Browsing by Subject "ombrotrofinen suo"

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  • Ruuska, Anna-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Industry, transportation and agriculture release nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) into the atmosphere. These compounds deposit to the earth’s surface for example via rain as nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). It has been shown that nitrogen deposition has decreased the share of sphagnum mosses among mire vegetation. Mires are important carbon storages and sinks, and estimates show that in mires over half of the carbon is stored in peat originated from sphagna. Therefore it is important to study the phenomenon that has an impact on the function of mires and also mechanisms that effect sphagnum via nitrogen deposition. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of nitrogen deposition on sphagnum’s hyaline and chlorophyllous cell morphology. The function of hyaline cell is to store water and maintain optimal water content for sphagnum’s efficient growth. Therefore the relation between the water content of sphagnum and the changes in cell morphology was studied. Changes in cell morphology may decrease sphagnum’s drought tolerance and lead to the disappearance of sphagnum. Samples of sphagnum (Sphagnum capillifolium (Ehrh.) Hedw.) were collected from ombrotrophic Mer Bleue bog which is located in Ottawa, Canada. By the May 2016, plots in Mer Bleue had been fertilized with different forms (NH4+, NO3-, NH4NO3) and amounts (1,6, 3,2 and 6,4 g N m-2 v-1) of nitrogen between 4-16 years. Potassium phosphate (KH2PO4) had been added into some plots. Total number of different treatments was 11, each of which had three replicates. In this study, sample preparates of sphagnum were microscoped and photographed and cell areas (μm2) were determined. Cell material used for statistical analysis was in total 1138 of which half were hyaline cells and half chlorophyllous cells. In addition, this study contained data from sphagnum’s water and nutrient contents and water table measurements. The effects of different treatments were detected mainly as an increase of hyaline cell areas. Out of different forms of nitrogen, only NH4NO3 with amount of 6,4 g N m-2 increased hyaline cell area, and the effects of NH4+ and NO3- did not differ from control. KH2PO4 treatment did grow the area of hyaline cell both alone and when added together with NH4NO3. Between different treatments only minor changes in water content of sphagnum were observed. Even though the results of this study did not refer to impaired drought tolerance of sphagnum, morphological changes observed may hinder sphagnum’s vitality in some other way. This matter needs further research.