Browsing by Subject "oppimistulokset"

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  • Casey, Tuija (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The main purpose of the Master Thesis was to find out what kind of attitudes the pupils in the 9th grade of Finnish comprehensive school have towards music as a school subject and compare it to the attitudes of the principals at a school level. The theoretical context of the research is based on the former studies of the significance of music education in the comprehensive school, the connection between learning and attitudes and the motivational factors towards the study motivation of music. In addition to this, I have analysed the role of the evaluation and the assessment from the point of view of developing the educational system and what is the role of management and leadership in relation to the pupils' behaviour and attitudes. The data of the research is the Finnish National Board of Education's collected data of the assessment of the learning outcomes of arts education and it is nationally representative (N=5056 I phase and n=1570 II phase), both the Finnish-language and the Swedish-language pupil data. I have especially concentrated on the items of measuring the attitudes, the certain background variables and the questionnaire of the principals. The numerical data was analyzed using the multivariate statistical methods. The results of the research prove that in general the pupils and the principals think that music is quite significant as a school subject. The girls valued music on average more than the boys when comparing all the dimensions. The differences were systematic but the effect sizes were under 10 %. There were not statistically significant differences between the Finnish-language and the Swedish-language pupils. Comparing the grades of music in the 7th grade, the differences were growing linearly and the effect size was 15.7 %. There was a positive statistically significant correlation between the Significance of music and music as a hobby (Active interest in music, Informal interest in music, Taking part of music activities in the school) during free time. The strongest correlation were with the Active interest in music variable (r= 0.53, p= .000). Also the principals thought that music is important as a school subject considering the development of the pupil and the function of the school. The answers of the pupils were not clustering at a school level and there were no strong correlations between the attitudes of the pupils and the principals. A statistically nearly significant and a slight correlation (r= 0.21, p= .011) was found between the principals valuing the Significance of the music for school function and the pupils valuing the Benefits and hobbyism. The role of a well-motivated and active music teacher can be important from this point of view. The most important conclusion of the research was that the significance of music is a very personal individual level phenomenon. The results highlight also that in the pupils' opinion the most important thing about music lessons is to musical activity and learning as an experience.
  • Uusi-Hallila, Tuula (1995)
  • Elomaa, Marjatta (1996)
  • Erämo, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Previous research shows signs of gender inequality in comprehensive school, such as gender-based classifications and stereotypes. The assessments of learning outcomes have raised the issue of equality in education, as on the basis of them, girls succeeded over boys in most of the subjects. In addition, these assesments show that in home economics girls´ results were better than boys´ results. This study explores the teaching practices associated above-average learning outcomes of home economics, taking gender differences into account. The aim was to research which teaching practices, on the basis of home economics assessment data, were related to above-average learning outcomes, and which factors explained the differences from students´ and teachers´ perspective. The data is part of the national assessment of learning outcomes in home economics, which took place in 2014 (Venäläinen & Metsämuuronen, 2015). The student data consists of 3541 9th grade students and the teacher data of 163 home economics teachers. Quantitative data was analyzed by multivariate statistical methods: decision tree analysis, traditional explorative factor analysis, and linear regression analysis. As result, a good atmosphere in the classroom, sharing the grade criteria at the beginning of the course and taking the students' ideas and wishes into account were associated with the above-average learning outcomes of home economics. Based on factor analysis, the biggest influence on students' total competence had the diverse teacher (F4), who was characterized by the use of different teaching and assessment methods. The learning outcomes of boys and girls were partly influenced by different practices: boys' outcomes were also raised by a teacher who challenged their own perceptions and helped to reflect issues from the perspectives of their own life (F2). The girls' outcomes were raised by a very professional teacher (F5). To improve learning outcomes the teachers should, i. a., take the students' ideas and expectations into account and explain the criteria for the grade at the beginning of the course. Home economics education should be connected to both girls and boys everyday lives. In particular boys' learning motivation could be improved by bringing the everyday life of boys into the learning contents. Teacher education and in-service training should also ensure that teachers have up-to-date and versatile know-how for using teaching and assessment methods that take diverse learners into account.
  • Ojala, Jaakko (2006)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on tutkia luokkakoon muuttamisen vaikutusta oppimistuloksiin. Pyrkimyksenä on selvittää, miten suomalaisten peruskoulun yläasteen 15-vuotiaiden oppilaiden itse raportoima äidinkielen opetuksen ryhmäkoko on yhteydessä oppilaan lukutaidon oppimistuloksiin PISA 2000 -oppimistulos-arviointiaineistossa, kun eroja opiskelijoiden ominaisuuksissa kontrolloidaan aineistoon sisältyvillä taustamuuttujilla. Käytettävä aineisto on vuonna 2000 kerätty otanta peruskoulun kaikista oppilaista, jotka ovat syntyneet helmikuun 1984 ja tammikuun 1985 välisenä aikana. Se on vapaasti saatavilla Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Developmentin (OECD) nettisivuilta osana kansainvälistä Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) -oppimistulosarviointiaineistoa. Tutkielmassa käytettävä aineisto sisältää yksilötason tietoja 4864 oppilaan oppimistuloksesta, luokkakoosta sekä useista muista ominaisuuksista. Aineiston keräämisessä on pyritty kattamaan 15-vuotiaiden joukko mahdollisimman laajasti. Ahvenanmaan koulut on kuitenkin rajattu aineiston ulkopuolelle. PISA-aineiston keräämisen on Suomessa toteuttanut Jyväskylässä sijaitseva Koulutuksen tutkimuslaitos. Tutkimuksen pääpaino on luokkakoon vaikutusta oppimistuloksiin kuvaavien erilaisten parametrien suhteen lineaaristen regressiomallien estimoimisella. Tulosten mukaan luokkakooltaan tavanomaisten (luokassa 20–25 oppilasta) suomalaisten yhdeksännen luokan lukutaidon opetuksen luokkien luokkakoon pienentäminen ei vaikuta luokissa opiskelevien oppilaiden oppimistuloksiin merkittävästi, jos muutoksen jälkeenkin oppilaan luokkakoko säilyy vaihteluvälillä 15–25 oppilasta luokkaa kohden. Tutkielman tulokset osoittavat, että suomalaisten kansainvälisesti jo ennestään pienten luokkakokojen pienentämisen vaikutus oppilaan menestymiseen ei ole ilmeinen. Keskimääräisen luokkakoon pienentäminen on kallis toimenpide, opetuskustannusten muodostaessa noin 60 prosenttia kunnallisen peruskoulutuksen kustannuksista (Kirjavainen 1991), ja siitä saatavat hyödyt vallitsevassa tilanteessa keskimääräisen oppilaan kannalta ovat vähintäänkin kyseenalaiset. Luokkakoko on yksi helposti havaittavimpia koulutuksen indikaattoreita, ja siksi on luonnollista, että sen kehitykseen kiinnitetään erityistä huomiota. Tästä syystä luokkakoon pienentäminen on saatettu kuitenkin nähdä myös ratkaisuna oppimiseen liittyviin ongelmiin silloinkin, kun pienentämisen vaikutus ei ole oppimista parantava. Luokkakooltaan tavallisessa luokassa opiskelevan yhdeksäsluokkalaisen suomalaisen tavallisen oppilaan kannalta ei luokkakoon pienentäminen parilla oppilaalla opettajaa kohti ole oppimista parantava. Kuitenkin on todennäköisesti olosuhteita, jossa luokkakoon pienentämisellä on oppimistuloksia parantava vaikutus. Tutkielman perusteella luokkakoon pienentäminen onkin nähtävä pikemmin tarkkaa suunnittelua vaativana tilanneriippuvaisena täsmätoimena kuin yleisenä ratkaisuna kaikkiin oppimiseen liittyviin ongelmiin. Tulos tukee sitä aikaisempaa aiheeseen liittyvää tilastollista tutkimusta, jonka mukaan viimeisinä vuosikymmeninä tapahtuneen luokkakoon laajamittaisen pienentämisen positiivinen vaikutus oppimistuloksiin ja yhteiskunnallinen kannattavuus on erityisesti rikkaissa länsimaissa asetettu kyseenalaiseksi (ks. esim. Hanushek 2005).