Browsing by Subject "ohra"

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  • Väre, Taija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Beetaglukaanilla on kyky tuoda viskositeettia ja rakennetta nestemäisiin elintarvikkeisiin. Kyseiset reologiset ominaisuudet ovat tärkeitä elintarviketeollisuudessa, fysikaaliset ominaisuudet ovat syynä beetaglukaanin terveysvaikutuksiin. Beetaglukaanin rakenne ei ole kuitenkaan pysyvä. Rakenteen hajoamista tapahtuu prosessoinnin ja säilytyksen aikana. Elintarvikkeiden muilla makromolekyyleillä ja niiden hapettumisherkkyydellä on merkittävä vaikutus beetaglukaanin pysyvyyteen. Aihetta koskevissa tutkimuksissa on todettu, että hapettuneiden makromolekyylien kuten lipidien lisäksi beetaglukaanin mukana kulkeutuvat yhdisteet, kuten mm. fytaatti, voivat vaikuttaa beetaglukaanin hapettumisstabiilisuuteen ja siten vaikuttaa beetaglukaanin teknologiseen ja fysiologiseen toiminnallisuuteen. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää kauran ja ohran viljauutteiden koostumus eri makro- ja mikrokomponenttien osalta eli määrittää valittujen yhdisteiden pitoisuus näyteliuoksissa analyyttisin menetelmin. Viljauutteiden sisällön analyysistä toivottiin löydettävän selittäviä syy-seuraussuhteita jo aiemmin osittain vastaavista näyteliuoksista tehdyille löydöksille (viskositeetin menetys), koska beetaglukaanin hajoaminen nestemäisissä matriiseissa voi heikentää elintarvikkeiden laatuominaisuuksia. Tämän tutkimuksen näytteistä kaurauutteiden puskuriuutteissa oli eniten fenolisia yhdisteitä, myös lipidejä määritettiin suurimmat pitoisuudet kaurauutteista. Beetaglukaanipitoisuudet vastasivat aikaisempia määrityksiä vastaavista näytemateriaaleista. Raudan osalta tulokset eivät olleet täysin yhteneväisiä, kun ajatellaan yhteyttä aikaisemmin vastaavista näytemateriaaleista tehtyihin analyyseihin koskien viskositeetin menetystä ja radikaalien muodostumista.
  • Niskala, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Barley is considered as the best small grain cereal for whole crop silage due to its good di-gestibility. An interesting alternative for barley is triticale which has had significantly higher yield in prior studies compared to barley. This study was conducted to determine the effects of triticale and barley whole crop silages on performance and carcass traits of growing beef bulls compared to grass silage-based diet. Five different total mixed rations (TMR) were compared. Grass silage based TMR was the control. Grass silage was replaced with barley or triticale whole crop silage in four other TMRs on two different levels. Either 50% or 100% of the grass silage dry matter (DM) was replaced. Intake of TMRs and live weight gain of bulls were monitored through-out the experiment and the feeds were analysed in a laboratory at the end of the experiment. The fermentation quality of the silages was good. Dry matter concentration of whole crop si-lages were higher and crude protein as well as neutral detergent fibre concentrations were lower than in grass silage. Starch concentration (308 g/kg DM) of barley silage was higher than in triticale (172 g/kg DM). D-value (685 g/kg DM) and metabolizable energy content of grass silage was higher than those of the whole crop silages. Furthermore, in barley whole crop silage D-value (659 g/kg DM) was higher than in the triticale whole crop silage (622 g/kg DM). When replacing grass with triticale, DM as well as starch intakes were increased, and crude protein intake decreased linearly. The feeding had no effect on animals’ growth rate, but car-cass gain tended to decrease as the proportion of triticale in the diet increased. Feed conver-sion (kg DM/ kg live or carcass weight gain) was less efficient and crude protein conversion improved linearly when grass silage was replaced with triticale. Also, dressing proportion de-creased linearly when replacing grass with triticale silage. When grass silage was replaced with barley silage the DM intake, ME, metabolizable protein and starch intake as well as live weight gain increased, and crude protein intake decreased linearly. Dry matter and crude pro-tein conversion ratios and fat score changed curvilinearly as proportion of barley silage in-creased. Dry matter intake of the mixture of grass and barley silages per kilogram of growth was higher compared to other diets. Barley silage diet had better crude protein utilization than other diets. Fat scores were lower with grass silage compared to other silages. As triticale replaced grass, intake increased, but that did not affect the rate of live weight gain. Dressing proportion decreased, dry matter conversion rate declined, and crude protein con-version rate improved. The results can mainly be explained by lower digestibility and higher iNDF-concentration of triticale silage compared to grass silage. The experiment showed that grass silage can be replaced with barley whole crop silage with-out negative effects on production, and growth rate was even improved with barley silage. This was mainly due to higher daily ME intake. Dry matter intake per kg carcass weight gain was higher for bulls fed with whole crop silages. That can increase feed costs depending on the production costs of the roughage.
  • Alhonoja, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Phosphorus (P) plays a major role in cereal production. Total P content is high in Finnish soils but only a fraction of it is available to plants. This phenomena led to generous P fertilization since 1940 increasing the P concentration in fields as well as P balances. Reduced P fertilization since 1970 has decreased soil P concentration, resulting in negative P balances almost in entire Finland. Accumulation of P in the top soil is a result of chemical reactions occurring in the soil. Reactions of P in soils and the ability of the plants to take up P from soil affects the efficiency of P fertilization. P fertilization is most effective when the application rate replaces P removed from the soil in harvested yield. In this theses, results of the long-term fertilization trial (1973-2013) are compiled. The trial included spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.). The data gathered was analyzed to investigate crop yield, P concentration of soluble P in soil and the effect of plant species on the concentration of soluble P in soil within 40 years. Rate of P fertilization and plant species affected soluble P concentration in soil. The higher the P fertilization rate was, the higher the soluble P concentration in soil was. The concentration of soluble P did not decrease during the years when the P fertilization rate was reduced. Among all cereals studied, the P balance decreased during the years following the decrease in P fertilization rates. Changes in P balance does not explain chances in soluble P concentration in soil.
  • Rummukainen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    As the world's population keeps growing, it is vital to focus on efficiency of agriculture. At this moment, food production is happening at the cost of natural resources. Significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus flow in nature as waste and enhance climate change and eutrophication of waters. Nutrient recycling is an essential part of sustainable and responsible agriculture. By combining animal and crop production it is possible to recycle some of the nutrients in an agroecosystem, since manure and other animal waste include nutrients that were given to the feed plants. Meat bone meal (MBM) includes 50 % protein, 35 % ash and 8–12 % fat (NPK 8–5–1). Previous fertilization experiments with MBM have already given promising results. The aim of this study is to find out, if there are significant differences between the fertilization potentials of mineral and MBM fertilizers, and if the dosage of these fertilizers affects the mean yields of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare var. distichon). The fertilization effects of two MBM fertilizers, “Viljo” and “Kana-Viljo”, were compared to mineral fertilizer and chicken manure on malt barley in a field experiment in 2015. Each fertilizer was applied on two nitrogen levels (80 and 160 kg N/ha). The mean yields per hectare and hectolitre weights were compared to the ones given by an unfertilized control member. Although none of the organic fertilizers gave as much improvement in the yield as the mineral fertilizer, all the fertilized yields were significantly bigger than the control member’s. Between the hectolitre weights there was no significant difference and doubling the supply of N did not give significant difference to yields. There was also no interaction between the N supply and the fertilizer type. Applying a lot of N on malt barley increases the quantity of protein in a grain, so the higher N supply may even affect the quality of the yield. The challenge of MBM is its slowly releasing P, so the results on the same field could have been different if the test had been repeated the following year. The used barley Streif is known to be an early cultivar and the field was fertilized just before sowing, so all the N in MBM may not have had enough time to release for the crop to use in this study. It is to be noted that significant results of MBM fertilization were gotten with this little data, it is recommended to keep on researching the potential of MBM as an organic fertilizer.
  • Vikgren, Päivi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Kauran ja ohran (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-beetaglukaanit muodostavat viskooseja liuoksia ja kykenevät muodostamaan geelejä. Geeliytymisominaisuuksiin vaikuttavat molekyylin rakenne (kuten sellotriosyyli- ja sellotetrasyyli yksiköiden–suhde), koko, beetaglukaanin pitoisuus liuoksessa ja varastointiaika. Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa käytiin läpi beetaglukaanin viskositeetin ja geeliytymisen merkitystä elintarviketeollisuuden tarpeille sekä terveysvaikutuksille. Lisäksi käytiin läpi tekijöitä, jotka vaikuttavat viskositeettiin ja geeliytymiseen. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää, miten liukenemislämpötila ohjaa ohran ja kauran beetaglukaanin viskositeettia ja geeliytymistä, kun pitoisuus on pieni (ohra 1 % ja kaura 1,5 %). Lisäksi tarkasteltiin, miten liuoksen hapettaminen vaikutti geeliytymiseen. Beetaglukaania liuotettiin 37, 57 ja 85 ºC:een lämpötiloissa ja sen jälkeen puolet näytteistä hapetettiin 70 mM vetyperoksidilla. Näytteiden viskositeettia ja geeliytymistä mitattiin päivinä 1, 4 ja 7 näytteen valmistamisen jälkeen reometrillä ja lisäksi näytteiden sameutta tutkittiin spektrofotometrillä samoina päivinä. Geeliytymislämpötilan optimoimiseksi kauran betaglukaanille tehtiin vielä lisätestejä 35, 37, 40, 45 ja 50 ºC:ssa. Beetaglukaani liukeni 85 ºC:ssa veteen lähes täysin muodostaen jonkin verran viskooseja liuoksia. Hapettuneiden näytteiden viskositeetit laskivat varastoinnin aikana. Nämä liuokset eivät geeliytyneet varastoinnin aikana. Ohran beetaglukaaneista 57 ºC:ssa liuotettu oli viskoosein, ja kauran beetaglukaaneista 37 ºC:ssa liuotettu oli viskoosein. Ohran beetaglukaani kykeni muodostamaan geeliä ainoastaan, kun se oli liuotettu 57 ºC:ssa, kun taas kauran beetaglukaanilla oli laajempi liuotuslämpötila alue. 37 – 50 ºC:ssa liuenneet kauran beetaglukaanit muodostivat geelin. Hapettamattomien näytteiden muodostamat geelit olivat vahvempia kuin hapetettujen. Tulosten perusteella liuotuslämpötilalla oli suuri vaikutus sekä kauran että ohran beetaglukaanin viskositeettiin ja geeliytymiseen. Optimaalinen liuotuslämpötila viskositeetin ja geeliytymisen kannalta ohran beetaglukaanille oli 57 ºC ja kauran beetaglukaanille 37 – 45 º.
  • Viljakainen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka maitorotuisten sonnien väkirehun saantia voidaan jaksottaa loppukasvatuskauden aikana, ja mikä on jaksottamisen vaikutus eläinten rehun syöntiin, kasvutuloksiin ja ruhon laatuun. Lisäksi selvitettiin, millaisiin tuotantotuloksiin päästään käyttämällä pelkästään hyvänlaatuista nurmisäilörehua sonnien ruokinnassa loppukasvatuskauden aikana. Ruokintakokeessa oli 16 Ayrshire- ja 20 Holstein-sonnia, jotka olivat kokeen alussa noin 6,5 kk:n ikäisiä ja elopainoltaan 230 kg. Ensimmäisen koeryhmän sonnit saivat vapaasti nurmisäilörehua (SR). Toisen koeryhmän sonnit olivat tasaisella väkirehuruokinnalla (TV), jolloin ne saivat koko kasvatuskauden ajan vapaasti seosrehua, jonka kuiva-aineesta (ka) 70 % oli nurmisäilörehua ja 30 % litistettyä ohraa. Kolmannen koeryhmän sonnit ruokittiin nousevalla väkirehutasolla (NV). Ne saivat kasvatuskauden ensimmäisen jakson ajan (eläinten ikä 6,5 - 12,5 kk) pelkkää nurmisäilörehua vapaasti ja toisen jakson ajan (eläinten ikä 12,5 - 18,5 kk) vapaasti seosrehua, jonka ka:sta 40 % oli nurmisäilörehua ja 60 % litistettyä ohraa. Neljännen ryhmän sonnit olivat laskevalla väkirehuruokinnalla (LV), ja ne saivat ensimmäisen jakson ajan vapaasti seosrehua, jonka ka:sta 40 % oli nurmisäilörehua ja 60 % litistettyä ohraa ja toisen jakson ajan pelkkää nurmisäilörehua vapaasti. Tutkimuksen koemalli oli lohkoittain satunnaistettu koe. Kaikki sonnit teurastettiin noin 18,5 kk:n ikäisinä ja keskimäärin elopainoltaan keskimäärin 669 kg:n painoisina. Kokeessa käytettiin kahden eri kasvukauden (2012 ja 2013) ensimmäisen niiton noukinvaunulla korjattua ja laakasiiloon säilöttyä esikuivatettua timoteisäilörehua. Ruhojen lihakkuus ja rasvaisuus määritettiin EUROP-luokituksen mukaisesti. Väkirehuruokinta lisäsi TV-, NV- ja LV-sonnien kuiva-aineensyöntiä ja muuntokelpoisen energian saantia verrattuna SR-ryhmän sonneihin (p=0,01), mutta vähensi säilörehun ka:een syöntiä (p<0,001). NV-sonnit pystyivät syömään enemmän kuiva-ainetta kuin LV-sonnit (p<0,05), joten ne saivat rehuannoksestaan myös enemmän energiaa (106 vs. 98 MJ ME/pv) (p=0,01) ja OIV:tä (792 vs. 741 g/pv) (p<0,05). Väkirehuruokinta paransi rehun muuntosuhdetta, sillä ka:n kulutus lisäkasvukiloa (p<0,10) ja nettokasvukiloa (p<0,05) kohden oli pienempi verrattuna SR-ruokintaan. Nurmisäilörehun erinomainen laatu näkyi SR-sonnien hyvissä kasvutuloksissa (päiväkasvu 1 119 g/pv ja nettokasvu 580 g/pv). Väkirehulisäyksen edut ilmenivät kuitenkin TV-, NV- ja LV-sonnien parempina päivä- (p<0,10) ja nettokasvuina (p<0,05), suurempina teuraspainoina (p=0,01) sekä parempina teurasprosentteina (p=0,05) ja lihakkuutena (p<0,10) verrattuna pelkkää säilörehua saaneisiin sonneihin. Kasvu- tai teurastuloksissa ei havaittu eroa tasaisesti ja keskimäärin kahdella eri jaksotustavalla väkirehua saaneiden välillä. Nousevalla väkirehuruokinnalla saavutettiin 157 g/pv parempi päiväkasvu (p<0,05), 76 g/pv parempi nettokasvu (p=0,05) ja 27 kg suurempi teuraspaino (p<0,05) verrattuna laskevasti väkirehua saaneisiin sonneihin. Väkirehun ruokintastrategia ei vaikuttanut rehun hyväksikäyttöön. Kaikki sonnit olivat keskirasvaisia, mutta nouseva väkirehuruokinta lisäsi ruhojen rasvoittumista verrattuna LV-ruokintaan (p<0,01). Väkirehua saaneiden sonnien teurastili oli suurempi kuin SR-sonnien (p<0,05), mutta väkirehuruokinnan strategia ei vaikuttanut eläimistä saatavaan teurastiliin. Koe osoitti, että pelkästään hyvälaatuisella säilörehulla voidaan saavuttaa lihanaudoilla hyvät kasvutulokset loppukasvatuskaudella, ja säilörehun ollessa hyvälaatuista väkirehun annostelumahdollisuuksia on useita. Kuitenkaan maitorotuisen sonnin kasvupotentiaalia ei saada täysin hyödynnettyä pelkällä hyvälaatuisella säilörehulla.
  • Rantanen, Ville (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Tillage and sowing methods impact on the nutrient balances which is an interest of researchers and farmers. An aim of the research is to compare nutrient balances of tillage and sowing. During the years 2000 – 2010 in Jokioinen, studies have been conducted concerning how different tillage and sowing methods affect spring cereal nitrogen and phosphorus balances in heavy clay soil. The compared tillage systems were autumn mouldboard (25 cm) plough, stubble cultivation (10 cm) and no-till. The sowing systems under comparison were combined rotovator and shoe coulter seeder and single and double coulters disk seeders. The measurement thinks were yield (seed and straw), nitrogen and phosphorus content. From the measured values were calculated N and P balances which included seed, nutrient and natural deposition. The range of nutrient balances was large during the experiment period. Average nitrogen balance of different tillage methods were: plough 41,3 kg/ha stubble cultivation (S) 40,1 kg/ha and no-till (N) 44,0 kg/ha. Average phosphorus balance were P -0,5, S -0,3 and N 0,1 kg/ha. Average nitrogen balance of different sowing methods were combined rotovator, single disk coulter (R) 43,7 kg/ha and double disk coulter (SK) 44,9 kg/ha. Average phosphorus balance were JK -1,1, R 0,2 and SK 0,3 kg/ha. The weather conditions, especially precipitation, effects strongly on nutrient balances of tillage methods. In dry conditions no-till reached better nutrient balances than the other tillage methods. In other hand, in wet conditions mouldboard plough were better than an average. The weather conditions did not affect nutrient balances of the sowing methods. Furthermore combined rotovator and shoe coulter seeder achieved almost without exception better nutrient balances than others sowing methods regardless of the growing season precipitation.
  • Meskanen, Marko (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Most barley is used for animal feed or malting. However, barley contains technologically and nutritionally valuable components. The compositions of different barley cultivars as well as the factors affecting the concentrations of different nutrients (beta-glucan, protein, starch and ash) were surveyed in the literature part of this Master’s thesis. Special attention was paid to beta-glucan as it has attained significant interest in the food industry due to its positive health effects. In addition, the effect of grain composition on the pearling, milling and air classification properties of barley were surveyed. The nutrient composition and milling properties of ten different barley varieties were examined in the experimental part of the thesis. The varieties were divided into four subgroups based on their potential end usage: 1) speciality barley, 2) feed barley, and 3) starch barley, and 4) malting barley. The milling properties were analysed by sieve analysis and volumetric particle size distribution from the whole grain barley flours. In addition, coarse fractions were separated from the whole grain flour by air classification. These fractions were also analysed by the abovementioned particle analyses. Beta-glucan, protein and ash concentrations were usually higher in the speciality barley varieties and their coarse fractions. Starch concentrations were lower in these varieties and fractions. Feed and starch barleys had somewhat higher beta-glucan concentration compared to malting barleys, which respectively had the highest starch concentrations. Zero to 25 % of the grain’s outer layers was removed by pearling. Compositional analyses revealed that pearling decreased the amount of ash and increased the concentration of starch and betaglucan until about 15 % of the grain was pearled off. Starch and beta-glucan concentrations did not change significantly after this pearling level. Pearled barley flour was manufactured by pearling off 15–20 % of the grain’s outer layers, and milling the remaining pearled grains with a fine impact mill. Flour was then air classified to give fine and coarse fractions. The coarse fractions contained enriched concentrations of beta-glucan, protein and ash. However, their concentrations and yields were dependent on the speed of the classifier wheel. By contrast, starch was enriched in the fine fractions. The highest beta-glucan concentration was obtained with the beta-glucan-rich speciality variety D, which initially had 9.4 % beta-glucan. The beta-glucan concentration was enriched up to 11.4 % by pearling. Air classification of whole grain flour resulted maximally in 13.5 % and air classification of pearled grain flour in 15.5 % beta-glucan concentration. Based on the results, the beta-glucan concentration of the raw material seems to play the most important role in the enrichment. However, proper milling technology and air classifier settings are of utmost importance.
  • Perkiö, Pasi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of the literature review was to examine barley’s (Hordeum vulgare) alcohol-soluble proteins – hordeins and their technological attributes. Additionally, applicability of flow field flow fractionation (FFF) separation method as well as spectrophotometric and light scattering methods for protein characterization was under investigation. The objective of the experimental research was to determine a suitable extraction method for hordeins and subsequent analysis of their molecular weight distribution, size and conformation by the use of AF4 (asymmetric flow field flow fractionation) in combination with MALS-, UV- and RI-detectors. 40 % 1 propanol combined with mild sonication treatment proved to be the most efficient method to extract hordeins from barley flour. In order to prevent deterioration of the FFF channels the solvent had to be diluted to 20 %. Same dilution was used to measure hordeins’ extinction coefficient and to calculate ?n/?c theoretically. Berry plot was found to be the most suitable fit for the data analysis. Extracted hordeins were analysed with SDS PAGE. Extracts contained monomeric C, B and ? hordeins and polymeric B, D and ? hordeins. Also, small amounts of albumins, globulins and hydrolysed proteins were present. Extracts’ fractograms had five distinctive peaks. All of the peaks’ mass fractals and polydispersity indices were above 1, which means analysed aggregates were polydisperse and shaped as complex rods. This can be explained by 1 propanol influenced protein aggregation. Some inference in light scattering was identified in the MALS detector signal. This and the use of measured extinction coefficient and calculated index of refraction caused some errors in the data. The low sample yield (19–26 %) can be explained by the hordeins’ adhering to a syringe filter and adsorbing to the surface of AF4’s ultrafiltration membrane. Also, the use of over simplifying mathematical model to calculate the results and yield could cause some errors in the results. This study showed that it is possible to study Mw, size and conformation of polymeric hordeins with AF4 combined with MALS/UV-detectors and that hordeins form big aggregates in 20 % 1 propanol. For MALS proteins should be extracted in a solvent that will not interfere with subsequent analysis and proteins net charge, which creates a challenge to find proper solvent for hordeins. Nevertheless AF4 proved to be useful and delicate tool for characterizing cereal polymeric proteins.
  • Arte, Elisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The literature review focused on the composition of the barley hordeins and the known extraction methods. The metal-catalysed oxidation of proteins and amino acids was also reviewed. The aim of the experimental part was to develop a simple selective extraction method for the B and C hordeins and to study how metal-catalysed oxidation affects these hordeins. Hulles barley cf. Jorma was selected as test material since milling of this cultivar was simple with a Brabender Junior mill. From the milled barley, water and salt-soluble material were removed and the rest was freeze-dried. The freeze-dried sample flour was studied by gel separation, precipitation and extraction with aqueous alcohols. The aqueous alcohol extracted the C hordeins completely although there was some B hordeins present. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that the isoelectric point of C hordeins was between the pH 5–7. Aqueous alcohols, extraction temperatures and pH were studied for hordein extraction. None of the studied methods improved the extraction of B and C hordeins. The hordein sample used in further experiments was extracted with 55% 2-propanol at 50 ºC. The metal-catalysed oxidation of the extracted hordeins was studied by using copper or iron as a catalyst and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid as an oxidant. The reactions were analysed with SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC. The results showed that the most effective reaction was with copper and hydrogen peroxide where the B and C hordeins were degraded efficiently after 24 hours of incubation. The results from SE-HPLC showed aggregated B hordeins in the extracted sample, which were partly degraded after two hours of incubation with hydrogen peroxide and copper. The results of this study indicated that the biggest groups of hordeins, the B and C hordeins, cannot be selectively separated with extraction. The barley hordeins efficiently degraded in the metal-catalysed oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and copper.
  • Noponen, Kaisa-Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Tämän maisterin tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää miten eri säilöntäainekäsittelyt vaikuttavat ohrasta (Hordeum vulgare) valmistetun kokoviljasäilörehun käymislaatuun korjattaessa rehu eri kehitysvaiheissa. Lisäksi tutkittiin säilöntäajan pituuden vaikutusta käymislaatuun. Tutkimukseen kuului kaksi säilöntäkoetta, jotka suoritettiin heinä-elokuussa vuosina 2005 (koe 1) ja 2006 (koe 2) Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskuksessa (MTT) Jokioisilla. Ohrakasvusto kerättiin Punkalaitumelta. Rehut korjattiin viikon välein yhteensä kuusi kertaa. Ensimmäisellä korjuukerralla ohrakasvusto oli tähkälletulovaiheessa. Ensimmäisen kokeen viimeisessä kehitysvaiheessa ohrakasvusto oli taikinatuleentumisvaiheen ja keltatuleentumisvaiheen vaihteessa. Toisen kokeen viimeisessä kehitysvaiheessa ohrakasvusto oli keltatuleentumisvaiheessa. Säilöntäkäsittelyitä oli viisi, painorehu (ei säilöntäainetta), muurahaishappo 2, 4 ja 6 l/tn ja Lactobacillus plantarum maitohappobakteeri (ymppi). Koerehut tehtiin 120 ml:n lasisiin minisiiloihin. Säilöntäajat olivat 3, 12 ja 24 viikkoa. Raaka-aineiden koostumus ja rehujen säilönnällinen laatu määritettiin. Tutkimus suoritettiin MTT:n hankkeen ”Häviääkö hukkakauran siementen itävyys säilönnässä” yhteydessä. Ohrakasvuston koostumus muuttui kasvukauden edetessä. Käymislaatuun vaikuttavat erityisesti muutokset kuiva-ainepitoisuudessa, vesiliukoisten hiilihydraattien määrässä ja puskurikapasiteetissa. Kasvukauden edetessä kasvuston kuiva-ainepitoisuus lisääntyi ja vesiliukoisten hiilihydraattien pitoisuus sekä puskurikapasiteetti vähenivät. Käyminen oli voimakkaampaa kasvukauden alkupuolella, jolloin kasvuston kuivaainepitoisuus oli pieni ja vesiliukoisten hiilihydraattien pitoisuus oli suuri. Rehuihin muodostui runsaasti maitohappoa ja niiden pH oli matala. Kasvukauden lopussa kuiva-ainepitoisuus lisääntyi ja mikrobitoiminta oli vähäisempää. Rehuihin muodostui vähemmän maitohappoa ja pH jäi korkeammaksi kuin aikaisemmissa kehitysvaiheissa korjatuissa rehuissa. Painorehujen käymislaatu ei aina vastannut hyvälaatuisen rehun vaatimuksia erityisesti ammoniumtypen ja voihappopitoisuuden osalta. Säilöntäaineet vähensivät ammoniakin sekä haihtuvien rasvahappojen (VFA) muodostumista. Kaikki säilöntäainekäsitellyt rehut olivat käymislaadultaan pääasiassa hyviä. Maitohappobakteeriymppi tuotti hyvälaatuista säilörehua kaikissa kehitysvaiheissa. Käyminen oli homofermentatiivista, maitohappoa muodostui runsaasti ja rehujen pH-arvot olivat pieniä. Ymppirehuihin muodostui vain vähän VFA:ta ja proteolyysi oli vähäistä. Kaikki muurahaishappoannokset tuottivat hyvälaatuista säilörehua. Erityisesti neljää ja kuutta litraa käytettäessä maitohappokäyminen oli vähäistä. Myös kahden litran annos muurahaishappoa rehutonnille tuotti hyvälaatuista säilörehua, mutta fermentaatiohappojen pitoisuudet olivat suuremmat kuin muissa muurahaishapolla säilötyissä rehuissa. Toisessa kokeessa aikaisessa maitotuleentumisvaiheessa kaikkiin muurahaishapolla säilöttyihin rehuihin muodostui runsaasti käymishappoja, jolloin etikkahappopitoisuus oli liian korkea laatuvaatimusten mukaan. Laboratoriomittakaavassa suoritetun tutkimuksen perusteella ohrakasvusto voidaan korjata kokoviljasäilörehuksi tähkälletulovaiheesta keltatuleentumisvaiheeseen ja saada hyvälaatuista säilörehua. Maatilamittakaavassa rehun tiivistäminen voi olla vaativaa erityisesti tähkälletulo- ja keltatuleentumisvaiheissa, jolloin hapettomia olosuhteita on vaikeampi saavuttaa. Suositeltava korjuuajankohta ohrakasvustolle on taikinatuleentumisvaiheessa, kun ohrakasvuston D-arvo on suurin. Painorehussa käyminen ei aina riitä takaamaan hyvälaatuista rehua, ja sen vuoksi kokoviljasäilörehun valmistuksessa tulisi käyttää säilöntäaineita parantamaan käymislaatua. Eri säilöntäaineita käytettäessä säilörehun käymisen voimakkuus vaihtelee ja myös kehitysasteiden erot näkyvät käymislaadussa. Muurahaishapolla säilötyissä rehuissa käyminen on vähäistä, ja niiden jäännössokeripitoisuus on suuri, kun annostus on 4 tai 6 litraa rehutonnille. Myös muurahaishappoannos 2 l/tn riitti tuottamaan hyvälaatuista säilörehua, vaikka siinä käyminen oli voimakkaampaa. Aikaisessa maitotuleentumisvaiheessa korjattua kasvustoa säilöttäessä muurahaishappo ei aina riittänyt estämään melko voimakasta etikkahappokäymistä. Muissa kehitysvaiheissa muurahaishapolla säilötty rehu oli hyvälaatuista. Maitohappobakteeriymppi tuotti hyvälaatuista säilörehua kaikissa kehitysvaiheissa. Ymppirehuissa homofermentatiivinen maitohappokäyminen on voimakasta ja rehujen pH on matala.
  • Lius, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Finding new plant-based protein sources is important from a sustainable development perspective. Ethanol and starch production from barley results in fiber and protein side-stream fractions that are currently utilized for animal feed. Nonetheless, it would be more profitable if the barley protein side-stream was used as a human food ingredient. The main storage proteins in barley are known as hordeins. They are polymeric proteins and have low solubility, due to their inter-chain and inter-molecular disulfide bridges and hydrophobic side-chains. In food technology applications protein solubility is an important property for emulsifying and foaming functionality. Proteins are sensitive to the surrounding environment, especially to pH, which could be used to alter the solubility. In this thesis the literature review examined barley (Hordeum vulgare) proteins, especially the hordeins, functionality and effect on food materials. The review includes previous studies concerning cereal proteins functionality in general and their effect on food materials and a discussion on protein stabilized emulsions. The aim of the study was to determine the protein composition of two barley protein concentrates, OP1 and OP2, and to evaluate protein solubility and emulsifying properties. Furthermore, the aim of the study was to compare the functionality of the concentrates. According to SDS gel electrophoresis the protein concentrates consisted mostly of hordeins, especially C-hordein and some B-hordein. Minor amounts of other proteins where also identified. The protein solubility was determined by Lowry’s method. The proteins were more soluble in sodium phosphate buffer than in deionized water. In sodium phosphate buffer at pH 3,8 the solubility of OP1 proteins was 100 mg/g ± 11 mg/g and in deionized water at pH 3,9 the solubility was 45 mg/g ± 1,1 mg/g. The solubility of the OP2 proteins in sodium phosphate buffer at pH 3,8 was 47 mg/g ± 1,5 mg/g and in deionized water at pH 3,7 the solubility was 45 mg/g ± 1,1 mg/g. In both samples the proteins solubility increased as the pH increased. Most proteins were solubilized at pH 11: the solubility for OP1 and OP2 proteins were 240 mg/g ± 11 mg/g and 140 mg/g ± 12 mg/g respectively, which is problematic regarding food products, but could be used as a treatment to improve solubility. The smallest oil droplets were formed in emulsions were the pH was adjusted to 7 with sodium phosphate buffer. The stability of emulsions was however poor in all samples because of phase separation, which was already significant after one day of storage. The phase separation was considered to be flocculation which finally resulted in creaming or sedimentation. The flocculation may have occurred due to hydrophobic interactions between the proteins on the oil/water interface. However, shaking of the emulsion causes the flocculated oil droplets to separate, forming an even emulsion. No coalescence was observed in all samples, except for OP1-emulsions with 1 % (w/v) dry matter. These results confirm that these protein concentrates can be used in food products, especially in milk type drinks that need to be shaken before usage.
  • Rahikainen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of the literature review was to research barley proteins, metal-catalyzed oxidation and subjects related to it, like antioxidants and oxidation reactions in beer. In addition ACE inhibition was looked into. The object of the experimental part was to find out if the proteins of a barley-based industrial side product can be modified by metal-catalyzed oxidation or enzymatic hydrolysis, and how these treatments affect the different proteins in the sample material. In addition, the possible ACE inhibition activity of the reaction products was determined. The sample material was a protein-rich side-product of barley starch production. Two protein fractions were extracted from the material; an alcohol soluble fraction and a reduced fraction. The modification of the proteins in the sample fractions by oxidation and hydrolysis was determined with gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. The ACE inhibitory activity of the small peptides from these reactions was determined with UV-VIS spectroscopy. Three protein groups were identified from the sample material; polymeric B hordein, monomeric B hordein and C hordein. Contrary to expectations metal-catalyzed oxidation did not break down any of the proteins in the sample; instead it aggregated the proteins into bigger units. The enzyme treatment hydrolyzed the proteins effectively. Small peptides from the enzyme hydrolysis had an ACE inhibition IC50 of 246 µg/ml, which is similar to gluten hydrolysates IC50 of 29 µg/ml. IC50 is the inhibitor concentration where 50% of enzyme activity is inhibited. Instead of breaking down the subject proteins metal-catalyzed oxidation aggregated them, and thus it could not be used to make ACE inhibitory peptides. Enzyme hydrolysis was found to be a valid method of inhibitor peptide production. The peptides produced had an ACE inhibition capacity similar to previously known ACE inhibitory food hydrolysates.
  • Ketonen, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Variation of the protein and amino acid content of barley, wheat and oats were studied. Diets based on grain samples of different protein content were optimized for pigs and poultry.The study went on to optimize diets for pigs and poultry with grains of different protein contents. The amino acid and raw protein analysis was undertaken on 38 grain samples. Correlations were calculated between different variables in grain samples and linear regression analysis was conducted between the protein and amino acid composition. The best estimate for amino acid concentrations of cereals was the protein content. The relative content of amino acids decreases as protein content increases and especially so in barley and wheat. Most reliable regression equations between amino acid and protein content were made for barley and wheat samples. For oat reliable regression equations could not be made. Oats also differed by other features from barley and wheat as it correlated with different variables compared to barley and wheat. Amount of needed protein concentrate levels decreased when barley and wheat protein and amino acid contents were considered in optimization. Protein concentrate levels did not decrease when used oat sample with highest protein content.
  • Purola, Tuomo (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Kasvitaudit aiheuttavat sadonmenetyksiä ja vaikuttavat näin viljelijän taloudelliseen tulokseen ja kuluttajahintoihin. Kasvitautien torjuntaan on olemassa useita keinoja, mutta usein viljelijät käyttävät kemiallista torjuntaa. Ammattiviljelijät siirtyvät noudattamaan integroidun torjunnan yleisiä periaatteita vuoden 2014 alusta alkaen. Integroidun torjunnan tarkoituksena on vähentää kemiallisen torjunnan tarvetta. Maataloudessa on toimintaympäristössä tapahtuneiden muutosten vuoksi jouduttu tehostamaan tuotantoa, joka on johtanut viljelykierron yksipuolistumiseen ja viljelymenetelmien muutoksiin. Tapahtunut kehitys on suotuisaa kasvitautien leviämiselle. MTT:n Hyötygeeni-hankkeessa ohralajikkeiden taudinkestävyyttä on jalostettu maatiaislajikkeiden avulla kolmea kasvitautia vastaan: verkkolaikkua, rengaslaikkua ja härmää. Jalostettuja lajikkeita on viisi: jokaisen yksittäisen kasvitaudin kestäviä ja lisäksi härmän ja verkkolaikun kestävää sekä verkko- ja rengaslaikun kestävää. Taudinkestäviä lajikkeita viljelemällä fungisidien (kasvitautien torjunta-aineiden) tarve poistuu. Tällöin säästöjä saadaan aine-, kone- ja työkustannuksissa. Taudinkestävyyden jalostus kuitenkin heikentää lajikkeen muita ominaisuuksia ja viljelijälle on olennaista tuotannosta saatava voitto. Tällöin kustannussäästöjen on oltava suuremmat kuin alentuneesta sadosta johtuvat tuottotappiot. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli vertailla maatiaislajikkeiden taudinkestävyydellä jalostettujen ja tautialttiiden ohralajikkeiden viljelystä saatavia taloudellisia hyötyjä. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin kahta aineistoa: taudinkestävien lajikkeiden satotappiokokeita kasvukaudelta 2010 ja eri fungisidien torjuntatehokkuutta mittaavia kenttäkokeita kasvukausilta 1999–2010. Tutkimuksen teoria perustuu klassiseen tuotantofunktioon ja lyhyen aikavälin voitonmaksimointiin. Tutkimusmenetelminä käytettiin varianssi- ja regressioanalyysia ja hyödynnettiin lineaarista sekamallia, jolla voitiin minimoida sääolosuhteiden ja koepaikkojen vaikutukset tuloksiin. Lisätuottojen vertailu onnistui tutkimuksessa paremmin varianssianalyysilla. Regressioanalyysin hyödyntäminen oli ongelmallista kenttäkokeiden järjestelyjen ja kasvitautien luonteen vuoksi. Kenttäkokeiden keskimääräisellä tautiesiintymällä fungisidien käyttö oli kannattavampaa kuin taudinkestävien lajikkeiden viljely. Ainoastaan härmän ja verkkolaikun kestävän lajikkeen lisätuotot olivat lähes yhtä suuret kuin taloudellisesti parhailla fungisideilla käsiteltyjen alttiiden lajikkeiden. Taudinkestävien lajikkeiden hyödyt tulevat paremmin esille, kun kasvitautiesiintymä lisääntyy ja fungisidien hinta kasvaa suhteessa ohran hintaan.
  • Ohralahti, Kalle (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Barley is the most cultivated cereal in acreage in Finland. Barley has many plant diseases that cause yield reductions like net blotch, scald and mildew. The weather conditions and the disease resistance of the cultivar are affecting the appearance of the plant diseases. Plant diseases can be controlled by certified seed, seed treatment, crop rotation, fungicide treatment and by cultivating resistant cultivars. Net blotch causes reduction in green leaf area, thousand grain weight and thereby it reduces yield. The aim of this study was to study what is the yield response of barley to fungicide treatment when cultivars are either susceptible or tolerant to net blotch. The data of this study was based on The profitability of plant protection -trial series. The field trials were conducted at three locations in Finland during 2006–2009. The cultivars in the trials were divided based on their net blotch resistance to susceptible and tolerant groups. Fungicide treatment was made with Acanto Prima as a single treatment at the flag leaf stage. Tolerant and susceptible groups differed significantly in the amount of the net blotch. Fungicide treatment decreased the appearance of net blotch more in the susceptible group although the amount of net blotch was significantly less in the tolerant group. In the tolerant group the disease level was low even before the fungicide treatment. The conclusions of this study were, that tolerant cultivar group had better yield, but susceptible cultivar group had better yield response to the fungicide treatment. The yield response was in average 400 kg/ha in the susceptible and about 200 kg/ha in the resistant cultivar group. The yield response was due to the higher thousand grain weight. The yield security of disease resistant cultivar is better also in higher disease pressure. Resistant cultivar is one way to reduce the usage of plant protection products in IPM farming. Breeding of resistant cultivars is needed because the plant diseases are altering in their disease infection capability.
  • Härkönen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Biochars are soil amendment materials produced via pyrolysis of biomass. They are resistant to degradation and can be used as a way to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Biochars can improve soil structure and water and nutrient retention capacity, and significant positive effects on soil aggregate stability, water retention capacity and nutrient availability have been observed in acidic soils with low carbon content. The positive effects of biochar on soil properties can also increase crop yields. However, most studies on the effects of biochar have been conducted in tropical or temperate climates, and currently very little is known on its effects on the yield formation of cereals, and more specifically, barley. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of softwood biochar on field soil moisture and nutrient contents, as well as its effects on yield components of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 8 years after its application (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1) to boreal soil. In addition, the effects of organic and mineral fertilizers, alone and together with biochar, on soil moisture, nutrient contents and barley yield components were studied. Biochar did not have significant effects on soil moisture or nutrient contents or on barley yield components. Fertilization had significant effects on contents of soil moisture and nutrients, electrical conductivity, pH and the biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, number and weight of seeds and the final yield of barley. The non-significant effects of biochar can be due to the high amount of carbon already present in the soil, and similar results have been observed on the research site in previous years. The added biochar may also have been misplaced by soil management or degraded by weathering. The growing season of 2018 was drier and warmer than the long-term average and drought during the beginning of the growing season combined with issues with weeds negatively affected crop development and yield components.
  • Pensas, Ari (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important cop in the world. It is used as raw material for fodder, brewing, bakery and foodstuff industry. Barley needs nutrients and nitrogen is the most important. Barley takes nitrogen 100 to 120 kg per hectar as ammonium and nitrate, which it uses during the growing season to form biomass and leaf chlorophyll to photosynthesize. Nitrogen deficiency causes dwarfism to stem and undeveloped state to phosynthesizing leaves. Nitrogen can be applied as inorganic and organic fertilizers and also as microbe content organic mineral fertilizers. The aim of the thesis was to examine how conventionally and organically cultivated methods affected two-row barley’s yield and quality in field experiment in 2009. There were six different cultivation methods; Berner Plant protection, University of Helsinki, Nylands Svenska Lantbrukssällskap (NSL) and Raisio Agro used conventionally cultivated methods and Elosato and ProAgria Organic used organically cultivated methods. Treatmens were fertilized by nitrogen from 71 to 118 kg per hectar where conventionally cultivated treatments were fertilized by nitrogen from 85 to 118 kg per hectar and organically cultivated treatments were fertilized by 71 kg per hectar. Seed population was from 400 to 500 seeds per m2. The results indicated that NFC Tipple matured 4 to 5 days earlier in organically cultivated treatments than conventionally cultivated treatments which had an effect to grain size. Early maturing was caused by low nitrogen fertilizer amount and plant disease amount. Vigorously grown barley resulted in higher yield and better yield quality when it was conventionally cultivated in comparison to organically cultivated. Quench responded better to nitrogen fertilizer when nitrogen than NFC Tipple and Fairytale. Number and timing of fungicide treatment had no effect to Quench’s growth’s disease amount.