of public educational system. The movement named ‘Do not close my school’ was a combination of online protest, using Facebook pages, occupy-type protest, in which students occupied more than 200 schools, and demonstrations, which occurred in different cities of the state. It was a movement organized by the students, with no official support of school managers, and lasted more than two months. We analyse the activities involved in the ‘Do not close my school’ movement under a Cultural-Historical Activity Theory framework, and we discuss how the concept of collaborative agency is important for the development of such a protest. As data, we use the content of pages on Facebook from fifty-six groups related to the school occupation and 111 official pages, also on Facebook, from the schools. We performed a multimodal and network analysis of the data in order to understand how the movement developed which results were obtained by the students. Our findings suggest that by acting collaboratively students were able to reach satisfactory results from their protests. In addition, they expanded the activities in their groups on Facebook to other contexts, like organizing events in their schools or using them for other social movements.
  • Lai, Cheuk Tung (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study aims to explore how family influences graduates in higher education and occupation markets, in the processes of opportunity, selection, purpose and motivation and performance in Hong Kong and Helsinki, Finland by applying the economic, cultural and social capitals introduced by Bourdieu and Coleman. Interviews (N=20) have been conducted to analyse the personal experiences of interviewees in both cities. However, results show that only cultural capital is the most influential resource provided by particularly parents in both Hong Kong and Helsinki. And the way of how parents in both cities contribute to and affect graduates is different from the claims of Bourdieu and Coleman. Thus, some sources of errors i.e. interview questions and interviewee’s answers and limitations are identified to support why results are not strong enough when applying Bourdieu’s and Coleman’s ideas of capitals. Also, diploma disease (Dore, 1976) is identified as one of the key problems in the education system, specifically in Hong Kong, which will be discussed at the end of this study.
  • Mattila, Tiina; Santonen, Tiina; Andersen, Helle Raun; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Szigeti, Tamas; Uhl, Maria; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Lange, Rosa; Bocca, Beatrice; Ruggieri, Flavia; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Sarigiannis, Denis A.; Tolonen, Hanna (2021)
    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide affecting all age groups from children to the elderly. In addition to other factors such as smoking, air pollution and atopy, some environmental chemicals are shown or suspected to increase the risk of asthma, exacerbate asthma symptoms and cause other respiratory symptoms. In this scoping review, we report environmental chemicals, prioritized for investigation in the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU), which are associated or possibly associated with asthma. The substance groups considered to cause asthma through specific sensitization include: diisocyanates, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and possibly p-phenylenediamine (p-PDA). In epidemiological studies, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organophosphate insecticides are associated with asthma, and phthalates, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pyrethroid insecticides, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead are only potentially associated with asthma. As a conclusion, exposure to PAHs and some pesticides are associated with increased risk of asthma. Diisocyanates and Cr(VI) cause asthma with specific sensitization. For many environmental chemicals, current studies have provided contradicting results in relation to increased risk of asthma. Therefore, more research about exposure to environmental chemicals and risk of asthma is needed.
  • Kjaerheim, Kristina; Haldorsen, Tor; Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Grimsrud, Tom K. (2018)
    Background: Alcohol and tobacco strongly increases the risk of cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and oesophagus, and are also established risk factors for cancer of the liver, colon, and rectum. It is well documented that these habits are unequally distributed among occupational groups. Most occupational cohort studies lack information on these potentially important confounders, and may therefore be prone to bias. Aim: The aim of the study is to present Nordic standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for alcohol and tobacco related cancer by occupation, after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco, and to compare to the unadjusted SIRs. Material and Methods: The study is based on the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) database. We used confirmatory factor analysis models for simultaneous analysis of the cancer sites related to alcohol and tobacco, to obtain factors that allow for computation of adjusted expected numbers from the reference rates. We then calculated adjusted SIRs for the relevant cancer sites for each occupation. Results: For some occupations and cancers, the changes of risk estimates were striking, from significantly high to significantly low and vice versa. Among Nordic farmers, unadjusted SIRs for cancer of the mouth and oesophagus were 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.61) and 0.67 (CI 0.63-0.70), respectively. After adjustment, estimates changed to 1.10 (CI 1.01-1.21) and 1.16 (CI 1.10-1.22). Unadjusted SIR for pharynx cancer among wood workers was 0.83 (CI 0.75-0.91), adjusted SIR was 1.14 (CI 1.03-1.25). For larynx cancer, results in the opposite direction were seen: unadjusted SIR for economically inactive was 1.38 (CI 1.31-1.46) while the adjusted SIR was 0.91 (CI 0.86-0.96). Conclusions: Adjustment for the latent indicators of alcohol and tobacco consumption changed risk estimates for several occupations, gave a less confounded description of risk, and may guide in the identification of true risk factors.