Browsing by Subject "open source software"

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  • Pekkanen, Jami Joonas Olavi; Lappi, Mikko Otto Tapio (2017)
    We introduce a conceptually novel method for eye-movement signal analysis. The method is general in that it does not place severe restrictions on sampling frequency, measurement noise or subject behavior. Event identification is based on segmentation that simultaneously denoises the signal and determines event boundaries. The full gaze position time-series is segmented into an approximately optimal piecewise linear function in O(n) time. Gaze feature parameters for classification into fixations, saccades, smooth pursuits and post-saccadic oscillations are derived from human labeling in a data-driven manner. The range of oculomotor events identified and the powerful denoising performance make the method useable for both low-noise controlled laboratory settings and high-noise complex field experiments. This is desirable for harmonizing the gaze behavior (in the wild) and oculomotor event identification (in the laboratory) approaches to eye movement behavior. Denoising and classification performance are assessed using multiple datasets. Full open source implementation is included.
  • Ballardini, Rosa Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 246
    This book is a study of how computer programs have challenged the thinking about and the actual use of intellectual property rights (IPRs) around the world. In general, the intellectual property (IP) system is governed by the same rules and applies equally to all fields of developments. However, the particular nature of computer software has challenged these fundamentals. Software is a pluralistic product that contains several elements, each of which could fall into different categories of IP laws. Currently, several protection mechanisms are available for software, including copyright, patents, trademarks, contracts, licensing agreements, and technical measures of protection. However, it has been suggested that none of these mechanisms successfully provide an adequate level of protection to computer programs. This thesis provides an in-depth analysis of some of the major failures within the current European and American software IP ecosystems while focusing mainly on copyright and patent rules. Overall, this book provides a valuable contribution to the literature by revising the most relevant aspects of the IP software framework and by suggesting a number of innovative approaches to shaping the IP laws and facilitating their interpretation. The results of this book provide tools that could be used by scholars, lawyers, and policymakers around the world.
  • Fagerholm, Fabian; Johnson, Patrik; Sanchez Guinea, Alejandro; Borenstein, Jay; Münch, Jürgen (IEEE, 2013)
    Nowadays, many software projects are partially or completely open-source based. There is an increasing need for companies to participate in open-source software (OSS) projects, e.g., in order to benefit from open source ecosystems. OSS projects introduce particular challenges that have to be understood in order to gain the benefits. One such challenge is getting newcom- ers onboard into the projects effectively. Similar challenges may be present in other self-organised, virtual team environments. In this paper we present preliminary observations and results of in-progress research that studies the process of onboarding into virtual OSS teams. The study is based on a program created and conceived at Stanford University in conjunction with Facebook’s Education Modernization program. It involves the collaboration of more than a dozen international universities and nine open source projects. More than 120 students participated in 2013. The students have been introduced to and supported by mentors experienced in the participating OSS projects. Our findings indicate that mentoring is an important factor for effective onboarding in OSS projects, promoting cohesion within distributed teams and maintaining an appropriate pace.
  • Fagerholm, Fabian; Sanchez Guinea, Alejandro; Münch, Jürgen; Borenstein, Jay (ACM, 2014)
    Context: Onboarding is a process that helps newcomers become integrated members of their organisation. Successful onboarding programs can result in increased performance in conventional organisations, but there is little guidance on how to onboard new developers in Open Source Software (OSS) projects. Goal: In this study, we examine how mentoring and project characteristics influence the effectiveness and efficiency of the onboarding process. We study a collaboration program involving a total of nine Open Source Software projects and more than 120 students from different universities around the world as part of Facebook's Education Modernization Program. Method: We use quantitative measurements of source code repositories, issue tracking systems, and discussion fora to examine how newcomers become contributing members of their OSS projects. Results: We found that developers receiving deliberate onboarding support through mentoring were more active at an earlier stage than developers entering projects through conventional means. Also, we found that project size and lifetime influenced onboarding. Conclusion: Empirical decision support can contribute to a more effective onboarding process in OSS projects. Mentor support in critical stages can accelerate the process, but project maturity is also a significant factor that increases the effect of onboarding.
  • Nyman, Linus (Hanken School of Economics, 2015)
    Economics and Society – 287
    Open source software is everywhere. From phones, tablets, TVs, and game consoles to less self-evident examples like cars, washing machines, and the International Space Station. However, what makes open source software remarkable is not where it can be found, but rather what can be done with it. One of the most astounding rights guaranteed by all open source software licenses is the right to fork the source code. In other words, the right to copy any program, either in part or in its entirety, and use that program to create a new, modified version of it. The right to fork has an enormous impact on both the development and governance of open source software. Despite its significance, code forking has seen little academic study. This dissertation examines the right to fork, its impact and significance, and how it is viewed and practiced by developers. The study draws on data consisting of hundreds of forks, interviews with open source software programmers, and an in-depth analysis of the birth of the MariaDB fork. This dissertation is relevant to anyone seeking a greater general understanding of how open source works and why it is considered a superior software development model. It may also serve as a useful resource for firms seeking to harness the power of open source software. Furthermore, it offers important insights to those who want to better understand how code forking is practiced and viewed by developers. This study finds that forks are primarily started for non-competitive reasons, with unique features or goals that distinguish them from their parent projects. Competitive forks are rare but do exist, with some motivating factors being to ensure the freedom of the code and the community’s ability to contribute to it. Furthermore, though developers may not always agree with the forking of a project, they nonetheless consider the right to fork to be of vital importance, and a cornerstone of free and open source software. In many ways, open source can be thought of as a return to how software was developed before the emergence of proprietary licensing. The same freedoms of development and sharing that thrived back then can be found today in the open source community. Indeed, in many ways the right to fork is synonymous with freedom: the freedom to explore and experiment, the freedom to benefit from the work done by others, and the freedom to keep any project relevant and vibrant even when faced with leadership decisions that are deemed unsupportable. In short, the right to fork is open source software’s guardian of freedom and watchdog of meritocracy.