Browsing by Subject "odotusarvoteoria"

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  • Ronkainen, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The aim of the study is to find out what kind of expectancies and values 7 th graders hold in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, physics and Finnish language. Subjective task values, which are intrinsic value, utility value and attainment value, have been studied a extensively, but phenomenon-based learning is a new perspective in this research field, as it only became established in Finnish schools with the latest curriculum. Subjective expectancies, values, self-efficacy and costs influence adolescents’ performance and school related choices. The study uses expectation value theory applying person-oriented approach. This research answers three research questions: 1) What kind of motivational profiles can be identified in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, science and Finnish language among middle school students based on expectancies and values? 2) How is the gender distributed in the identified profile groups? 3) Do the identified profile groups differ in terms of school performance? Methods. The data used in the study was collected with an electronic questionnaire, which was answered by 1013 7th grade students from Helsinki. The first research question was studied using latent profile analysis. The second research question was examined by cross-tabulation and the third was examined by one-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. Using the profile analysis, five different profile groups were identified from the respondents: phenomenon-oriented (23%), motivated and well-being (24%), weakly motivated (15%), motivated but loaded (16%) and science-oriented (26%). Phenomenon-oriented students were more interested in phenomenon-based learning than in other subjects, although they also considered traditional subjects important. Motivated and well-being were interested and felt competent in all subjects; they were not burdened by studies. Weakly motivated did not value any of the subjects and the study was perceived as burdensome and challenging. Motivated but loaded students hold high attainment value across subject domains but they also showed high cost value. Science-oriented students hold high interest value in mathematics and physics but low interest in phenomenon-based learning. The results were in line with the previous study, but phenomenon-oriented were identified as a new group. Girls were more evenly distributed in all profile groups, while the percentage of boys was clearly lower in phenomenon-oriented group compared to girls. School performance were lower in weakly motivated students compared to other groups.
  • Laakkonen, Otso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Geomedia has been part of Finnish elementary school curriculum for five years in grades 3–6. Geomedia as a concept gathers old content with new one in the pursuit of devel-oping geography in school. Success of geomedia in teaching derives from perceptions of teachers, textbooks, and local curriculums. According to expectation value theory teachers perceived competence, task value of content and expectancies for its success in teaching ex-plain the motivation of how teachers invest in teaching of variable teaching contents. The re-search problem was to clarify the state of geomedia in 3rd to 6th grades. Methods. The study was conducted in the form of pragmatic exploratory mixed methods re-search using parallel convergent design. Design combined quantitative and qualitative data and methods. Data consisted 846 quantitative answers and 21 qualitative answers from open-ended question in the survey research conducted in the autumn 2020 by order of the Finnish National Agency for Education. Additional qualitative data was provided through the analysis of three textbook series and five local curricula. Quantitative data was presented though table and analysed using correlation. Qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The concept of geomedia was not defined in any local curriculum and it was verbalized in one textbook only. Due to the broad formulation of the concept of ge-omedia, all textbooks included geomedia in its mainly older form and in such way, it was not consciously used by teachers and pupils in learning. The perceived expectancy value to teach geomedia was clearly lower compared to other main contents of geography in science teach-ing. This result was explained by the teachers lack of understanding about geomedia. Fur-thermore, teachers didn’t have the applicable teaching materials and had not received any additional training for the usage of geomedia in teaching. Since the poor competence of teachers leads to reliance on learning material, it can be stated that geomedia is not rooted as a conscious concept in teaching. If geomedia was defined and instructed from the pupil’s point of view of using technology in their daily lives, it could renew the teaching of geography. Developing the perceived competence of teachers through additional training and research based-learning materials would, based on expectation value theory and results, increase the importance of how the teachers perceive content in their teaching. In this way, it would be possible to redeem geomedia among the more entrenched teaching content of geography.
  • Lohvansuu, Henriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The Finnish school system has long been credited for consistently achieving equality in learning outcomes. However, recent research revealed an emerging segregation, especially within the Helsinki metropolitan area. There has also been frequent discussions revolving around motivation and learning outcomes differences between genders. The connections between motivation factors and mathematical skills have been vastly researched, but disportionately, due to limited research on those in lower primary school. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences in motivation and mathematical skills between genders and schools. This study also investigates how motivation factors correlates to mathematical skills on primary schools third grade pupils. The motivation factors used in this study are mathematical self-concept and expectancy-value theory fields: intrinsic value, utility value and costs. The data used in this study was collected for the international MathMot investigation project. 215 third grade pupils from four different schools within Helsinki participated in the research. The participants filled out a questionnaire that measured their mathematical motivation, followed by three different test to measure their mathematical skills. In the analysis non-parametric methods where used: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that there were some differences between schools: intrinsic value, utility value, and costs. There were no differences in mathematical self-concept despite the significant differences in mathematical skills between the schools. Girls tended to show greater interest in mathematics, as well as a higher regard for its usefulness. In comparison, Girls outperformed slightly better in the non-verbal fluid intelligence measuring Ravens test. Self-concept had the strongest relation to mathematical skill.
  • Aro, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Nuoret joutuvat tekemään koulutukseen liittyviä valintoja yhä aikaisemmassa iässä. Peruskoulun lopussa tehdään päätöksiä, joilla voi olla hyvin kauaskantoisia vaikutuksia loppuelämään. Pääsykoeuudistuksen myötä ylioppilastutkinnolla on yhä isompi rooli korkeakouluhaussa. Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan koulutuksellisten pyrkimysten yhteyttä sosiologisiin sekä psykologisiin tekijöihin peruskoulun päättyessä. Sosiologisilla tekijöillä tarkoitetaan tässä tutkielmassa sukupuolta sekä nuoren vanhempien sosioeko-nomista asemaa. Psykologisilla tekijöillä taas tarkoitetaan motivaatio sekä yksilön kognitiivisia kykyjä eli koulumenestystä. Motivaatiota tarkastellaan yleisen koulumotivaation- että oppiainekohtaisen opiskelumotivaation kautta. Peruskoulun päättyminen on keskeinen elämänsiirtymä nuorilla. Tässä vaiheessa pakollinen koulutus loppuu ja pitää valita meneekö jatkamaan opiskelua lukioon vai ammattikouluun. Tutkielma on toteutettu kolmen tutkimuskysymyksen kautta 1) Minkälaisia koulutuksellisia pyrkimyksiä nuorilla on peruskoulun lopussa? 2) Miten sosioekonominen tausta, sukupuoli ja motivaatio selittävät nuorten koulutuksellisia pyrkimyksiä? ja 3) Miten koulutukselliset pyrkimykset peruskoulun lopussa selittävät koulutuksellista statusta kymmenen vuotta myöhemmin? Tässä tutkielmassa hyödynnetään FinEdun keräämää aineistoa. Aineisto on kerätty Keski-Suomalaisissa kouluissa. Kyseessä on pitkittäisaineisto, jonka kerääminen on aloitettu vuonna 2003, jolloin nuoret ovat olleet peruskoulun yhdeksän-nellä luokalla. Aineistossa hyödynnetään ensimmäistä mittausajankohtaa vuodelta 2003 sekä viimeisintä mittausajankohtaa vuodelta 2014, jolloin peruskoulun päättymisestä on kymmenen vuotta. Tutkimuksen analyysit on suoritettu kvantitatiivisilla menetelmillä ja muuttujien välisiä yhteyksiä on tarkasteltu lineaarisella regressiolla. Tutkielman keskeisin teoriapohja perustuu Ecclesin odotusarvoteoriaan. Odotusarvoteorian mukaisesti sosiologiset tekijät ja psykologiset tekijät ovat yhteydessä odotusarvoon eli tässä tutkimuksessa koulutuksellisiin pyrkimyksiin. Useissa tutkimuksissa on havaittu, että koulutukselliset ja ammatilliset pyrkimykset ovat vahvasti yhteydessä myös toteutuneisiin koulutus- ja ammattivalintoihin. Tutkielmassa suoritettujen analyysien perusteella koulutukselliset pyrkimykset näyttäisivät olevan vahvasti yhteydessä koulumenestykseen ja matemaattisten aineiden opiskelun motivaatioon. Havaittiin myös, että sekä sosiologiset, että psyko-logiset korreloivat vahvasti keskenään. Jatkossa tulisi tutkia lisää miten koulutukselliset pyrkimykset ovat yhteydessä ammatinvalintaan ja opiskelupolkuihin, sekä miten nämä ovat muuttuneet ajan myötä. Toinen tärkeä teema on myös maahanmuuttajataustaisten nuorten ja kantaväestön välisten erojen tutkiminen. OECD PISA -mittauksissa on havaittu kasvavia eroja kantaväestön ja maahanmuuttajataustaisten nuorten koulumenestyksessä.
  • Pitkänen, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The aim of this study is to examine teacher students’ perceived competence to teach 21st century skills and phenomenon-based learning and their connection to their epistemic beliefs, that formed two epistemic theories. Epistemic beliefs refer to our theories and beliefs that we hold about knowledge and learning. The aim is also to find out whether there were differences between the means of subject teacher students, classroom teacher students, or participants in the “21st Century Skills and Phenomenon-Based Projects” course in the perceived competence to teach 21st century skills and phenomenon-based learning. Methodology. The data (N = 274) was gathered from teacher students at the University of Helsinki in autumn 2019. The questionnaire used in the study is based on an assessment tool developed to assess the 21st century skills of the Finnish curricula. First, I used exploratory factor analysis to examine what kind of entities 21st century skills in this material were formed into. In addition, I formed two epistemic theories (reflective-collaborative theory and knowledge transmission theory) from the data using sum variables and used correlation coefficients to examine how respondents’ perceived competence to teach 21st century skills as well as phenomenon-based learning was related to their epistemic beliefs. Finally, I used the one-way analysis of variance to examine whether there were differences between the means of the subject teacher students, the classroom teacher students, and the averages of those who took the elective course. Results and conclusions. 21st century skills were formed into seven dimensions, but mainly in a different way than in the curriculum. The theory emphasizing collaborative knowledge building was statistically significantly related to the perceived competence to teach both 21st century skills and phenomenon-based learning. Knowledge transmission theory had almost nothing to do with perceived competence to teach these skills. There were very few differences between the groups when looking at the means of the responses. The only statistically significant difference was found between classroom teachers and subject teachers in the perceived competence in teaching “collaborative skills and performance”. Based on the expectation value theory, perceived competence predicts success in the task, so supporting an epistemic theory that emphasizes collaborative knowledge building in teacher education can improve students’ competence to teach 21st century skills and phenomenon-based learning in the future.
  • Huhti, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims of the study. Achievement goal orientations refer to the individual tendencies of a student and describe how they act in learning situations. For example, the student may favor deep learning, minimal workload, or a good grade. Earlier experiences and situations, as well as assessment of one’s own abilities are guided by the individual’s goal orientation. This affects the way how the student is motivated and regulates their own actions. Learning situations are experienced through individual views and orientations. That is why the same learning situation may appear different for everyone. The aim of the study is to find out what kind of achievement goal orientations can be identified among primary school seventh graders in mathematics. Participants are divided into groups based on which achievement goal orientation they fit. Then the groups are compared with each other based on how they differ in gender, stress, interest, and math grade. Utilizing a person-oriented approach, this study examined the differences of achievement goal orientation groups in mathematics. Goal orientation theory and expectancy value theory were used as a frame of reference. Methods. The data (N = 874) was collected in autumn 2019 as a part of Growing Mind and Bridging the Gaps study. The project examined learning, motivation and well-being among children and adolescents. The participants were seventh graders from 28 different schools in Helsinki and 56.4 % of them were girls, 39.8 % were boys and 3.4 % identified as other. The study was made as a questionnaire which measured achievement goal orientations in mathematics, stress, and interest towards mathematics. The students were divided into groups based on achievement goal orientation profiles with K-Means Cluster Analysis. Gender differences were measured by cross-tabulation and Chi-square test of independence. The differences between the groups in interest in mathematics, stress and math grades were examined by using Analysis of Variance. Result and conclusions. Four achievement goal orientation groups were identified, of which 24.9 % were mastery-oriented, 29.1 % were success-oriented, 29.6 % were uncommitted and 16.4 % avoidance-oriented. The findings suggest that there was no significant difference between the groups in gender distribution. The mastery-oriented experienced the most interest and the least stress in studying math. The success-oriented were the second most interested in math and the group of uncommitted the third most interested. The avoidance-oriented were the least interested in mathematics. The uncommitted experienced the most stress, and the avoidance-oriented and success-oriented experienced the second most stress. The success-oriented had the best grades in math and the mastery-oriented had the second best grades. The avoidance-oriented and the uncommitted had slightly lower grades than the success and mastery-oriented.
  • Pitkänen, Taru Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This Master's thesis for the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University of Helsinki researched the expectations and values expressed by Finnish students studying for a university degree in Australia. The study considered the reasons and values named by these students by asking why the students are motivated to complete a university degree in Australia. The phenomena investigated focused on both Australian study-based immigration and the value choices made by the young to achieve their personal internationalization goals. The study was conducted as a qualitative research with semi-structured interviews for seven Finnish degree students studying at Australian universities in September-October 2020. The analysis of the transcribed interviews followed the framework of the expectancy-value theory by Eccles and Wigfield (2002) especially for the categories of perceptions, expectations for success, and subjective task values and associated costs. Of the students' subjective task values, the utility values, expenses and psychological costs of studying in Australia were particularly emphasized. While studying in Australia was considered expensive, it was also considered useful. The emphasis on internationality, language skills for future professional life and, in particular, a longer-term residence permit in the country seemed to be significant factors in a student's choice to pursue a university degree in Australia. Beginning tertiary studies appeared to be linked to the country's visa regulations, with the possibility of a permanent residence permit and eventually the chance for a citizenship. The price of the degree influenced the choices of some students who chose a cheaper university or a field of study, even when they would have preferred otherwise. The students’ experiences in Australia showed growth in self-esteem and self-ability to cope with their studies as a contrast to the initial low expectations they set for their own success. Contrary to Eccles and Wigfield’s (2002) expectancy-value theory, the goals set by the students about studying in Australia did not appear to have been influenced by the expectations, behavior, or attitudes of the student’s family and friends in Finland. Even though they may have been against the student’s choice to study in Australia, the student still decided to pursue it. Australian studies seem to attract young people with their exoticism, but they also require the student to have a strong risk-taking ability, wealth and belief in their own abilities. Australian studies can be an important investment for a student for building an international career and life in Australia.