Browsing by Subject "occupational health"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Mendes, Luis; Kangas, Anneli; Kukko, Kirsi; Molgaard, Bjarke; Saamanen, Arto; Kanerva, Tomi; Ituarte, Inigo Flores; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene; Partanen, Jouni; Hämeri, Kaarle; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa (2017)
    3D printers are currently widely available and very popular among the general public. However, the use of these devices may pose health risks to users, attributable to air-quality issues arising from gaseous and particulate emissions in particular. We characterized emissions from a low-end 3D printer based on material extrusion, using the most common polymers: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA). Measurements were carried out in an emission chamber and a conventional room. Particle emission rates were obtained by direct measurement and modeling, whereas the influence of extrusion temperature was also evaluated. ABS was the material with the highest aerosol emission rate. The nanoparticle emission ranged from 3.7.10(8) to 1.4.10(9) particles per second (# s(-1)) in chamber measurements and from 2.0.10(9) to 4.0.10(9) # s(-1)in room measurements, when the recommended extruder temperature was used. Printing with PLA emitted nanoparticles at the rate of 1.0.10(7) # s(-1) inside the chamber and negligible emissions in room experiments. Emission rates were observed to depend strongly on extruder temperature. The particles' mean size ranged from 7.8 to 10.5 nanometers (nm). We also detected a significant emission rate of particles of 1 to 3nm in size during all printing events. The amounts of volatile organic and other gaseous compounds were only traceable and are not expected to pose health risks. Our study suggests that measures preventing human exposure to high nanoparticle concentrations should be adopted when using low-end 3D printers.
  • Russo, Fabrizio; De Salvatore, Sergio; Ambrosio, Luca; Vadalà, Gianluca; Fontana, Luca; Papalia, Rocco; Rantanen, Jorma; Iavicoli, Sergio; Denaro, Vincenzo (2021)
    Low back pain (LBP) is currently the leading cause of disability worldwide and the mostcommon reason for workers’ compensation (WC) claims. Studies have demonstrated that receivingWC is associated with a negative prognosis following treatment for a vast range of health conditions.However, the impact of WC on outcomes after spine surgery is still controversial. The aim of thismeta-analysis was to systematically review the literature and analyze the impact of compensationstatus on outcomes after lumbar spine surgery. A systematic search was performed on Medline,Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases. The review included studies of patientsundergoing lumbar spine surgery in which compensation status was reported. Methodologicalquality was assessed through ROBINS-I and quality of evidence was estimated using the GRADErating. A total of 26 studies with a total of 2668 patients were included in the analysis. WC patientshad higher post-operative pain and disability, as well as lower satisfaction after surgery whencompared to those without WC. Furthermore, WC patients demonstrated to have a delayed return towork. According to our results, compensation status is associated with poor outcomes after lumbarspine surgery. Contextualizing post-operative outcomes in clinical and work-related domains helpsunderstand the multifactorial nature of the phenomenon.
  • Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Hanson, L. L. Magnusson; Ferrie, J. E.; Ahola, K.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, G. D.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Chastang, J. -F.; de Graaf, R.; Dragano, N.; Hamer, M.; Jokela, M.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Koskinen, A.; Leineweber, C.; Niedhammer, I.; Nielsen, M. L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J. H.; Pentti, J.; Plaisier, I.; Salo, P.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Suominen, S.; ten Have, M.; Theorell, T.; Toppinen-Tanner, S.; Vahtera, J.; Vaananen, A.; Westerholm, P. J. M.; Westerlund, H.; Fransson, E. I.; Heikkila, K.; Virtanen, M.; Rugulies, R.; Kivimaki, M.; IPD Work Consortium (2017)
    Background. Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression. Method. We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol. Results. We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94-1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.32). Conclusions. Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Hansson, Linda Magnusson; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Stenholm, Sari; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Background Although long working hours have been shown to be associated with the onset of cardiometabolic diseases, the clinical risk factor profile associated with long working hours remains unclear. We compared the clinical risk profile between people who worked long hours and those who reported being never exposed to long hours. Methods A cross-sectional study in 22 health screening centres in France was based on a random population-based sample of 75 709 participants aged 18-69 at study inception in 2012-2016 (the CONSTANCES study). The data included survey responses on working hours (never, former or current exposure to long working hours), covariates and standardised biomedical examinations including anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood-based biomarkers. Results Among men, long working hours were associated with higher anthropometric markers (Body Mass Index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio), adverse lipid levels, higher glucose, creatinine, white blood cells and higher alanine transaminase (adjusted mean differences in the standardised scale between the exposed and unexposed 0.02-0.12). The largest differences were found for Body Mass Index and waist circumference. A dose-response pattern with increasing years of working long hours was found for anthropometric markers, total cholesterol, glucose and gamma-glutamyltransferase. Among women, long working hours were associated with Body Mass Index and white blood cells. Conclusion In this study, men who worked long hours had slightly worse cardiometabolic and inflammatory profile than those who did not work long hours, especially with regard to anthropometric markers. In women, the corresponding associations were weak or absent.
  • Beltagy, Marwa S.; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the status of night work as a risk factor for common mental disorders (CMD). Methods A cohort study with three data waves was conducted on populations of social and healthcare employees for a duration of eight years (total N=46 010). Data were analyzed as a non-randomized pseudo trial to examine (i) whether moving from non-night work to night work is associated with the development of CMD, (ii) the extent to which moving back to non-night work biases this association and (iii) whether moving from night to non-night work is associated with the recovery from CMD. Results According to logistic regression with generalized estimating equation and without bias-correction, changing to night work was not associated with the odds of acquiring CMD [odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.30]. However, night workers with CMD had higher odds of recovery from CMD when changing to non-night work compared to continuing night work (1.99, 95% CI 1.20-3.28). When night workers developed CMD, the odds of moving back to non-night work increased by 68%. In analyses corrected for this bias, changing from non-night to night work was associated with a 1.25-fold (95% CI 1.03-1.52) increased odds of acquiring CMD. Conclusions A change from non-night to night work may increase the risk of CMD, while moving back from night to non-night work increased recovery from CMD.
  • Lindström, Irmeli; Lantto, Jussi; Karvala, Kirsi; Soini, Satu; Ylinen, Katriina; Suojalehto, Hille; Suuronen, Katri (2021)
    Background Exposures leading to irritant-induced asthma (IIA) are poorly documented. Methods We retrospectively screened the medical records of patients with IIA diagnosed in an occupational medicine clinic during 2000-2018. We classified the cases into acute (onset after single exposure) and subacute (onset after multiple exposures) IIA. We analysed in detail, occupations, causative agents and their air levels in the workplace, exposure events and the root causes of high exposure. Results Altogether 69 patients were diagnosed with IIA, 30 with acute and 39 with subacute IIA. The most common occupational groups were industrial operators (n=23, 33%), metal and machinery workers (n=16, 11%) and construction workers (n=12, 8%). Among industrial operators significantly more cases had subacute IIA than acute IIA (p=0.002). Forty cases (57%) were attributable to some type of corrosive acidic or alkaline chemical. Acute IIA followed accidents at work in different types of occupation, while subacute IIA was typical among industrial operators performing their normal work tasks under poor work hygiene conditions. The most common root cause was lack of information or false guidance in acute IIA (n=11, 36%) and neglect of workplace hygiene measures in subacute IIA (n=29, 74%). Conclusions Accidents are the main causes of acute IIA, whereas subacute IIA can develop in normal work in risk trades with poor work hygiene. Airborne strong acids or bases seem to be the most important causative agents of acute and subacute IIA. The different risk profiles of acute and subacute IIA should be considered in the prevention and identification of the cases.
  • Pekurinen, Virve; Willman, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Valimaki, Maritta (2017)
    Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses) participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability). Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have worse subjective health and work ability than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, while their psychiatric wellbeing is better and they have less sleep problems compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses maintain better psychiatric wellbeing and experience fewer sleep problems than non-psychiatric nurses after events of exposure to patient aggression. This suggest that more attention should be given to non-psychiatric settings for maintaining the wellbeing of nurses after exposure to patient aggression.
  • Rosenström, Tom; Härmä, Mikko; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna; Hakola, Tarja; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina (2021)
    Objectives Data mining can complement traditional hypothesis-based approaches in characterizing unhealthy work exposures. We used it to derive a hypothesis-free characterization of working hour patterns in shift work and their associations with sickness absence (SA). Methods In this prospective cohort study, complete payroll-based work hours and SA dates were extracted from a shift-scheduling register from 2008 to 2019 on 6029 employees from a hospital district in Southwestern Finland. We applied permutation distribution clustering to time series of successive shift lengths, between-shift rest periods, and shift starting times to identify clusters of similar working hour patterns over time. We examined associations of clusters spanning on average 23 months with SA during the following 23 months. Results We identified eight distinct working hour patterns in shift work: (i) regular morning (Myevening (E) work, weekends off; (ii) irregular M work; (iii) irregular M/E/night (N) work; (iv) regular M work, weekends off; (v) irregular, interrupted WE/N work; (vi) variable M work, weekends off, (vii) quickly rotating WE work, non-standard weeks; and (viii) slowly rotating WE work, non-standard weeks. The associations of these eight working-hour clusters with risk of future SA varied. The cluster of irregular, interrupted M/E/N work was the strongest predictor of increased SA (days per year) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.77 (95% confidence interval 1.74-1.80) compared to regular M/E work, weekends off. Conclusions This data-mining suggests that hypothesis-free approaches can contribute to scientific understanding of healthy working hour characteristics and complement traditional hypothesis-driven approaches.
  • Pihlajamäki, Minna; Uitti, J.; Arola, H.; Ollikainen, J.; Korhonen, M.; Nummi, T.; Taimela, S. (2019)
    Objectives To study whether self-reported health problems predict sickness absence (SA) from work in employees from different industries. Methods The results of a health risk appraisal (HRA) were combined with archival data of SA of 21 608 employees (59% female, 56% clerical). Exposure variables were self-reported health problems, labelled as ' work disability (WD) risk factors' in the HRA, presence of problems with occupational well-being and obesity. Age, socioeconomic grading and the number of SA days 12 months before the survey were treated as confounders. The outcome measure was accumulated SA days during 12-month follow-up. Data were analysed separately for males and females. A Hurdle model with negative binomial response was used to analyse zero-inflated count data of SA. Results The HRA results predicted the number of accumulated SA days during the 12-month follow-up, regardless of occupational group and gender. The ratio of means of SA days varied between 2.7 and 4.0 among those with ' WD risk factors' and the reference category with no findings, depending on gender and occupational group. The lower limit of the 95% CI was at the lowest 2.0. In the Hurdle model, ' WD risk factors', SA days prior to the HRA and obesity were additive predictors for SA and/or the accumulated SA days in all occupational groups. Conclusion Self-reported health problems and obesity predict a higher total count of SA days in an additive fashion. These findings have implications for both management and the healthcare system in the prevention of WD. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
  • Sinokki, M (Kela, 2011)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 115
    Masennus, ahdistuneisuus, alkoholiriippuvuus ja alkoholin väärinkäyttö sekä unihäiriöt ovat yleisiä ongelmia työssä käyvän väestön keskuudessa. Nämä sairaudet ja oireet aiheuttavat huomattavia kuluja myös yhteiskunnalle. Sosiaalisen tuen ja työilmapiirin yhteyttä työssä käyvien (n = 3 347–3 430) terveyteen tutkittiin Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitoksen Terveys 2000 -aineistossa. Sosiaalista tukea työssä mitattiin JCQ-kyselyllä (Job Content Questionnaire) ja yksityiselämän sosiaalista tukea SSQ-kyselyllä (Social Support Questionnaire). Työilmapiiriä mitattiin kyselyllä, joka on osa Terve työyhteisö -kyselyä. Mielenterveyshäiriöiden diagnoosit perustuivat CIDI-haastatteluun (Composite International Diagnostic Interview). Tiedot lääkärin määräämistä masennus- ja unilääkkeistä poimittiin Kelan lääkerekisteristä ja tiedot työkyvyttömyyseläkkeistä Eläketurvakeskuksen ja Kelan rekistereistä. Ilmapiirin kokemisessa ei ollut merkitsevää eroa sukupuolten välillä. Sen sijaan naiset kokivat saavansa sosiaalista tukea enemmän sekä työssä että yksityiselämässä. Vähäinen sosiaalinen tuki sekä työssä että yksityiselämässä oli yhteydessä masennukseen, ahdistuneisuushäiriöihin ja moniin uniongelmiin. Huono työilmapiiri oli yhteydessä sekä masennukseen että ahdistuneisuushäiriöihin. Vähäinen tuki sekä esimiehiltä että työtovereilta oli yhteydessä myöhempään masennuslääkkeiden käyttöön. Huono työilmapiiri ennusti myös masennuslääkkeiden käyttöä. Vähäinen sosiaalinen tuki esimieheltä näytti lisäävän työkyvyttömyyseläkkeen todennäköisyyttä. Työhyvinvointiin täytyy kiinnittää huomiota, koska vähäinen sosiaalinen tuki ja huono työilmapiiri ovat yhteydessä mielenterveysongelmiin ja lisäävät työkyvyn menettämisen riskiä. – Englanninkielinen julkaisu. Suomenkielinen yhteenveto s. 89–90.
  • Siponen, Anne-Marika; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Koort, Joanna; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Vapalahti, Olli; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Jokelainen, Pikka (2019)
    Practising veterinary medicine has an inherent risk of exposure to zoonotic agents, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. We screened sera of veterinarians authorized to work in Finland for the presence of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay, and evaluated potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity from extensive questionnaire data with almost 1,300 quantitative variables. We used a causal diagram approach to address the complexity of the life cycle of the parasite and its numerous possible transmission routes, and built a multivariable binomial logistic regression model to identify risk factors that are particularly relevant for veterinarians. The samples and questionnaire data were collected in 2009. Altogether, 294 veterinarians, almost 15% of the Finnish veterinary profession, were included in the study. The median age was 39 years, and the majority, 86%, were women. Altogether, 43 (14.6%; 95% confidence interval: 10.9-19.0) of the 294 veterinarians tested seropositive for T. gondii. According to the final model, veterinarians who were at least 40 years old had 2.4 times higher odds to be seropositive than younger veterinarians; veterinarians who lived in the countryside had 4.0 times higher odds to be seropositive than veterinarians who lived in towns; female veterinarians who tasted beef during cooking had 2.6 times higher odds to be seropositive than male veterinarians who did not taste beef during cooking; and veterinarians who did not do small animal practice had 2.3 times higher odds to be seropositive than those who did. The results illustrate the numerous transmission routes of T. gondii.