Browsing by Subject "opettaja"

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  • Ikonen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The goal of this study is to investigate how shy and withdrawn children act in school, daycare and home environments, what kind of opinions kindergarten- and class teachers have on children's shyness and how they instruct these children. In addition, the aim is to analyze what kind of change the transition from kindergarten to school is for a shy child. My three research questions are 1) How children's shyness and withdrawal present themselves in kindergarten, school and home? 2) What kind of view kindergarten- and class teachers have about children's shyness and how they instruct these children? and 3) Does the shyness of the children affect on their transition to school and, if so, how? Which ones of the teacher's actions support a successful transition to school? The definitions of shy and withdrawn children are not unambiguous. In my own research, I survey shyness and withdrawal as a temperament trait like Thomas and Chess. They see it as a part of the trait approach/withdrawal. Earlier studies suggest that shy children receive less attention from the teacher and are not so happy with their social relationships than active children. It is also more difficult for shy children to seek help and start discussions. They also have a greater risk of being left out of the group. Methods. This research is a qualitative case study. The research methods were half structured interviews and observation. The teachers also evaluated their group's shy children by using shy child personal traits measuring form. Pirkko Niiranen (1995) uses the same form in her dissertation. With the form I was able to estimate the nature of the children’s shyness. I analyzed the results by using material based content analysis. Two preschool children with their teachers and mothers participated in this study. During the study, children transitioned to school. Results and Conclusions. I wanted to separate shyness and withdrawal because the behavior of the children in my research differed. One of the children felt afraid and anxiety towards all new things as the other one felt those only in social situations. Both had difficulties in asking for help and performing in front of the group. Teachers encouraged the shy children to express themselves in their own time. Teachers were eager to provide help and showed interest espe-cially when the children took initiative. There were differences in teachers’ ways to instruct these two children.
  • Pistokoski, Ahti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The aim of the thesis is to unravel the challenges primary school teachers face in physical education of visually impaired children. My goal is also to explore how primary school teachers would develop the physical education of visually impaired children. Earlier studies have shown that a visually impaired child joining sports class can cause uncertainty and sense of inadequacy among teachers. Due to the prevailing ideal of inclusion, children with visual impairment mainly attend school as a part of general education. Therefore it is important to reasearch the experiences of teachers, and thereby strive to develop the exercise opportunities of visually impaired children in general education. Methods. The method used in this thesis was a case study. The material consisted of five in-terviews with teachers that had taught physical education in primary school. Among the five interviewees there were three primary school, one special education and one physical educa-tion teacher. The interviews were partially structured and conducted in the spring of 2020. The analysis was based on qualitative methods, where emphasis is on content and thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. Several challenges became apparent from the interviews. The challenges were divided into three themes: workload of teachers, organization of high-quality teaching and barriers due to the impairment. The teachers’ views of the targets of development were again divided into four themes: teacher training, separation of classes, attitude of the teacher and planning of the lessons. The interviewees felt that teacher training does not prepare teachers to organize physical education for children with visual impairment. The teachers emphasized the value of additional training. The results show that there are still many barriers in physical education, but with sufficient support measures it is possible to overcome them and provide equal opportunities for all children in general PE.
  • Järvinen, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Teacher burnout has negative consequences on an individual, transactional and organizational levels between teachers and pupils. Compared to other fields, the educational field experiences higher levels of burnout. Previous studies indicate that burnout is connected to turnover, withdrawal, pupils’ motivation, and problems in the working community in addition to the individual’s health. The burnout symptoms have been found to differ in gender, career phase, academic level, socio- economic level of the neighborhood and organization size. Previous research has found that burnout crossover happens from an individual to another across the teacher community. The buffering and exposing attributes concerning the crossover of teacher burnout have been studied rather little. The aim of this research is to discover which individual, transactional and organizational attributes could potentially buffer or expose to the crossover of burnout. Research data was gathered as a part of a wider, national research project called School Matters by the members of the Learning and Development in School research group (Pietarinen, Pyhältö & Soini, 2017). The participants were selected from six different areas. Altogether 1531 teachers from primary, secondary and combined schools completed the questionnaire. The teachers were divided into groups based on their gender, academic level, the level of socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood, career phase and school size. Individual, transactional and organizational factors’ connection to the burnout symptoms were examined through correlations, t-test and One-way analysis of variance. Results indicate that on average the teachers are doing quite well and experience quite moderate levels of burnout. Even so, quite many of them reported higher and lower levels of the symptoms. The symptoms correlate positively with each other. Based on the research findings it can be suggested that individual attributes, including male gender and higher number of years in the profession, buffer from the crossover of burnout. In addition, the higher socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood – a transactional attribute – and smaller school size – an organizational attribute – also act as buffers. On the other hand, exposing attributes include the female gender, less years in the profession, lower socio-economic status of the school neighborhood and large school size. The result may be generalized to the Finnish teaching community as a whole because the research population was large and the geographical distribution of the population was comprehensive.
  • Valtonen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Lukivaikeus on verrattain yleinen oppimisvaikeus, johon jokainen opettaja luultavasti törmää uransa aikana. Koska lukivaikeuden taustalla on kielitietoisuuteen ja erityisesti äännetietoisuuteen liittyviä ongelmia, se aiheuttaa erityisiä hankaluuksia lukemisen ja kirjoittamisen lisäksi myös vieraiden kielten oppimisessa. Näin ollen olisi tärkeää, että vieraiden kielten opettajat ymmärtäisivät lukivaikeuden taustoja sekä eriyttämiskeinoja, jotka hyödyttävät erityisesti lukivaikeudesta kärsiviä vieraiden kielten oppijoita. Siksi tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa suomalaisten englanninopettajien kokemuksia lukivaikeuteen liittyen. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, (1) mitä englanninopettajat tietävät lukivaikeudesta ja mistä he ovat tietonsa saaneet, (2) millaisia asenteita heillä on lukivaikeudesta kärsiviä oppilaita ja opiskelijoita kohtaan, (3) millaisina he näkevät lukivaikeuden vaikutukset englannin oppimiseen ja (4) miten he ovat ottaneet lukivaikeuden huomioon opetuksessaan. Kysymyksiin etsittiin vastausta kyselytutkimuksen keinoin. Kyselyä jaettiin sosiaalisessa mediassa ja sen täyttäminen tapahtui internetissä. Kaikki osallistujat (n = 72) olivat muodollisesti päteviä opettajia ja opettivat englantia suomenkielisissä alakouluissa, yläkouluissa, lukioissa ja/tai ammattikouluissa. Kyselyllä kerätty aineisto sisältää sekä määrällisiä että laadullisia tietoja. Määrällinen aineisto analysoitiin deskriptiivisin tilastollisin menetelmin ja laadullinen aineisto sisällönanalyysin keinoin. Tutkimukseen osallistuneilla opettajilla oli verrattain hyvä tietämys lukivaikeudesta, vaikkakaan he eivät kokeneet omaavansa tarvittavaa tietotaitoa lukivaikeudesta kärsivien oppijoiden tukemiseen. Lukivaikeutta ei joko ollut käsitelty ollenkaan tai ei riittävästi osallistujien opettajaopinnoissa. Sen sijaan osallistujat olivat saaneet tietonsa lukivaikeudesta muista lähteistä, kuten erityisopettajalta tai kirjallisuudesta oman aktiivisuutensa turvin. Osallistujien asenne lukivaikeutta ja siitä kärsiviä oppijoita kohtaan oli laajasti ottaen positiivinen. Opettajan näkökulmasta lukivaikeus vaikeuttaa englannin oppimista sanaston, kieliopin, kirjoittamisen, lukemisen, kuuntelun, ääntämisen ja äänne-erittelyn osalta. Oppijoilla saattaa myös olla erilaisia negatiivisia tunteita itseään, kieliä tai oppimista kohtaan. Lisäksi lukivaikeudesta kärsivät tarvitsevat enemmän aikaa tehtävien tekemiseen kuin luokkatoverinsa. Lähes kaikki osallistujat ovat ottaneet lukivaikeuden huomioon opetuksessaan esimerkiksi eriyttämällä arviointia, materiaaleja ja opetustaan. Osallistujille tutuimpia eriyttämisen keinoja olivat arvioinnin eriyttämiseen liittyvät keinot sekä sellaiset keinot, joita yleisesti käytetään kaikkien oppimisvaikeuksien huomioinnissa ja kaikkien oppiaineiden opetuksessa. Osallistujille vähemmän tuttuja olivat opetuksen eriyttämiseen liittyvät keinot, joita suositellaan nimenomaan lukivaikeudesta kärsiville vieraiden kielten oppijoille. Tutkielmassa pohditaan, miten hyvin opettajakoulutus valmistaa opettajia käytännön työhön, ja kritisoidaan sitä lähtökohtaa, että lukivaikeudesta kärsiviä kielten oppijoita tuetaan kouluissa ensisijaisesti arvioinnin keinoin oppimisen edesauttamisen sijaan.
  • Lallukka, Pinja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. According to recent studies workplace bullying has become more and more common even in teacher communities. Workplace bullying can have significant consequences on a personal and society level. In some cases, workplace bullying causes long sick leaves and as well as workplace and career changes. One of the factors that can be an exposure to workplace bullying is age and position of a new employee. This has also been the case among teachers. Previous studies have shown that novice teachers have experienced some inappropriate behavior from their colleagues or principal. The aim of this study was to examine what kind of conceptions and experiences novice teachers have of workplace bullying and of their positions in teacher communities. The purpose of this study is to describe the representations of novice teacher’s reality. Methods. The research data was gathered by interviewing seven young teachers whom have worked as a teacher for a minimum of year and a maximum of three years after their graduation. This study was qualitative study. In the analysis of this study, a method of qualitative study of attitudes was applied. Results and conclusions. Novice teachers’ conceptions regarding the phenomenon of workplace bullying was in line with previous research and literature. Most of the novice teachers had encountered at least some inappropriate behavior in their workplaces. The forms of inappropriate behavior that novice teachers had experienced was for example sexual harassment, underestimation of skills and nasty commenting, criticism and slandering. Most of the negative experiences of novice teachers was explained by the factor of their contract of definite duration and as well as by some badly behaved colleagues. Although inappropriate and unequal treatment of novice teachers was considered a relatively common practice, all novice teachers who participated in this study also had positive experiences related to their work and colleagues.
  • Alakoski, Riikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate primary school 2nd grade math teacher's guides as well as class teachers, for the learning support features in multiplication. The related research problems are following: How the teacher's guides for the mathematics support students of 2nd grade in learning of the multiplication? How the selected 2nd grade class teachers support the learning features in their multiplication lessons? Methods. This study is divided into two parts. The first part is a qualitative study of 2nd grade math teacher's guides, where three different book series (Matikka 2, Open Kymppi 2 and Tuhattaituri 2) were studied based on the theory-driven content analysis. The exercises from the book series were divided into several studied features: the steps of the arithmetic concept formation, understanding the calculation procedure with whole numbers, sequence skills, Bruner's learning theory and Fuson's language of mathematics. All the features were analyzed with Bereday's comparative analysis. The second part is a case study, where three independent 2nd grade class teachers were studied with the method of stimulated recall. All the teachers were monitored and videotaped during one multiplication lesson and interviewed afterwards about the teaching of multiplication in general and based on the videotaped lecture. The interviews were analyzed with thematic analysis. The results and conclusions. The math teacher's guide Matikka 2 emphasizes the connection between addition and multiplication as well as the learning period during the stage of concrete strategies. Sequence skills were supported the most in the Open Kymppi 2 guide, which had many exercises emphasizing mechanical repetition. On the other hand, the three stages of representation and mathematic languages were less supported in Open Kymppi 2 than in the other guides. The exercises in the Tuhattaituri 2 supported the learning features of the multiplication fairly evenly, although some of the exercises repeated themselves. Numbers 0 and 1 were less supported in Tuhattaituri 2 than in the other guides. All guides supported mental strategies, enactive stage of representation and mathematic languages quite poorly. In the second part of the study, during the multiplication lessons the teachers took well into account the stages of concrete strategies and automated concept formation. On the other hand, the stage of mental strategies did not show up in the results, only when asked separately. In addition, the use of the teacher's guides in the planning of the multiplication lessons was not significant for the studied teachers. Although the lessons supported the learning experience of multiplication quite versatilely, the studied teachers mentioned only some of the supported features in the learning of multiplication.
  • Lanberg, Marianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The study explores different ways to speak about the phenomenon of touch in the written memories about touching in school context. The aim is to specify, based on the data, the presence of public and broadly shared meanings given to touching in school context. Personal memories are interpreted in the socio-cultural context. The broader socio-cultural context is defined as public discourses in the Finnish media and as the official normative documents and discourses defining touching policies in school context. This study is connected to the Koskettava koulu -research project (Tainio et al., 2017-2020) which aims to explore the multidimensional phemonon of touching in comprehensive school context. Previous research on touch studies interaction, meanings and norms defining touching in comprehensive school. Methods. The data were gathered by an open invitation in social media to write about personal memories about touching in past school years. 51 short memoirs (seen as oral histories) were received and analyzed using discourse analysis. The data consisted of both teacher and former pupil positioned memories. Conceptual tools applied in the analysis were voice, dialogue and hidden dialogue based on Mihail Bahtin’s theory of dialogue in language use. Results and conclusions The results indicated that oral history contains present-day public, broadly shared ways to form meanings in interpretative element of the memory. There were three main discourses constructed from the data. First, the teacher discourse argued touching by the essential persona of a teacher and by the professional ethics obligating teacher’s ways to touch students. Second, student discourses indicated touching as a culture guided by the official norms of conduct and comparably touching as directed by the subcultural rules among students. Third main discourse was problematic touch in the school context which indicated molesting as a recognized phenomenon but also silenced tabu-like theme.
  • Rossi, Maria-Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to examine how teacher students' view their cultural capital. Cultural capital means the knowledge, skills, valuations and examinations that a person has achieved during his/her life.The purpose of this study is also to depict whether or not cultural capital is of importance to a teacher at his work or to a student at his education. Previous studies have shown that teacher students present bourgeoise culture. Previous studies have also shown that teacher's cultural capital might have an impact to his/her work and that students' family background has an impact on school work. The study was made by the principles of qualitative research. Five teacher students from Helsinki University were selected as research subjects. The data was gathered during the spring 2015 and collected by using a theme interview. The data was then analyzed with theory-bound content analysis. Based on the data, teacher students' views depicted that their family backgrounds, as well as hobby and personal interests reflected at least partly the cultural capital. Based on the study results, it would seem that teacher's own cultural capital might show in his/her work at some level, for example through the valuations and aspirations, as well as the number of his/her hobbies. Teacher's hobbies can show as emphasis on, motivation in and aspirations in the work. Valuations and aspirations can have an impact on the demands targeted towards students by the teacher. The results indicate that student's cultural capital can show at school through stimulus received from home and attitude towards school.
  • Kivelä, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The social life of modern youth has expanded from the physical world to also include the virtual world. Because of this is completely natural to see bullying spread into the world of internet as well. Thus bullying knows no time nor place and can instead happen both during free time and at school. The different ways, influences and preventative methods of cyberbullying have been studied before (Patchin & Hinduja, 2012), but studies from the teachers’ point of view, especially of which situations do they feel obligated to resolve, are almost nonexistent. This study aims to fill that hole and simultaneously discover how teachers define, encounter, prevent and act in cases of cyberbullying or conflicts. This study was conducted as a case study in 2019. The research material was collected by interviewing six teachers with teaching experience, using a semi-structured theme interview. The material was transcribed and analysed using content analysis. The analysis was conducted using the Atlas.ti-program. The results showed that teachers did not encounter cyberbullying very often. They mostly mediated arguments taking place in virtual environments, before they could develop into bullying. The situations they did encounter were handled with discussions and by contacting the students’ parents. Preventative work was done actively in schools. The teachers themselves felt that handling cases of cyberbullying was mostly up to the parents. Even so, if the needs of a student demanded it, or if bullying was noticed in the classroom, the teachers started handling them themselves. Based on the results it can be stated that teachers need guidelines to specify which cases of cyberbullying are a part of their duties, especially when the bullying happens outside of the school day. At the moment, teachers define their respective roles very subjectively, which can lead to inequality between students, depending on the teachers subjective definition.
  • Ruokonen, Anne (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. This study examines the cooperation between home and school from the viewpoint of teacher students. In particular, this study focuses on the expectations and concerns of teacher students relating to cooperation between home and school. The teacher students that took part in this study (N=19) were in the final stage of their studies when the interviews were conducted so they were to soon enter working life and start cooperating with parents. Much research hasn't been done on the subject of teacher students' thoughts, expectations and concerns concerning home-school cooperation so the subject is important and topical. The theoretical framework of this study takes a closer look at the legal framework, the purpose of home-school cooperation and the practical implications of the cooperation. The aim of the empirical part of the study is to discover the expectations and concerns that teacher students have about home-school cooperation. Methods. The research data of this qualitative study consists of interviews of nineteen teacher students. The interviews are part of a bigger project lead by Kirsi Pyhältö and funded by the Academy of Finland. The project is called 'From Student teacher to Experienced Teacher: Learning an Active Professional Agency'. The purpose of the interviews was to find out how teacher students' professional agency progresses. There were sixteen questions in the interview and they were related to studying in the teacher education program and teachers' work at school. The research interviews were conducted during spring 2011. The data comprised 894 pages. The interviews were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis, quantitative content analysis and data-oriented content analysis. Results and conclusions. The concerns and expectations of teacher students relating to home-school cooperation could be divided into three categories: student-related, teacher-related and parents-related. Most of the concerns were related to students and more specifically to special students and multicultural students. Teacher-related concerns came in second and were mostly related to teachers' professionalism, hurry and boundaries. Parents-related concerns were mostly related to the opinions of parents, facing parents, parents' boundaries and their taking part in the cooperation. Most of the expectations focused on the teacher: teachers' qualities, professionalism, appreciation and respect. Parents-related expectations came in second and were related to the fluency of the cooperation, the parents' positive attitude towards the teacher and the parents' involvement. Least of the expectations focused on students. Teacher students hope that students say positive things about the teacher at home and that students feel themselves important also at school. Teacher students described their concerns about the skills of teachers relating to home-school cooperation. This study can be utilized in, for example, the teacher education as the interviewed teacher students describe issues that are currently not taught in the teacher education but they hope to learn in order to improve their skills in home-school cooperation.
  • Vainio, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. In this study research topics were primary school pupils' attitudes towards mathematics and teachers' methodological ways to affect those attitudes. This study has been inspired by both national and international research results which show that attitudes get worse even when skills get better. This study concerns different kinds of methodological ways to affect pupils' attitudes and how well those methods function. Moreover, the study describes what kinds of tasks those methodological ways have from the viewpoint of attitude. Methods. Four working primary school class teachers were interviewed for this study. Interviews were theme interviews and they were made in spring 2015. The interviews were analysed following the principles of theory bounded content analysis: first analysis units were formed and then they were categorized into larger units. Results and conclusions. When categorizing the results, different kinds of methodological groups were found that have a different kind of effect on attitudes. The methodological groups are: inspiring and attracting methods, interaction based methods, self-efficacy improving methods, sufficient challenge providing methods, methods that support development of understanding and methods that support finding one's own way of learning. Considering weak pupils, especially self-efficacy improving methods are essential because weak self-efficacy affects task management and learning experiences. Sufficient challenge producing methods, on the other hand, are vital for talented pupils' attitudes. All found method groups found in this study can help teachers' when planning versatile teaching that is beneficial to attitudes. Teachers evaluated functionality of the methods which can be helpful when trying to find a functional method.
  • Vanhanen, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. Touching is an essential part of human life and well-being: touch is a way of communicating in human interaction, and touching has positive influence on growth and development of a child. Thus, touching should also be a part of school life in interaction between a teacher and a student. On the other hand, many studies discuss concerns that teachers have regarding touching students. In this study, the aim was to discuss primary school teachers' attitudes towards touching as a pedagogical tool: is it allowed to touch children, do teachers want to touch in the first place, in what kind of situations do teachers touch, and how is touching discussed in schools. The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of touching in schools. Methods. The research data was gathered by interviewing six class room teachers, and I applied theme interview in the interview. This study was a qualitative study, and I applied phenomenography study's analysis model in the analysis. Phenomenography is based on different kinds of ways of understanding the same phenomenon: therefore I observed primary school teachers' different views about touching in school. Results and conclusions. Primary school teachers associated six different meanings with touching: touching as natural and common thing; as a tool for calming and guiding; as caring; as a worry; as an object of avoiding; and as restricting. The factors that influence teacher's decision to touch are the norms of society and community, context of the situation in which touching occurs, teacher's own touching history, characteristics regarding a student, instructions or pedagogical freedom, and conscious decision making or spontaneous action. As a summary for these results, there was formed five different roles for teachers as touchers: teacher as an educator, as a communicator, as a restrictor, as an avoider, and as a victim. Even though the results cannot be generalized to apply every primary school teacher, the results imply possible ways of comprehending touching as a pedagogical tool.
  • Tani, Sirpa (2017)
    The article investigates three challenges that school geography faces in Finland. First, the digitalization has changed aims and contents of the Finnish national curricula. In the context of geography education, geographical information systems, geo-media and digitalization of matriculation examinations have strengthened the status of digital material in teaching, which can be seen as a possible threat for value-based themes of the subject. Second, the emphasis of phenomenon- based integration can be seen as a problem when complex issues are taught. Third, trendy ideas of ’learning to learn’ pedagogies can be seen as a threat for disciplinebased teaching. The article questions these challenges and highlights geography’s potential in enhancing students’ critical thinking skills and their abilities to construct links between people and environment, local and global and natural and social phenomena. Geography teacher’s role as a subject specialist is seen essential in geography education.
  • Metsämuuronen, Tuua Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The study focuses on the Nepalese 8 grade Mathematics, Nepali language and Social study teachers' confidence to teach their own subject. Every skill, such as teaching skills, brings with uncertainty and insecurity creates a need for security. The aim of the master's thesis is to research how substance knowledge, the teacher's personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management, and their components are connected to each other. In addition, has been researched how much personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management, explain the teacher's self-perceived competence assurance to teach. Altogether, 1224 of Nepalese teachers responded to the survey. The survey sample was stratified. The questionnaire, teachers were asked to assess their teaching confidence in their teaching subject and its sections, on a scale of 1 to 4. Many studies have been done about teaching and the teacher's impact on learning outcomes. That has been considered as a possible cause of Finnish students' good learning achievements. Since the schools have small differences between them, it is easier to study the teachers and the teaching effect of the student's achievements in a country, where the school differences are considerable bigger. According to Hattie (2003, 2), the teacher effect is 30% of the student learning achievements, in Nepal the corresponding figure is 68% (Acharya, Metsämuuronen and Metsämuuronen 2013, 281 316). The study examined by tree-analysis how personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management elements are linked to educational confidence and by regression analysis how much these independent variables explain together the effect of the phenomenon. According to regression analysis, there are age, teaching years, assessment, professional development over the last two years, and the curriculum understanding and using, as well as the school equipment shortages. The study found that the most confident were those teachers who were under the age of 30 teachers; who had teaching experience five years or less; who used the project work as assessment; who experienced that they understood the objectives of the school curriculum, and in addition they experienced to implement it successfully. This study was empirical and explorative work and the results obtained on the regression model shows that the model explains 9.5% of teacher's confidence to teach their own subjects. As regression model explains less than 10% certainty, is the teacher's teaching confidence and competence a good follow-up research object. Another good object would be to compare the self-perceived reliability and the validity of the comparison of the measured whether teachers' own experience of the same qualifications as a measurable skill.
  • Tiala, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aim of the study. Students and their difficult behavior are, according to several studies, one of the most significant burdensome factors in teaching work. In the field of research on teacher well-being at work or stress and burnout, this aspect is often emphasized. The im-portance of the teacher-student relationship for teacher well-being, job satisfaction, and commitment to work is well known. This study aims to look at the teacher-student relation-ship as a resource for teaching work. In my research, I try to find out what kind of teacher-student relationship promotes teacher well-being. Also, the study examines the extent to which the teacher-student relationship protects the teacher from risks to their well-being in terms of managing workload. Methods. The research approach was hermeneutic-phenomenological, aiming to understand and interpret an individual’s experiences and their associated meanings. The study was a qualitative interview study, the material of which consisted of interviews with six (6) classroom teachers. The body of the interview was a semi-structured interview. The inter-views were recorded and transcribed, after which they were analyzed. The method of anal-ysis was content analysis, typical of qualitative research. Results and conclusions. Based on my research material, I have divided the factors of the teacher-student relationship that promote teacher well-being, into those related to the teacher's professional skills, as well as those relating to the student's willingness and ability to participate in building the teacher-student relationship. The results showed that the teacher-student relationship is, to the greatest extent possible, a resource for teaching work. A warm teacher-student relationship was perceived as a significant and meaningful factor in teachers' work. However, it does not appear to protect teachers from overwork, and interviewees reported that other approaches are required to manage their workload and to protect themselves from exhaustion. The role of the teacher leans heavily towards interpersonal work, and the ability to tailor approaches to different students to build relationships is important. Attention is often paid to the teacher-student relationship only when problems arise, even if it would be beneficial for both the teacher and students' well-being to focus on building successful teacher-student relationships.
  • Kukkola, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Lähes kaikki kiusaamisteot täyttävät jonkin rikoksen tunnusmerkistön ja ne loukkaavat kiusatun perusoikeuksiin sidottuja oikeushyviä, lapsen oikeuksia ja oppilaan oikeutta perusopetuslain mukaiseen turvalliseen opiskeluympäristöön. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan sitä voiko opettajalle ja rehtorille syntyä rikosoikeudellinen vastuu, jos he eivät puutu kiusaamiseen. Opettajan ja rehtorin tehtävänä on huolehtia oppilaiden turvallisuuden toteutumisesta. Heidän velvollisuuksiin virkansa puolesta kuuluu tietää ja tuntea alansa määräykset ja siten puuttua kiusaamiseen. Jos opettaja ei noudata tai ei ole selvittänyt velvollisuuksiaan, voi hän syyllistyä tuottamukselliseen virkavelvollisuuden rikkomiseen rikoslain 40 luvun 10 §:n mukaan. Kiusaamiseen puuttumiseksi ei ole annettu yhtenäistä ja selkeää ohjeistusta. Jos virkavelvollisuus on määritelty epäselvästi, rikosoikeudellisen vastuun perusteet voivat jäädä syntymättä laillisuusperiaatteen perusteella. Opettajalla ja rehtorilla on virkansa puolesta myös erityinen oikeudellinen suojelu- ja valvontavelvollisuus suhteessa oppilaisiin. Jos he laiminlyövät velvollisuutensa, voivat he syyllistyä rikoslain 3 luvun 3 §:n 2 momentin mukaiseen epävarsinaiseen laiminlyöntirikokseen niissä tapauksissa, joissa laiminlyönnin seurauksena on rikoslain 21 luvun 10 §:n mukainen vammantuottamus. Jos tuottamuksellinen virkavelvollisuuden rikkominen ei laillisuusperiaatteen takia tule kysymykseen, voi rikosoikeudellinen vastuu kuitenkin syntyä epävarsinaisena laiminlyöntirikoksena. Ympäröivän yhteiskunnan muuttuessa oikeusjärjestelmä ei välttämättä sisäistä kovin nopeasti uusia arvoja ja periaatteita, joita esimerkiksi lapsen oikeudet ilmentävät. Tällöin voi odotusten ja todellisuuden välille syntyä jännitteitä. Jos opettajan ja rehtorin piittaamattomuuteen kiusaamistapauksissa ei puututa rikosoikeuden keinoin, voi se rikkoa oikeudenmukaisuuteen kohdistuvia odotuksia sekä horjuttaa luottamusta kouluinstituutioon. Tilannetta selkiyttäisi, jos kiusaamisen käsitteen määrittely lisätään perusopetuslakiin, tarkennetaan opettajan ja rehtorin virkavastuun sisältöä kiusaamistilanteissa sekä lisätään kaikkien viranomaisten niin opettajien kuin tuomareiden ymmärrystä ja tuntemusta lasten perusoikeuksista ja YK:n lapsen oikeuksien sopimuksen velvoittavuudesta.
  • Kankainen, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In this Master thesis my aim is to research how teachers give verbal feedback. Giving verbal feedback is big part of teaching. Therefore, it is important that teachers evaluate their own way to give feedback. I examined how much teachers are giving feedback during lessons and what type of feedback. I also examined how much teachers are giving positive feed-back. For the analyse I am using Hattie´s and Timperley`s (2007) Model of feedback. Ac-cording this model feedback effect on four different levels. These include the level of task performance, the level of process of understanding how to do a task, the regulatory or met-acognitive process level, and/or the self or personal level. On this research I have created account of one teacher´s way to give verbal feedback during lessons. I have also examined how pupil`s behaviour effect on teacher way to give feedback. The purpose of this study is pay attention to teacher’s way to give feedback and therefore encourage to teachers evalu-ate their own ways to give feedback. My study is qualitive research and my target group is one fifth class from Helsinki. I filmed data on three different days. In the transcript of the data I included only the past where teacher was giving verbal feedback. The first and the second research question were analysed with theory-based content analysis. The third research question was analysed with data-based content analysis. The result shows that most of the teacher´s feedback is directed to the task level. Second most-used feedback was targeted to the process level third most to the self-regulation level and none of the teacher’s feedback was directed to the personal level. Most of the teacher´s feedback was positive. When pupils were working on task most used was positive task level feedback. When pupil’s behaviour was disruptive teacher was giving feedback on self-regulation level.
  • Mäkikokko, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Listening to adults reading aloud has in many researches been found to have several benefits to child’s linguistic development. There are many ways to perform reading aloud such as interactive reading, dialogic reading and text-talk method which are all developed by researchers. The aim of this study is to discover new information about primary school teachers reading aloud: for what purposes teachers perform reading aloud, what are the main features of reading aloud by teachers and what attitudes teachers associate toward reading aloud. Methods. This study is based on the Lukuklaani research project data. The research project conducted an online survey to map out the literacy education of the Finnish primary schools. The survey was answered during November and December in 2017. The survey had total of 58 questions including closed and open questions. Some closed questions had the possibility to be answered with open specification. Total number of answers from teachers were 885 from which 722 answered teachers worked for the signed up research project schools and 163 for random sample schools. From the complete research project data the answers to the open questions regarding reading aloud were reviewed and then themed and furthermore categorized by answer type in line with my study. The research method in this study was data based qualitative content analysis with elements of theory driven analysis. Results and conclusions. This study showed that for some teachers reading aloud was a regular routine. Some teachers used it for calming, motivating to read or to support learning of their students. Reading aloud also had a role in other learning methods of literacy education such as book circles. Reading aloud by teachers showed aspects from many different methods such as performance reading and several researcher developed methods. Almost 90 percent of teachers participating in the Lukuklaani research project read aloud to their students. At the same time the answers showed concern about reading being in lesser role as a hobby and homes showing less support for reading. This study revealed more information of reading aloud habits of teachers. According to this study those habits play a major role in teaching yet they haven’t been studied widely in Finland.
  • Kruus, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim for this study is to investigate primary school teachers’ and lower secondary school teachers’ reading habits and describe teachers’ recreational reading habits. Earlier research indicates that even thought the majority of teachers enjoy reading and they are unanimous about the importance of reading, it doesn’t necessarily mean that teachers use their leisure time to read. Teachers are important reading models to their students. By modeling they can demonstrate to students that reading is an important skill to know and a fun recreational activity. With the help of this study, information about finnish teachers as readers can be obtained. It is also possible to portray what kind of reading model teachers give to students at school. This study was conducted as a part of the Lukuklaani-project. The data was part of a survey that was sent to primary school teachers and lower secondary school teachers. Over 1800 primary school teachers, mother tongue and literature teachers from lower secondary school and other subjects’ teachers from lower secondary school answered the questions that are part of this study. The data was analyzed with quantitative methods. The majority of teachers read more than one book in a year. When compairing different teacher groups, mother tongue and literature teachers from lower secondary school read on average a little bit more than other teachers. Teachers read variety of different kinds of books, but a novel was by far the most read genre. The other subjects’ teachers from lower secondary school read more non-fiction than other teachers. Recreational reading habits were investigated also by asking about the respondents’ participation in literary circles, because increasing the use of communal reading emphasizing literary circle method in primary schools was one of the aims of the Lukuklaani-project. Most of the teachers didn’t participate in literary circles. The most popular type of literary circle, within those who took part in one, was friend group’s literary circle. The survey also investigated, what teachers had last read. Those who read a lot and those who read a little weren’t different from each other when looking at the book they last read. There were no great differences between different teacher groups’ recreational reading habits. However there were more teachers that were a part of a literary circle within the teachers that read more than within the teachers that didn’t read that much. The study indicates that teachers read quite a lot, especially fiction. Therefore they have a chance to give a good model of recreational reading to students.
  • Tolvanen, Oskari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millaisia käsityksiä opettajilla on ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta ja kuinka paljon ongelmanratkaisua opetetaan. Ongelmanratkaisua pidetään julkisessa keskustelussa tärkeänä taitona tulevaisuuden työelämän kannalta. Kuitenkaan suomalaisessa peruskoulussa ongelmanratkaisu ei ole yleistynyt keskeiseksi osaksi matematiikan opetusta, vaikka ongelmanratkaisu onkin ollut opetussuunnitelmassa yli kolmekymmentä vuotta. Opettajan toimintatapoja ohjaa opetussuunnitelmaakin voimakkaammin opettajan käsitykset ja uskomukset. Tarkoituksena on selvittää, millaisia käsityksiä opettajilla on ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta, mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat ongelmanratkaisun opettamisen määrään sekä miten opettajien käsitykset vaikuttavat ongelmanratkaisun opettamisessa koettuihin vaikeuksiin. Menetelmät. Tutkimus toteutettiin monimenetelmällisenä kyselytutkimuksena. Aineistona käytetiin 160 suomalaisen alakoulun opettajan vastauksia kyselyyn, joka toteutettiin osana suomalaissaksalaista tutkimusprojektia. Aineistoa analysoitiin sekä kvalitatiivisin että kvantitatiivisin menetelmin, tarkoituksena kuvata opettajien käsityksiä ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta, ja toisaalta myös selittää eroja opettajien käsitysten välillä. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Puolet opettajista kertoi käsittelevänsä ongelmanratkaisua opetuksessaan ainakin kerran viikossa. Opettajan taustatekijöillä ei ollut vaikutusta ongelmanratkaisun opetuksen määrään. Tutkimuksen aineiston perusteella osa opettajista pitää sanallisia rutiinitehtäviä ongelmatehtävinä. Siksi tutkimuksen perusteella ei voida päätellä, kuinka paljon ongelmanratkaisua todellisuudessa opetetaan alakouluissa. Opettajat kokivat erityisesti ajan ja tehtävien puutteen vaikeuttavan ongelmanratkaisun opetusta. Noin viisi kuudesta opettajasta koki ongelmanratkaisun opetukseen liittyvän runsaasti erilaisia vaatimuksia niin oppilaiden kuin opettajan asenteeseen ja osaamiseen.