Browsing by Subject "ominaisuudet"

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  • Westman, Carl Johan; Starr, Michael; Laine, Jukka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1977)
  • Kelloniemi, Jarmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    The objectives of this study was to investigate the cause of the local whiteness in AURAÒ blue cheese and to find the way which reduces the white cheeses. It was studied if white cheeses have a compact or open structure. White cheeses were classified as compact and open. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on compact, open and mouldy cheeses. Factors which cause compact cheese were also studied. At the beginning of blue cheese manufacturing, citrate was analysed at different time points in different vats. The aim was to make compact cheese in one of the trials. Cheese curd was broken before and after moulding. Alternative factors including the effect of addition of salt to the vat on reducing the amount of white cheeses was also studied. Other variables were the speed of the drying belt, heating of vat, the amount of vat whey and the different moulds were also studied. In addition it was studied how separation of whey affects to the amount of compact cheeses in the drying belt. Microbiological and chemical analyses as well as density and texture measurement were performed on the trials. Most of the white cheeses were compact and the small amount of white cheeses had an open structure. The compact cheeses had less mould and yeast than the mouldy cheeses. The pH was lower and the amount of free amino acids was less in the compact cheeses than the mouldy cheeses. The compact cheeses were more dense than the mouldy cheeses. Measurements from texture analyser showed that the hardness of compact cheese were greater and the fracturability of compact cheese was lower than the hardness or fracturability of mouldy cheese. There were no differences in the amount of citrates between days or vats. Broken cheese curd before moulding caused a more compact structure. The addition of salt in the vat did not affect the white cheeses. The compact cheeses decreased when the speed of the drying belt was reduced. With the use of the new mould, less compact cheeses were produced than with older mould. The removal of water from cheese curds is logarithmic the longer they are on an open drying belt. The compact cheese also decreased logarithmically when cheese curds were on drying belt from zero to ten seconds. There was a greater amount of compact cheeses after moulding in the vat.
  • Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Häkkinen, Tarja; Tarpio, Jyrki (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2021)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 46/2021
    Rakennuksen elinkaariominaisuudet mahdollistavat rakennuksen tai sen osien vaihtoehtoisia käyttötapoja tai pitkäkestoista käyttöä. Tässä työssä rakennusten elinkaariominaisuudet jäsenneltiin seuraavasti: A. Monikäyttöinen rakennus (tiloilla useita käyttäjiä päivittäin). B. Monikäyttötilasarja (tilat sellaisenaan mahdollistavat käyttötarkoituksen muutoksia tulevaisuudessa). C. Sisäisesti muunneltava rakennus. D. Laajennettavissa oleva rakennus. E. Supistettavissa oleva rakennus. F. Siirrettävissä oleva rakennus (myös runko siirtyy). G. Uuteen käyttöön purettavissa oleva rakennus (rakennusosat hyödynnettävissä). H. Hyvin pitkän käyttöiän rakennus. Rakennusten elinkaariominaisuuksiin kuuluu useita osatekijöitä, joita on erikseen käsitelty monissa rakennusten arviointiin kehitetyissä menetelmissä. Säädösohjauksen näkökulmasta yhteinen ymmärrys keskeisestä terminologiasta on tärkeä, ja siksi raportissa esitetään katsaus terminologiaan ja ehdotus keskeisistä termeistä ja niiden määritelmistä. Elinkaariominaisuudet voivat edistää resurssitehokkuutta ja vähähiilistä rakentamista. Ne voivat myös lisätä käyttäjien hyvinvointia tarjoamalla ratkaisuja, jotka vastaavat paremmin käyttäjien erilaisia tarpeita. Ehdotuksessa uudeksi kaavoitus- ja rakennuslaiksi (KRL) sanotaan, että rakentamisen on hillittävä ilmastonmuutosta perustumalla elinkaariominaisuuksiltaan kestäviin ratkaisuihin. Tulevien säädösten laadinnan kannalta on tarpeen ymmärtää eri elinkaariominaisuuksien vaikutuspotentiaalia sekä ilmasto- että muiden ympäristö- ja resurssivaikutuksien suhteen. Raportti taustoittaa tätä kuvaamalla periaatteellisia vaikutuksia. KRL-ehdotuksessa sanotaan myös, että ympäristöministeriön asetuksella voidaan antaa tarkempia säännöksiä eräistä elinkaariominaisuuksista. Osana tulevan säädöstyön taustoitusta raportissa esitetään rakentamisen asiantuntijoiden haastatteluihin ja kirjoittajien näkemyksiin pohjautuvia ehdotuksia elinkaariominaisuuksien ohjaamisesta. Työn yksi keskeinen johtopäätös on, että elinkaariominaisuuksien ohjausta hankaloittaa niihin liittyvien käytännön suunnittelu- ja arviointimenetelmien puute. Ohjaaminen tulisikin aloittaa informatiivisen ohjaamisen keinoin kehittämällä eri elinkaariominaisuuksien suunnittelumenetelmiä, kriteeristöä ja arviointimenetelmiä hyödyntämällä laajaa olemassa olevaa tutkimustietoa.
  • Tuominen, Meri; Schultz, Eija (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 26/2010
    Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies offer great opportunities for almost all sectors of society. New materials and applications are invented all the time. Benefits are obvious in many cases, such as enhanced energy use, improved electronic devices, lighter products, higher hygiene level, or increased storage time. The motive for manufacturing nanomaterials lies in the chemical and physical characteristics, which are different from material in bulk. Due to these new properties environmental effects assessment is challenging. We are only at the beginning of understanding how nanomaterials will behave in actual environmental conditions.
  • Nyyssönen, Aarne (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1954)
  • Menberu, Meseret Walle; Marttila, Hannu; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Haghighi, Ali Torabi; Kløve, Bjørn (American Geophysical Union, 2021)
    Water Resources Research 57, e2020WR028624
    Undisturbed peatlands are effective carbon sinks and provide a variety of ecosystem services. However, anthropogenic disturbances, especially land drainage, strongly alter peat soil properties and jeopardize the benefits of peatlands. The effects of disturbances should therefore be assessed and predicted. To support accurate modeling, this study determined the physical and hydraulic properties of intact and disturbed peat samples collected from 59 sites (in total 3,073 samples) in Finland and Norway. The bulk density (BD), porosity, and specific yield (Sy) values obtained indicated that the top layer (0–30 cm depth) at agricultural and peat extraction sites was most affected by land use change. The BD in the top layer at agricultural, peat extraction, and forestry sites was 441%, 140%, and 92% higher, respectively, than that of intact peatlands. Porosity decreased with increased BD, but not linearly. Agricultural and peat extraction sites had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity, Sy, and porosity, and the highest BD of the land use options studied. The van Genuchten-Mualem (vGM) soil water retention curve (SWRC) and hydraulic conductivity (K) models proved to be applicable for the peat soils tested, providing values of SWRC, K, and vGM-parameters (α and n) for peat layers (top, middle and bottom) under different land uses. A decrease in peat soil water content of ≥10% reduced the unsaturated K values by two orders of magnitude. This unique data set can be used to improve hydrological modeling in peat-dominated catchments and for fuller integration of peat soils into large-scale hydrological models.
  • Päivänen, Juhani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1973)
  • Saranpää, Pekka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Kärkkäinen, Matti; Dumell, Olle (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Kärkkäinen, Matti; Hakala, Herman (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Halinen, Markku (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Kellomäki, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Velling, Pirkko; Nepveu, Gérard (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Hakala, Herman (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1992)
    The influence was examined of log characteristics (diameter, length, taper, volume, density and quality), sawing pattern, yield, sawing efficacy, stoppages and consumption of electricity on the profitability of sawing pine [Pinus sylvestris] logs. The costs (raw material, capital, labour, energy and other) and revenues (sawn timber, chips, sawdust and bark) were also studied. The study was based on tests using conventional sawing patterns of 1606 logs at the Teuva sawmill (owned by Botnia Wood Oy), Finland, in 1985. A sawing simulator was used to (i) calculate the yield of by-products and (ii) examine the influence of other sawing patterns on yield and sawing result. Profitability increased as log diameter increased. The absolute price difference between the smallest diameter class (133-152 mm) and the largest diameter class was M 99.1/msuperscript 3 over bark. Revenue (mainly from sawn timber) accounted for M 66/msuperscript 3 and costs (mainly of raw materials) for M 33.1 msuperscript 3 of this difference. Diameter, yield and sawing efficacy had a greater influence on costs and revenues than did stoppages.
  • Vilmi, Annika; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Heino, Jani (Elsevier, 2019)
    Ecological Indicators, 99, 159-166
    We examined how niche position, niche breadth, biological traits and taxonomic relatedness affect interspecific variation in occupancy and abundance of two commonly-used biological indicator groups, i.e. diatoms and macroinvertebrates. We studied 291 diatom and 103 macroinvertebrate species that occupied the littoral zones of a large (305 km2) highly-connected freshwater system. We collated information on the biological traits and taxonomic relatedness of each species. Using principal coordinates analysis, we formed biological trait and taxonomic vectors describing distances between species and used the resulting vectors as predictor variables. As environmental data, we had site-specific physico-chemical variables, which were used in outlying mean index analyses to determine the niche position and niche breadth of each species. We used linear models to study if and how these two niche parameters and biological traits as well as taxonomic relatedness affected occupancy and abundance. We observed positive occupancy-abundance relationships for both diatoms and macroinvertebrates. We further found that, for both groups, occupancy was better explained by the predictor variables compared with abundance. We also observed that niche parameters, especially niche position, were the main determinants of variation in occupancy and abundance for both diatoms and macroinvertebrates. Local abundances of diatom and macroinvertebrate species were also, to a small degree, affected by biological traits or taxonomic relatedness. We further saw that the relationship between niche position and occupancy was negative, indicating that the more marginal the niche position, the rarer a species is. Our findings provide support for the use of diatoms and macroinvertebrates as ecological indicators as their occupancies and abundances were affected by niche parameters, which is not necessarily always clear in challenging study systems with high connectivity (i.e. high movement of material and species) among sites. These findings also suggest that indices using information on species’ occupancy, abundance and niche requirements are useful in environmental assessment.