Browsing by Subject "opetusmateriaali"

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  • Honkonen, Anne (2007)
    Pro gradu -työni kohteena on eurooppalaisen identiteetin arvosisältö. Liitän työni eurooppalaista identiteettiä koskevaan tutkimukseen sekä siitä käytävään tieteelliseen ja yhteiskunnalliseen keskusteluun. Konstruktivistisen tutkimusnäkökulmani mukaan identiteetit ovat kielen tuottamia tarkoitteellisia tai tahattomia rakennelmia. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on kielen välittämiä merkitysrakenteita analysoimalla kuvailla, miten arvoilla rakennetaan sisältöä eurooppalaiselle identiteetille Euroopan komission koululaisten opetusmateriaaliksi valitsemissa julkaisuissa. Eurooppalaisen identiteetin rakentamista tutkin Euroopan komission sosiaalistamistoimintana. Sosiaalistaminen on yksi väline sitoa yksilö tietyn kulttuurin identiteettiin. Koululaisten sosiaalistamista EU:n ajamaan arvomaailmaan ei ole juuri tutkittu, koska unionitasolla ei ole nähty olevan vaikutusmahdollisuutta kansallisen tason instituutioiden hallitsemassa kasvatusympäristössä. Euroopan komission jäsenmaiden kouluihin luoma Eurooppa-päivä-aloite kuitenkin toimii sosiaalistamiskanavana ylikansalliselle kasvatustoiminnalle. Tutkimuksessani sosialisaatioteoria todentaa tämän EU:n ja kansallisen tason välisen kasvatuskanavan toimivuutta arvojen ideologisessa ja rakenteellisessa välittämisessä ja välittymisessä. Kulttuuria käsittelin Edgar H. Scheinin teorian mukaisesti kolmitasoisena, jossa syvätason tiedostamattomat perusoletukset luovat kulttuurin perustan. Kunkin tason arvoja voidaan ilmentää Euroopan unionin joukkotiedotuksena jakaman opetusmateriaalin teksteistä. Ideologisessa sosiaalistamisessa asioita nimetään suoraan arvoiksi, rakenteellista sosiaalistamista kuvaavat tavoitteiden, pyrkimysten, ponnistelujen, päämäärien, sitoutumisen sekä tärkeinä ja oikeina pidettyjen asioiden diskurssit. Syvien merkitysulottuvuuksien paljastamiseen käytin A. J. Greimasin aktanttimallia, jossa subjektiasema kuvaa tekstinlaatijan kulttuurin piiloisempia syvätason perusoletuksia. Analyysin tulkinnan apuna käytin Shalom Schwartzin teorian arvoluokitusta sekä moraaliuniversumin laajuuden käsitettä. Kulttuurin eri tasoilta välittyvä eurooppalainen arvomaailma ei ole yhtenäinen, vaan moninainen ja siten jännitteinen ja ristiriitainen. Jännitteisyys ilmenee etenkin eurooppalaisen taloudellisen edistyksen tavoittelun ja muiden hyvinvoinnin kasvattamisen ja elämän laadun parantamisen sekä talouskasvun ja ympäristönsuojelun välillä. Suoraan arvoiksi nimettiin demokratia, vapaus, sosiaalinen oikeudenmukaisuus, suvaitsevaisuus, kunnioitus, ymmärrys, rauha, oikeusvaltioperiaate ja ihmisoikeuksien kunnioittaminen. Nämä sijoittuvat kulttuurimallin keskiosaan ja ilmentävät mahdollista ristiriitaisuutta. Sekä kulttuurin syvä-, että pintatasolla keskeiseksi eurooppalaisiksi arvoiksi nousi ympäristö, köyhien auttaminen sekä taloudellinen kasvu ja kilpailukyky, jotka suorista arvoviitteistä puuttuvat. Eurooppalaisessa arvoavaruudessa moraalisuus erottuu selvästi omaksi alueeksi. Eurooppalainen moraaliuniversumi on laaja rauhan ja ihmisoikeuksien kunnioittamisen kohdalla. Ihmisarvot rajaavat vahvasti toiseutta, sillä moraalinen auttamisvelvollisuus ei ulotu ihmisarvoa kunnioittamattomiin. Myös sosiaalisen oikeudenmukaisuuden alueella muiden auttaminen, maailmankaupan sääntöjen valvonnan ja vääryyksien estämisen kautta, ulottuu eurooppalaisuudessa kaikkialle maailmaan. Sen sijaan suvaitsevaisuuden laajuus on suppea. Moneuden säilyttäminen ei ulotu kaikkiin maailman kulttuureihin, vaikka Euroopassa se on tärkeää. Opetusjulkaisujen arvopuhe on runsasta ja siksi paikoin epämääräistä. Tulkintani mukaan ympäristön vaikutuksesta eurooppalaisen kulttuurin keskeisiä elementtejä on karsittu ja siksi ideologinen sosiaalistamisen jää vaisuksi. Julkaisujen välittämä kuva eurooppalaisista arvoista ei ole riittävän selkeä eikä innostava. Siksi arvojen suora opettaminen ei nykyisessä muodossa ole kovin merkityksellistä eurooppalaisen identiteetin rakentamisen kannalta. Arvojen hyödyntäminen identiteetin rakentamisessa on unionitasolla vielä uutta.
  • Matikainen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this master’s theses, Finnish biology teachers’ needs for material for continuing education and educational material for upper secondary school in epigenetics were studied. Two sets of educational materials, continuing educational material for teachers and educational material for upper secondary school teaching was produced accordant with the results. Epigenetics is used to describe stable alterations in gene expression which do not consider mutations in DNA sequence. DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodelling are the main epigenetic mechanisms to affect gene expression. Epigenetic modification patterns can alter de novo, or they can be originated by some environmental factor. Epigenetic regulation was introduced as a new subject matter in National Core Curriculum for General Upper Secondary Schools 2015 in Finland. Epigenetics is a relatively new branch in biology, and as a result many teachers have not studied the subject matter at the university. Continuing educational material is needed to update their knowledge. Biology teachers’ needs for material in epigenetics were studied with a survey which was distributed to the Biology and Geography Teachers’ Union’s e-mail list subscribers. Data was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. In order to produce continuing educational material for teachers, literature regarding teacher competence, adult education and Finnish biology teachers’ subject expertise was examined. The concept of constructivist learning, and conceptual change were applied in the production of educational material for upper secondary school teaching. Relevant scientific literature in epigenetics was gathered and used to produce both sets of materials. In the study survey, the teachers reported specific individual educational needs which were acknowledged in the production of both sets of materials, alongside literature listed earlier. The survey showed that one of 33 biology teachers had studied epigenetics at the university, 20 of 33 teachers independently and 13 of 33 hadn’t studied epigenetics at all. The extent of the teachers’ studies in epigenetics was most often elementary and the main motivation to study epigenetics independently was a desire to handle the basics. The most common resource teachers used to study epigenetics was non-scientific magazines. Among the teachers who had not studied epigenetics at all, lack of time was the most common reason mentioned. However, 14 teachers described epigenetics as an important subject matter. Three teachers reported that they lack the expertise in teaching epigenetics and three felt that textbooks don’t offer support in teaching epigenetics. Online material and expert lectures were the most common continuing education material forms requested. Regarding the content of the continuing educational material for teachers, the most common requests were that the material should include the basics of epigenetics and practical examples. The form of educational material for upper secondary school teaching was most commonly requested to be online text or educational video. Regarding the content of the educational material for upper secondary school teaching, the most common requests among teachers were a summary of the theory of epigenetics and practical examples. The continuing educational material for teachers produced in this thesis consists of an introduction part and four parts about different subjects in epigenetics. The titles of the parts are: 1) What is epigenetics? 2) Molecular mechanisms of epigenetic gene regulation 3) Epigenetic gene regulation and 4) Epigenetic inheritance. The material was designed in a way that texts 3) and 4) are possible to comprehend without studying text 2) about molecular mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. The educational material for upper secondary school teaching consists of seven parts. At the beginning there is an introduction to teachers which is followed by six separate parts for students. Each part has a “Rehearse before reading”-box which introduces students to the subject and encourages rehearsal of biological concepts and vocabulary which are necessary for comprehending each part. After each part there are questions which test students’ learning as well as encourage to apply freshly acquired knowledge about epigenetics to other biological contexts. Titles for different parts are: 1) What is epigenetics? 2) Epigenetics and nutrition 3) Epigenetics and exercise 4) Epigenetics and mental health 5) Epigenetics and tortoiseshell cats and 6) Epigenetic inheritance. The material has been designed in such a way that the parts can be taught and learned separately. References are provided at the end of both material sets. Both materials produced in this thesis meet the teachers’ requests revealed in the survey. The form of the continuing educational material for teachers is online material, which was one of the most common requests among the teachers who answered the survey. The contents of the material correspond to the teachers requests as well, since most requested contents were the basics of epigenetics and practical examples. The educational material for upper secondary school teaching was requested as online material with a summary of the theory of epigenetics and practical examples, and all these requests were met. Both materials were produced considering relevant theories on pedagogy and adult education. Results of this study cannot be applied nationally in Finland since the sample size was small. Therefore, national relevance of the materials cannot be predicted. Predictions about the impact of the materials on teachers’ and students’ understanding about epigenetics cannot be made either, since learning is an active process which requires effort from the learner. However, a strong case can be made for the produced material, because materials include relevant information and their pedagogic choices can be justified by the literature. This thesis uncovered many questions for future research. For example, the efficacy of the materials could be studied in a practical classroom situation. Other possible questions for research or study designs could be about biology teachers’ expertise and continuing education in Finland.
  • Stenberg, Kristina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Englannin kieli on levinnyt tasaista tahtia maailmalla johtaen siihen, että äidinkielenään kieltä puhuvia on vähemmän kuin toisena tai vieraana kielenä englantia puhuvia. Tämä heijastuu Suomessa niin vuoden 2015 Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteissa kuin myös vuoden 2015 Lukion opetussuunnitelman perusteissa, joissa molemmissa korostetaan englannin kielen globaalia asemaa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää mihin suomalaisten englannin oppikirjojen tekstit sijoittuvat maantieteellisesti, sekä millaisia eroja yläkoulun ja lukion kirjasarjojen välillä on. Havaintoja peilataan opetussuunnitelman perusteissa annettuihin tavoitteisiin. Tutkielmassa tutkitaan kahden Sanoma Pron julkaiseman kirjasarjan kirjoja, yläkouluun tarkoitetun On the Go –sarjan kolmea tekstikirjaa sekä kuutta ensimmäistä kirjaa lukion On Track –sarjasta. Analyysimetodina käytetään sisällönanalyysia, jonka avulla tekstit luokitellaan ja ryhmitellään maanosien sekä maiden mukaisesti. Kriteeristö sisällönanalyysiin on kehitetty varta vasten tätä tutkielmaa varten, sillä aikaisempaa tutkimusta samasta aiheesta ei ole tehty. Kummankin kirjasarjan kirjojen tulokset kategorisoidaan lisäksi noudattaen Kachrun (1985) mallia englannin käytön kolmesta piiristä: sisä-, ulko- sekä laajeneva piiri. Tulokset esitetään kvantitatiivisesti, mutta joitakin ongelmallisempia tekstejä käsitellään kvalitatiivisesti kunkin kirjan kohdalla. Tulokset osoittavat, että maanosista Euroopalla ja Pohjois-Amerikalla on suurin näkyvyys molemmissa kirjasarjoissa Iso-Britannian sekä Yhdysvaltojen ollessa kaksi selkeimmin esillä olevaa valtiota. On the Go keskittyy hieman enemmän Pohjois-Amerikkaan sekä esittelee myös Aasiaa ja Oseaniaa melko lailla, kun taas On Track –sarjassa keskitytään eniten Eurooppaan. Englannin kolmesta piiristä sisäpiiri on eniten esillä kummassakin kirjasarjassa. Molemmissa kirjasarjoissa on kuitenkin paljon tekstejä, joilla ei ole selkeää maantieteellistä sijaintia, mutta etenkin lukion kirjasarjassa tämä on erittäin yleistä. Maantieteellisen sijainnin puuttuminen saattaa heijastella opetussuunnitelman perusteissakin mainittua englannin kansainvälistä roolia, sekä sitä, että englannin kieli ei ole enää sidottu pelkästään sisäpiirin maihin.
  • Sannemann-Damström, Stephanie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Denna avhandling handlar om läromedlens medieinnehålls användbarhet, dvs. usabilityn. I denna avhandling försöker jag fastställa usabilityn (användbarheten) för medieinnehållet av läromedel i svenska som andra främmande språk enligt den finska läroplanen från 2014. De läromedel jag koncentrerar mig på är Megafon 1, Hallonbåt 1 och Pä gång 1. Elevernas åldersgrupp är årskurs 6, som enligt den nya läroplanen har påbörjat undervisningen i svenska redan på klass 6 istället för klass 7. Läraren kan därmed antingen vara en klasslärare eller en ämneslärare med mycket varierande pedagogisk och ämnesdidaktisk utbildning. För att kunna göra en bedömning av läromedlens usability, måste man definiera de finländska läroplanens kompetensmål i svenska, som bygger på de allmänna kompetensmålen samt på finsk lagstiftning. Ett läromedel som inte uppfyller dessa krav är inte användbar i undervisningen. Jag går tillbaka till de allmänna pedagogiska målen som ligger bakom kompetensmålen och som stöder Lim & Lees usabilitykriterier för undervisning i främmande språk. Jag kontrollerade dessa användbarhetskriterier för sjätte klassens Megafon 1, Hallonbåt 1 och Pä gång 1 (dvs. läromedlens första halva). Jag kom fram till att enbart den tekniska usabilityn kan mätas någorlunda tillförlitligt, för den pedagogiska usabilityn beror såväl på användarens kunskaper och personlighet samt målgruppens behov och förväntningar. I sista kapitlet tar jag även upp olika förbättringsförslag för framtida digitala läromedel.
  • Lukkaroinen, Marjukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This master’s thesis concerns itself with teaching multiplication in a kinesthetic way. The aim of this study was to increase the amount of kinesthetic activities in a school day and to familiarize with the concept of teaching kinesthetic multiplication. Several studies have shown the positive effects which exercise has on studying and, through that, on learning. In favor of utilizing exercise along with other teaching methods speaks the fact that exercise as one teaching method is concrete as well as it is active, characteristics which support the development of mathematical concepts. In addition, exercise can in many occasions be indirectly beneficial for learning skills and on the learning results. This study aims to create useable and inspiring educational material for kinesthetic multiplication for third graders. Multiplication is a central area of mathematical studies in the elementary school, which proves that there is cause for supporting the learning of multiplication. The material for this study also supports well the new, activity-based National Core Curriculum for Basic Education, as well as helps achieving the goal of increasing the amount of sports and activities in schools. This study was carried out as a design-based research in which participated three class teachers and their classes. Two cycles of design were used when creating this design-based research. The subject of this design work was the educational material for teaching kinesthetic multiplication. Based on a material package that I designed, I held 15 lessons, teaching kinesthetic mathematics for three school classes during four weeks. After the experimental teaching period the educational material was further developed based on the received feedback from teachers as well as from interviews. SWOT analysis was used in the analysis of the data. Based on the results of this design-based study, kinesthetic mathematics as well as teaching kinesthetic multiplication are functional teaching methods on the third grade of elementary school. This argument was supported by both the theoretical problem analysis and the empirical problem analyses. As this study was not an intervention research, it could not be concluded whether the pupils learned multiplication better with the help of the material I created or with the help of active mathematics, or whether they could have learned multiplication better with the help of some other method. According to the results of this study, the most central benefit of kinesthetic mathematics for learning was that the pupils became motivated towards practicing multiplication. Based on the experimental teaching period, other benefits of active mathematics were, among others, positive experiences of exercising, excitement about exercising, improved ability to focus through active practices as well as increased ability to work in a group.
  • Myllyviita, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 provides an opportunity to teach Home Economics as a part of optional studies in primary schools. The National Curriculum emphasizes transversal competence, integrated curriculum and phenomenon-based learning. Integrative instruction, and approaching other subjects in the context of everyday life is the core of Home Economics. Until the 2016 Home Economics was mainly only taught in secondary and high schools and the goals for the competence and subject matter for teaching Home Economics in primary school is still not set in the National Curriculum. Consequently, there are no comprehensive educational material for Home Economics at the primary school level. Seven Master’s theses are completed with the focus on Home Economics in primary schools in 1990’s and 2010’s. There has been a demand for bringing back and re-branding Home Economics in international research field and discussions. Bringing Home Economics to primary schools can be seen as a step towards developing it into a subject that supports students’ growth as a human being throughout their studies by teaching important life skills. The aim of this study is to make groundwork to facilitate the planning of local curriculums, in-service education and teaching materials. The research data were collected by conducting nine expert interviews. The interviewees were selected to give the widest possible frame for Home Economics with different backgrounds like experience in teaching, writing teaching materials, working in third sector related to the field and being part of making the National Core Curriculum. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results of this study show that Home Economics is perceived as relevant and meaningful subject due to comprehensive life skills it teaches. It is important to teach Home Economics also in primary schools because learning those skills is worthwhile for all ages. Teaching Home Economics should be based on a complex and rich interpretation of the subject and the aims set in the curriculum. That is the only way the significance and effectiveness of the subject can come to fruition. Attention should be paid to the versatility of teaching materials and to provision of adequate in-service education to those who teach Home Economics in primary schools in order to ensure that the objectives of the subject are met.
  • Nuutila, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Craft education serves as a potential platform for students' creativity. The focus of craftwork studies has lately been changing form technique learning and product making to more creative direction. This is also evident in the new, 2016 launched, curriculum of craft education. The curriculum emphasizes craftwork as a more experimental and exploratory subject where different techniques and materials are combined. The purpose of this Master's Thesis was to develop new and more creative ways to teach craftwork. The project consists of three parts. In the first phase, different ideas were mapped by brainstorming and utilizing existing theories. Subsequently, based on the ideas from the first phase a teaching module was built. The execution of the scheme was documented by filming a video. In the last phase the video material was analyzed and creative activities were highlighted. Eventually, by combining the existing theories and observations from the video an outline for online material for creative craftwork teaching was develop. This teaching material aims to approach craft education from a more creative and expressive point of view. This project indicated that several factors affect the creative craft process. Giving enough time and encouragement to all students' individual craftsmanship proved to be important for increasing creativity among students. Possibility to explore different materials and techniques had also a positive effect on creativity. Team work, encouraging and casual atmosphere contributed also to the creative process. Teacher's role as a supporter and inspirer was also important. The produced web material is based on the observations from this study and also supports the new craft curriculum. The material is online and thus easily available for everybody. In addition, a Facebook page was created to encourage people for more interactive conversation. www.luovalanka.wordpress.com
  • Laiho, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract This Master's Thesis originated with an assignment from LUMA2020-program to create mathematics materials to primary education. Previous studies have shown interest to be a major factor in learning mathematics. Therefore, the goal of the material is to be interesting. This thesis leaned on the model by Aunio and Räsäsen (2016) about the development of mathematic skills in children under the age of 8, so that the material could be developed to fit the zone of proximal development. This thesis examines the factors that influence interest in mathematics material. The goal of the thesis is to create interesting mathematical materials for children in primary education. This Master's thesis has been implemented as a design research. Empirical problem analysis has collected data on the aspirations of mathematics materials from teachers and educators who participated in the LUMA2020 program in primary education. The poll was sent to 126 people in total. Based on the responses to this survey (total of 18) and previous research, I created the first design solution. This design solution was assessed as a case study by interviewing the five people who tried the material. Based on the results of the interviews, I created another design solution. According to this master's thesis, meaningful and interesting mathematics material aimed at children in primary education is of the right level and it makes it possible to stream pupils. Functionality and an interesting story that makes actions logical increases interest towards the material. Good and clear instructions for children and adults affect positively to commitment and interest towards the material.