Browsing by Subject "ongelmanratkaisu"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-13 of 13
  • Rasila, Saana (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Problem solving is important because it develops cognitive skills and creativity, and it motivates pupils to learn maths. Problem-solving skills are essential in our everyday lives. Open-ended problems are common in problem solving. The focus of this research is on open-ended maths problems in problem solving in primary school teaching. The inspiration for this research comes from national and international research that suggests that open-ended questions in problem solving improve cognitive skills, increase creativity and motivate pupils to learn maths. I am investigating the way pupils and teachers perceive open-ended questions and how they think they differ from ordinary maths questions. All the interviewees are participants in a development project regarding problem solving. Three teachers and three groups of pupils were interviewed in spring 2016. They were asked questions about the problem-solving tasks they had solved during the project. The answers were divided into different themes based on the research questions. Different themes from the research questions were found through the categorising process. Recurring themes were: multiple solutions, co-operation, reflection and changes in thought process. According to my findings the pupils were not used to solving problem based questions. However, most of them enjoyed solving the problems and felt a sense of achievement after solving them. The teachers understood the advantages of the problem-solving questions and felt that their own ideas about maths were developed during the project.
  • Borgström, Monica (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Syftet med denna studie är att genom data-analys triangulation undersöka socionomstuderandes svar på ett yrkesetiskt dilemma av omsorgsetisk natur. Samplet består av 32 socionomer i början av sina studier som har svarat på ett hypotetiskt dilemma om hur de skulle bemöta en ung kvinna som ber om råd i en mycket svår situation. De huvudsakliga teoretiska utgångspunkterna för detta arbete är ECI (Ethic of Care Interview) som utvecklats av Eva Skoe som metod för att undersöka omsorgsetik, samt Osers och Althofs teori om diskursiva problemlösningsmetoder bland professionella. Som grundläggande teorier för all modern forskning om människans moralutveckling, presenteras också Carol Gilligans och Lawrence Kohlbergs teorier samt den huvudsakliga kritiken dessa bemött. Carol Gilligan är den som ursprungligen presenterade tanken om att det finns två olika typer av moraliskt tänkande där omsorgsetik är mer typisk för kvinnor och rättviseetik är mer typisk för män. Den första delen av analysen är en innehållsanalys där svaren på det yrkesrelaterade dilemmat på olika ECI stadium jämförs med varandra. Poängsättningen i ECI har varit grunden för denna analys. Den andra delen av analysen är en deduktiv teoribunden analys, där jag undersökt i fall Osers och Althofs modell om problemlösningsstrategier även går att tillämpa på ett yrkesetiskt dilemma. Slutligen tar jag också ställning till dessa två teoriers kompatibilitet. Resultatet visar att eleverna har svarat aningen sämre på det yrkesetiska dilemmat än vad deras allmänna ECI stadium är. Detta kan bero på att de är i början av sina studier men också på det allmänna klimat som råder inom socialbranschen. Teorin om diskursiva problemlösningsstrategier går inte heller att tillämpa på detta yrkesetiska dilemma, eftersom den hypotetiska klientens självbestämmanderätt gör en diskursiv lösning omöjlig. Till följd av detta har jag skapat en ny modell som baserar sig på 6 kategorier utgående från de faktorer de intervjuade lyfter fram som de viktigaste i den professionellas möte med klienten. Eftersom den nya modellen inte är hierarkisk, kan de två teorierna inte jämföras med varandra på så sätt att högre ECI nivå skulle innebära en viss typ av problemlösningsstrategi.
  • Teräsvasara, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. Problem solving plays a key role in the foundations of the basic education curriculum and is one of the seven main objectives of mathematics teaching. (National Board of Education 2014) The student's positive attitude towards mathematics has been found to be related to better learning outcomes (Niemi, 2008). A teacher who is more positive about mathematics is more likely to get his or her students excited about studying mathematics (Hattie 2012). This study examines how students with dual-grade teachers in mathematics differ from the national level in problem-solving skills and mathematical attitudes in lower elementary school. Methods. The study is quantitative in nature. All elementary classes involved in the study were taught by a teacher who completed the dual qualification of mathematics. The material was collected mainly through electronic forms sent to teachers. Problem-solving skills were tested with the tests of the 2018-2019 Kangaroo Math Competition and attitudes to study mathematics with Fennema-Sherman's (1976) scale of mathematical attitudes. The attitude survey measured attitudes towards mathematics, pupils’ confidence in mathematics, and the engagement of mathematics teaching. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics. Results and conclusions. In the problem-solving test, the performance level of the experimental group was lower than the national data. In the attitude survey there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on attitudes towards mathematics. There was no statistically significant difference found in students confidence in their own mathematical skills but the students' engagement was stronger for the research material with the result being statistically significant. Based on this study it appears that the qualifications of dual-qualified lower elementary school teachers find teaching more engaging than Finnish students in general, and that dual-qualified teachers are more successful in implementing gender equality.
  • Peltonen, Lasse; Faehnle, Maija; Saarikoski, Heli; Hannonen, Piritta; Kotilainen, Juha; Litmanen, Tapio; Luoma, Emma; Peltola, Taru (Suomen ympäristökeskus, CORE-hanke, 2021)
    Kimurantteja ongelmia kukaan ei pysty ratkaisemaan yksin. Esimerkiksi ilmastonmuutos, luontokato, väestöryhmien eriytyminen ja kaupunkien maankäyttöpaineet vaativat erilaisten tavoitteiden yhteensovittamista ja yhteistyötä eri toimijoiden, kuten kansalaisyhteiskunnan toimijoiden, viranomaisten ja yritysten välillä. Oletko ongelmanratkaisuprosessin koollekutsuja? Julkaisu auttaa suunnittelemaan näiden prosessien kehittämistä yhteistoiminnallisiksi. Oletko ongelmanratkaisun muu osapuoli tai yhteistoiminnan edistämisestä kiinnostunut? Julkaisu antaa ajatuksia siihen, miten voit itse ja miten organisaatiosi tai yhteisösi voi toimia suhteessa yhteisen ongelmanratkaisun prosesseihin.
  • Kaleva, Annu Eveliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Goal of the study. This is a qualitative case study of problem solving and interaction in a play pedagogical application called the "city game". Problem solving interaction is viewed through the concept of position. The research questions are: 1. What kind of problems emerge in the "city game"? 2. What kind of social positions do the participants have during problem solving activities? Many researchers of the learning sciences emphasize the importance of collaboration, peer-learning, agency, active participation, sense of belonging, and problem based learning methods in school pedagogy. The goal of the thesis is to understand how these pedagogical ideas appear in the "city game". By analyzing the problem solving situations and the positions of the participants, I examine the learning possibilities the "city game" might offer in school context. Method. The data of this study was collected in a play pedagogical school that is a result of a research project started by Pentti Hakkarainen, professor of pedagogics. The children in the class are 4–8 years old, and there are four adults working with the class. The studied game is called the "city game". It consists of the adults and the children together creating a city with five different service points, like a candy store, a bank, and a spa. Some of the participants participate in a role of customer service personnel, and the others (all of the adults and some of the children) wander around as customers and buy different services and goods. The data consists of a video recording of one play episode (1 ½ hours). From this video, I selected problem solving episodes and analyzed them in terms of quality of the problem. By the methods of interactions analysis I then determined the positions of the participants. Results and discussion. There were many different kinds of problems in the data. Some of them were well-structured (typical in school), and others more ill-structured or open ended (more typical in real life settings), and the solvers used many different kinds of strategies. Most of the problems emerged and were solved in collaboration by children. The children participated in the problem solving in various positions, and some of them were more active than the others. The adults scaffolded the problem solving, but withheld from actually solving the problem for the children. The play and its roles were obviously very motivating, as the children stuck to their roles very persistently, even in difficult problem solving situations. The play roles also affected the problem solving positions, for example, solving a problem was seen more as the responsibility of the service personnel, who were usually the most active solvers. In the light of the previous studies, the problems in the "city game" promote deep learning by understanding, and inner motivation. As a problem solving environment the "city game" promotes agency, active participation, sense of belonging, collaboration, and peer-learning, all of which have been confirmed to have very positive influence on children's learning and well-being. According to these results, the "city game" and other play pedagogical applications similar to it can be seen as a highly recommended learning environment in comprehensive school, as well as in preschool.
  • Näveri, Liisa; Ahtee, Maija; Laine, Anu; Portaankorva-Koivisto, Päivi; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hannula, Markku S. (Åbo Akademi, 2014)
    Reports from the Faculty of Education
  • Tolvanen, Oskari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millaisia käsityksiä opettajilla on ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta ja kuinka paljon ongelmanratkaisua opetetaan. Ongelmanratkaisua pidetään julkisessa keskustelussa tärkeänä taitona tulevaisuuden työelämän kannalta. Kuitenkaan suomalaisessa peruskoulussa ongelmanratkaisu ei ole yleistynyt keskeiseksi osaksi matematiikan opetusta, vaikka ongelmanratkaisu onkin ollut opetussuunnitelmassa yli kolmekymmentä vuotta. Opettajan toimintatapoja ohjaa opetussuunnitelmaakin voimakkaammin opettajan käsitykset ja uskomukset. Tarkoituksena on selvittää, millaisia käsityksiä opettajilla on ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta, mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat ongelmanratkaisun opettamisen määrään sekä miten opettajien käsitykset vaikuttavat ongelmanratkaisun opettamisessa koettuihin vaikeuksiin. Menetelmät. Tutkimus toteutettiin monimenetelmällisenä kyselytutkimuksena. Aineistona käytetiin 160 suomalaisen alakoulun opettajan vastauksia kyselyyn, joka toteutettiin osana suomalaissaksalaista tutkimusprojektia. Aineistoa analysoitiin sekä kvalitatiivisin että kvantitatiivisin menetelmin, tarkoituksena kuvata opettajien käsityksiä ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta, ja toisaalta myös selittää eroja opettajien käsitysten välillä. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Puolet opettajista kertoi käsittelevänsä ongelmanratkaisua opetuksessaan ainakin kerran viikossa. Opettajan taustatekijöillä ei ollut vaikutusta ongelmanratkaisun opetuksen määrään. Tutkimuksen aineiston perusteella osa opettajista pitää sanallisia rutiinitehtäviä ongelmatehtävinä. Siksi tutkimuksen perusteella ei voida päätellä, kuinka paljon ongelmanratkaisua todellisuudessa opetetaan alakouluissa. Opettajat kokivat erityisesti ajan ja tehtävien puutteen vaikeuttavan ongelmanratkaisun opetusta. Noin viisi kuudesta opettajasta koki ongelmanratkaisun opetukseen liittyvän runsaasti erilaisia vaatimuksia niin oppilaiden kuin opettajan asenteeseen ja osaamiseen.
  • Hämäläinen, Eero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this master's thesis was to study pupils' interaction and problem solving during a programming project. The study of interaction was limited to talk between two pupils, in which three types of talk were sought: disputational, cumulative, and exploratory talk. Of these three, exploratory talk is the most conducive to learning. Problem solving is seen as a process consisting of several stages. These stages may proceed linearly from the previous stage, but according to the current understanding, dynamic, more flexible movement between the problem-solving stages is more common. In this thesis, talk and problem solving are first examined separately. Finally, it is studied how much the three types of talk occur at different stages of problem solving. The subjects of the study were two sixth-grader pupils in an elementary school in Helsinki. The pupils first practiced programming and then, as the final output of the project, developed their own emotion meter using GoGo Board, a programmable device. Video cameras were used for data collection and qualitative content analysis was used as the method of analysis. The number of problem-solving stages was much higher than the number of types of talk. The amount of the three types of talk were surprisingly equal. Exploratory talk increased and disputational talk decreased as the programming project progressed. This can mark a development in pupils’ interaction skills during the project. The most represented problem-solving stages were “constructing” and “testing”, i.e., the pupils’ activities focused on hands-on doing. Problem solving followed a dynamic transition between stages. At different stages of problem solving, slightly different types of talk were emphasized. The share of exploratory talk in the last stage of problem solving, i.e. the evaluation stage, was higher than in the other stages.
  • Tiilikainen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to get a perception of pupil interaction in a small group during a mathematical problem solving process. The goal is to study the interaction in two different groups and in that way find out what kind of elements are there in the interaction, so that a teacher could support it in the best possible way. Earlier research has shown that high quality peer interaction and small group learning enhances learning and growth. On the other hand studies show that small group interaction demands teacher's guidance to be effective and can also disturb the work. Many researchers recommend small group work especially as a method of problem solving. Methods. This is a mixed methods case study. The research questions were answered by observing two recorded problem solving lessons. The research material was a video recording from the Finland-Chile-project, a lesson during which fourth grade pupils solve a mathematical problem in small groups. The problem solving process was analysed using problem solving models created by Pólya (1957), Schoenfeld (1985) and Mason (1982) and the group interaction was analysed with Interaction process analysis (Bales, 1951). Results and conclusions. For the group of girls both the problem solving process and the group interaction were convergent with earlier research, and the group of boys had problems with both. Central ways of interaction for both groups were joking and giving opinion, and the group of girls also showed a lot of acceptance. The social structure was similar in both groups, but the group of boys had bigger differences in the division of work and roles. The interaction and the roles in both groups changed between the problem solving phases.
  • Sumu, Virpi; Tuominen, Jenna (Helsingin yliopiston tiedekasvatuskeskus, 2019)
  • Peltonen, Lasse; Kotilainen, Juha; Faehnle, Maija; & Työryhmä (Suomen ympäristökeskus, Core-hanke, 2022)