Browsing by Subject "optimization"

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  • Dewar, Roderick; Mauranen, Aleksanteri; Makela, Annikki; Holtta, Teemu; Medlyn, Belinda; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    Optimization models of stomatal conductance (g(s)) attempt to explain observed stomatal behaviour in terms of cost-benefit tradeoffs. While the benefit of stomatal opening through increased CO2 uptake is clear, currently the nature of the associated cost(s) remains unclear. We explored the hypothesis that g(s) maximizes leaf photosynthesis, where the cost of stomatal opening arises from nonstomatal reductions in photosynthesis induced by leaf water stress. We analytically solved two cases, CAP and MES, in which reduced leaf water potential leads to reductions in carboxylation capacity (CAP) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) (MES). Both CAP and MES predict the same one-parameter relationship between the intercellular:atmospheric CO2 concentration ratio (c(i)/c(a)) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD, D), viz. c(i)/c(a) approximate to xi/xi (xi+D), as that obtained from previous optimization models, with the novel feature that the parameter xi is determined unambiguously as a function of a small number of photosynthetic and hydraulic variables. These include soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, implying a stomatal closure response to drought. MES also predicts that g(s)/g(m) is closely related to c(i)/c(a) and is similarly conservative. These results are consistent with observations, give rise to new testable predictions, and offer new insights into the covariation of stomatal, mesophyll and hydraulic conductances.
  • Malmström, Miika (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This thesis studies the economically optimal timing of thinnings and final harvest on Costa Rican Tectona grandis plantations. Consequently this thesis studies the profitability of the plantations and makes a comparison to previous studies. Optimization is based on programming with AMPL with Knitro optimizing software. The objective function used is the Faustmann formula. Different rates of interest are used. The ecological functions used for the modeling were obtained from previous studies by Pérez and Kanninen (2005a). The economic data such as planting and thinning costs and log prices were obtained from a T. grandis plantation specialist. The results of the study show that the optimal harvesting regime in T. grandis plantations differs from what is suggested in literature. The main findings are that the optimal rotation length is shorter and both timing and intensity of the thinnings vary depending on the rate of interest used. In addition the maximized bare land values under optimal management regimes are notably higher than bare land values under previously suggested management regimes. The management regime is highly sensitive to the rate of interest used. The management regime is less sensitive to the changes in price than expected. This thesis suggests that the initial density of 816 ha-1 trees results into higher bare land values than 1111 ha-1 trees . However, the difference is minor and possible increase in silvicultural costs is not considered. In addition a simple test is carried out to see the possible effects on heartwood proportion growth to the optimal management regime. The shortcomings and possibilities to improve the model are discussed. It is noted that the price data for T. grandis is not coherent, and that the ecological model could be improved in order to increase its accuracy.
  • Kuryk, Lukasz; Moller, Anne-Sophie W.; Vuolanto, Antti; Pesonen, Sari; Garofalo, Mariangela; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Jaderberg, Magnus (2019)
    Oncolytic adenoviruses can trigger lysis of tumor cells, induce an antitumor immune response, bypass classical chemotherapeutic resistance strategies of tumors, and provide opportunities for combination strategies. A major challenge is the development of scalable production methods for viral seed stocks and sufficient quantities of clinical grade viruses. Because of promising clinical signals in a compassionate use program (Advanced Therapy Access Program) which supported further development, we chose the oncolytic adenovirus ONCOS-401 as a testbed for a new approach to scale up. We found that the best viral production conditions in both T-175 flasks and HYPERFlasks included A549 cells grown to 220,000 cells/cm(2) (80% confluency), with ONCOS-401 infection at 30 multiplicity of infection (MOI), and an incubation period of 66 h. The Lysis A harvesting method with benzonase provided the highest viral yield from both T-175 and HYPERFlasks (10,887 +/- 100 and 14,559 +/- 802 infectious viral particles/cell, respectively). T-175 flasks and HYPERFlasks produced up to 2.1 x 10(9) +/- 0.2 and 1.75 x 10(9) +/- 0.08 infectious particles of ONCOS-401 per cm(2) of surface area, respectively. Our findings suggest a suitable stepwise process that can be applied to optimizing the initial production of other oncolytic viruses.
  • Tunninen, V.; Kauppinen, T.; Eskola, H. (SPRINGER-VERLAG SINGAPORE PTE LTD, 2018)
    IFMBE Proceedings
    The purpose of this study was to optimize effective, but technically challenging Tc-99m-sestamibi/I-123 subtraction SPECT/CT protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy. An anthropomorphic parathyroid phantom was set up using a small sphere, a thyroid phantom and a thorax phantom with clinical range of activities of 1231 and Tc-99m. SPECT/CT acquisitions were performed using three collimators (Low Energy High Resolution (LEHR), Low Energy Ultra High Resolution (LEUHR) and Medium Energy Low Penetration (MELP)) and two energy window settings. Images were reconstructed with a combination of four different numbers of iterations and with or without scatter correction. Images were subjected to visual and quantitative evaluation. The effect of collimator, energy window selection and reconstruction parameters had a significant effect on visual appearance and adenoma contrast in parathyroid Tc-99m-sestamibi/I-123 subtraction SPECT/CT. Symmetrical energy windows and ultra-high resolution collimator yielded best results with some improvement with scatter correction.
  • Järvinen, Juha-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this thesis was to create an optimized bioprocessing to solubilize the maximal amount of proteins from the wheat bran without losing their nutritional and technological quality. The hypothesis of this thesis was that a maximal degradation of the aleurone cell wall components would lead to a maximal amount of soluble proteins originally located inside the aleurone layer. The literature review further looked into possible extraction methods for wheat bran proteins. Fine wheat bran was chosen to be bioprocessed by using experimental design to find optimal conditions for protein solubilization. Bioprocessing was done either by using starter culture alone or a combination of selected enzymes and starter culture. Independent studied factors were time (8 h, 16 h, 24 h), temperature (20 °C, 27.5 °C, 35 °C) and enzyme dosage (5 nkat/g, 50 nkat/g, 500 nkat/g). Optimization was carried out by applying response surface methodology to analyze the relationship between the response and the independent variables. Optimized bioprocessing of wheat bran led to maximal protein solubilization of >50% for wheat bran both bioprocessed with starter culture and with starter culture and enzymes after fermentation time of 24 h. Thus, the amount of soluble protein increased 23%. This indicated that the use of enzymes did not improve the breaking down of the aleurone cell walls for protein liberation. Furthermore, the use of enzymes affected heavily the protein degradation for fermentations longer than 8 h. Since the amount of solubilized protein was higher for wheat bran bioprocessed for 8 h with starter only (>46%) than for wheat bran bioprocessed for 8 h with starter and enzymes (>40%), the use of enzymes for a larger scale production does not seem feasible.
  • Pekkarinen, Antti; Tahvonen, Olli; Kumpula, Jouko (2020)
    Conflicts often arise when large predators and free-ranging livestock share a common area. Various compensation schemes arc used to attempt solving these conflicts, but the costs of predation to suffering stakeholders arc often unknown. Semi-domesticated reindeer husbandry and large carnivores form one such system, where conflicts between predator conservation and the traditional livelihood are common. We apply an age- and sex-structured reindeer-lichen model to examine the effects of predation on reindeer management. Based on the previous studies we specify age- and sex-class-specific mortalities due to various predators, and study optimal reindeer husbandry under predation pressure and the costs of predation. We show that the costs of predation highly depend on the age-class-specific killing rates of reindeer by various predator species, but not on interest rate or pasture conditions. Regarding species that are more likely to kill adult reindeer in addition to calves, the total predation costs are clearly higher than the net slaughtering value of the predated animals. The decrease in steady-state yearly net income is highest for the gray wolf and lower for other predator species. Adapting to predation pressure includes increasing the size of the reindeer population in winter and changing the slaughtering age of males towards young adults, thus reducing the importance of calf harvesting. This result contrasts with the previous results from stage-structured models that do not fully include time lags related to long-living ungulate species. The costs of predation appear to be much higher in an ex post system than in a territorial compensation system, as in an cx post system herders have not adapted to the predation pressure and must search for the predated reindeer to gain compensations. Our results suggest that co-existence of a viable gray wolf population and profitable reindeer husbandry in the same area is not possible in most cases.
  • Sjöholm, Hans-Kristian (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Working Papers
    This paper examines the potential impact of new capital requirements on asset allocations of Finnish pension institutions. We describe the new requirements and consider portfolio construction to minimize regulatory capital, given the investor’s preferred level of expected return. Results identify portfolio transactions that enhance expected return without increasing capital needs. Regulation calls for portfolio diversification and prudence in management, but this paper shows that market participants can exploit inconsistencies in regulation. Possible future consequences include capital outflows from the pension system and an unintended decrease in pre-funding of old-age pensions.