Browsing by Subject "omahoito"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Tissari, Varpu; Toiviainen, Hanna (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Tissari, Varpu (Toiminnan, kehityksen ja oppimisen tutkimusyksikkö CRADLE, Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    KONSEPTI - Toimintakonseptin uudistajien verkkolehti, 7 (1-2), 2012
  • Sjöblom, Eero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Hampaiden harjaaminen on isolla osalla suomalaisista nuorista suosituksia heikompaa, eikä merkittävää muutosta parempaan ole viime vuosina tutkimuksissa havaittu. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena oli selvittää suun omahoitoon vaikuttavia tekijöitä ja näiden yhteyttä hampaiden harjausaktiivisuuteen. Tavoitteena oli löytää syitä siihen, miksi hampaat jäävät harjaamatta. Tutkimuksen aineisto koostui sähköisellä kyselyllä kerätyistä vastauksista. Kysely jaettiin neljään helsinkiläiseen lukioon kaikille luokka-asteille syksyllä 2019 ja siihen vastasi 386 opiskelijaa. Kysymykset käsittelivät suun omahoitoa, puhdasta suuta sekä asenteita ja kokemuksia näihin liittyen. Saatuja vastauksia verrattiin itse ilmoitettuun hampaiden harjausaktiivisuuteen, joka jaettiin useammin kuin kerran päivässä harjaaviin sekä kerran päivässä tai harvemmin harjaaviin. Nuorilta kysyttiin myös avoimella kysymyksellä todennäköisintä syytä jättää hampaat harjaamatta. Tutkimusten tulosten perusteella nuorten miesten harjausaktiivisuus oli naisia heikompaa. Erot muissa omahoitoon liittyvissä tekijöissä jäivät pienemmiksi, mutta esimerkiksi hammasvälien puhdistamisessa ja ksylitolituotteiden käytössä havaittiin eroja. Positiiviset asenteet suunterveyttä ja sen hoitamista kohtaan olivat yhteydessä suositusten mukaiseen hampaiden harjaamiseen. Lisäksi puhtaan suun tärkeys sosiaalisissa tilanteissa oli useammin harjaavilla suurempi. Yleisimpiä nuorten itse ilmoittamia syitä jättää hampaat harjaamatta olivat väsymys, jaksamattomuus ja unohdus. Tulosten perusteella lukioikäisten nuorten suun omahoidossa on edelleen parannettavaa. Hampaiden harjauksen lisäksi huomiota tulisi kiinnittää myös muihin omahoitoon liittyviin tekijöihin, kuten hammasvälien puhdistamiseen. Isolla osalla nuorista vaikuttaa kuitenkin olevan kohtalainen ymmärrys omasta suun terveydentilastaan ja siihen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Tätä tietoa olisi hyvä hyödyntää terveysneuvonnassa ja -kasvatuksessa jatkossakin.
  • Blåfield, Karla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Current national medicines policy in Finland highlights the importance of rational use of medicines leading to effective, good quality, equal and safe medication therapy, in which the key is on well-implemented medication self-management. The aim of this study was to find out how well people with chronic diseases are in control with their own medication therapy. The special focus was on assessing whether people with chronic conditions: 1) are familiar with the therapeutic aim of their medication; 2) have medication lists of their medicines and are those lists up-to-date; and 3) utilize Omakanta-database. The aim was also: 4) to identify which factors are associated with the utilization of medication lists. A nationwide cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among medicine users in Autumn 2017. The link for the survey was available via the Finnish Medicine Agency’s and Pharmaceutical Information Centre’s website. In addition, members of the national medicines information network forwarded the link through their own channels. Survey respondents with chronic diseases were included in this study (n=844). The majority of the people with chronic diseases (92 %) were aware about the therapeutic aims of their medication. Of the respondents, 39 % had a medication list. Availability of medication list was associated with the age of ≥ 65-years (OR 0.223; CI 0.103-0.485) and the use of multiple medicines (OR 0.218; IC 0.127-0.376). Of the medication lists used by people with chronic disease, 44 % were in the electronic form and the majority (92 %) of all the medication lists used by people with chronic disease were reported to be up-to-date. Omakanta-database was used by 93 % of the respondents. People with chronic disease are well aware of the therapeutic aims of their medication. However, the rarely have up-dated medication lists. Omakanta-database seems to be well known and utilized among people with chronic diseases. Older people using multiple medicines should be encouraged to use and supported with the up-date of their medication lists.
  • Vuorela, Maiju (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The aim of this Master's Thesis was to assess experiences of access to medications and follow up services. The aspects studied were: access to medications from the public's perspective, also in relation to availability of follow-up services and support for self-management in long-term medications, and difficulty to buy necessary medicines due to economic reasons. The respondents were also asked to identify needs for developing new customer-oriented services for follow up of treatments. The data were collected during December 2013 and January 2014 by an email survey to those registered in the loyal customer program of University Pharmacy. The data were analyzed by using the statistical programme SPSS. Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed (a preliminary analysis). Respondents' age, gender, area of residency and financial situation were used as background variables. 606 responses were received (84% women, 16% men). The mean age of the respondents was 53.5 years and 91% had at least one disease or symptom diagnosed by a doctor. Almost all (93%) used some medicine or vitamin product. Eleven percent of the respondents reported that they had not been able to purchase a medicine they needed due to poor personal financial situation. A majority (85%) of the respondents perceived their health status as good. The average number of visits at the doctor during a one year period was 5.5. About 22 % of the respondents reported that they were not able to get an appointment when they needed it. About half of the respondents had regular health controls by a doctor. The respondents indicated a wish that getting the appointment regularly should be easier and that there should be time to have a holistic discussion on one's care. About half had a personal doctor and 42% had a medication card. The most common ways to self-monitor one's care were by observing general health status, measuring blood pressure and weight. Almost two-thirds (63%) discussed the monitoring results with their doctor. Many respondents reported in the open comments that they did not have instructions for self-monitoring and there was no healthcare provider to share the results with. The respondents wanted have more information concerning the reasons to use medicines, and the benefits of a long-term medicine use. They also wanted to know more about adverse effects and interactions, as well as about non-pharmacological treatment options. The prescriptions were most commonly renewed at the doctor's office (47%).The respondents also expressed a wish to have more options to contact their healthcare providers, e.g., though electronic services (online doctor, email counselling). There are limitations in the Finnish health care system from the medication management's perspective. Aspects needing improvement include access to regular controls and follow-up services, having more options to contact healthcare providers, also through electronic services, having better access to information on diseases and medication, and finally, improve caring for people's health concerns in a holistic way.
  • Reponen, Terhi (2012)
    Verenpainetauti on yksi yleisimpiä pitkäaikaissairauksia iäkkäiden keskuudessa. Omahoidon lisääminen iäkkäillä vaatii asennemuutoksen lisäksi perustietojen lisäämistä omasta sairaudesta ja sen hoidosta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää iäkkäiden (+65 v) verenpainepotilaiden tietoja omasta sairaudestaan ja sen hoidosta. Tutkimus oli laadullinen haastattelututkimus. Haastateltavilta kysyttiin tietoja korkean verenpaineen hoidon hyödyistä. Lisäksi iäkkäiltä verenpainepotilailta kysyttiin tietoja elintapojen merkityksestä verenpaine- taudin hoidossa. Haastateltavilta kysyttiin myös omista hoitotavoitteista ja omasta hoitotasapainosta sekä lääkityksen perusteista. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin myös iäkkäiden verenpainepotilaiden tietoa verenpainetaudin hoidon seurantatarpeista. Lisäksi haluttiin selvittää, miten apteekin rooli koetaan tiedon jakajana pitkäaikaissairauden hoidon seurannassa ja mistä iäkkäät ylipäätään hakevat ja saavat terveystietoa. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään iäkkäiden verenpainepotilaiden valmiutta lisätä omahoitoaan ja halua osallistua yksilöllisen hoitosuunnitelman laatimiseen. Kotiverenpainemittaukset ovat tärkeä osa verenpainetaudin omahoitoa. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, miten mittauksia käytännössä tehtiin ja oliko mittauksista annettu yksityiskohtaista opastusta. Tämän tutkimuksen mukaan iäkkäät verenpainepotilaat tietävät huonosti verenpaineen hoitamisen hyödyt. Apteekissa ja muualla terveydenhuollossa tulisikin korostaa enemmän hoidon tavoitteita ja hyötyjä. Lääkehoidon hyötyjen tiedostaminen motivoi omahoitoon. Haastateltavilla ei ollut yksityiskohtaista tietoa elintapojen merkityksestä iäkkään verenpaineen hoidossa. Iäkkään verenpainepotilaan hoidossa ja elintapa- neuvonnassa korostuvat yksilölliset tarpeet. Elintapojen merkitys iäkkään verenpaineen hoidossa on erilainen kuin nuorempien kohdalla. Tarkoituksenmukaisen ja vaikuttavan hoidon lisäksi on otettava huomioon elämänlaatuun ja toimintakykyyn vaikuttavat tekijät iäkkään autonomiaa unohtamatta. Haastateltavat eivät olleet tietoisia omasta verenpaineen tavoitearvosta. Hoitotasapainoa iäkkäät pitivät itse hyvänä, vaikka eivät tienneetkään todellisia tavoitearvoja. Verenpainetaudin seurantatarpeista (lääkärikäynnit ja laboratoriokokeet) haastateltavat eivät tienneet. Verenpainetta mitattiin kotona silloin tällöin. Tarkempaa tietoa mittausten tekemisestä ei ollut. Apteekista ei osattu odottaa tietoa sairaudesta tai sen hoidon seurannasta. Terveysasemalta saatavaan tietoon ja tukeen oltiin tyytyväisiä. Iäkkäät arvostavat mahdollisuutta osallistua itseään koskevan hoitosuunnitelman laatimiseen. Omahoidon lisääminen sairauksien hoidossa koettiin kuitenkin käytännössä vaikeaksi.
  • Äijö, Nelli (Helsingfors universitet, 2019)
    As the population becomes older and the amount of multimorbid patients increases, also health care spending increases. New care models are needed where patients’ needs are taken into consideration by providing preventive and patient-centred care. In Finland and internationally, new ways to treat elderly, chronically ill patients have been developed. One of the new models is the health and care plan model. This longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial studied the health and care plan model’s impact on healthcare costs, patients’ physical functioning and patients’ quality of life. The aim of the study was to study the cost-effectiveness of the health and care plan model compared to standard care practice. The goal of this study was to study if rational pharmacotherapy and self-management support can prevent the decline in physical functioning, the decline in quality of life and the increase in health service use and costs among elderly population. This study was conducted between 2014-2018 as a multi-disciplinary cooperation between Tornio health station, University of Helsinki Faculty of Pharmacy and Alatornio pharmacy. The patients in this study were over 75-year old, multimorbid, community dwelling, polypharmacy patients. The patients in the intervention group received an interview based clinical medication review and were formed a medication plan. Furthermore, the patients in the intervention group were planned a health and care plan that was combined with the medication plan into a comprehensive self-management plan in a multi-disciplinary meeting. A case manager was appointed for the patients in the intervention group and the case manager could be contacted by the patients in the intervention group at any point of the study if there arose a non-acute concern with the patient’s health. The patients in the control group were conducted a prescription review based on the information available in the electronic health records system and continued receiving the standard care practice. Cost and effectiveness data were gathered from the patients over the period of two years. The effectiveness data were gathered at Tornio health station where the intervention and control group’s quality of life was measured with the SF-36 generic quality of life measure and physical functioning was measured with Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). The quality of life data gathered with SF-36 were transformed into one preference based single index score SF-6D to calculate the quality of life and quality adjusted life years (QALY). Data about the use of health services were extracted from the electronic health records system and transformed into costs by using the national reference costs. At the beginning of the study, the intervention and control group were statistically significantly similar. During the two-year follow-up, no statistically or clinically significant differences were observed between the intervention and control group in their quality of life, in their physical functioning or in the costs of used health services. However, in the intervention group, the cost of used health services was on average 2 406 euros smaller than those of the control group’s during the two-year follow-up. The health and care plan model was cost-effective compared to standard care practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -64 504 € per one QALY. Based on this study, it is recommended to support the self-management and physical functioning of the elderly with an intervention like health and care plan model to decrease the health care spending. The results of this study can be applied to Finnish healthcare system to decrease the health care spending of multimorbid, community dwelling and polypharmacy elderly patients. The use of real-world evidence increases the reliability of this study.