Browsing by Subject "osteoblast"

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  • Maidell-Hjort, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Osa kallon ja kasvojen luista kehittyy elimistön kannalta ainutlaatuisella tavalla intramembranoottisesti suoraan mesenkyymistä. Siten osteoblastien erilaistumista säätelevien geenien mutaatiot tulevat usein selkeästi esiin kallon ja kasvojen alueen kehityshäiriöinä. Gli2 on Hedgehog-signaalireitin transkriptioaktivaattori, jonka tiedetään vaikuttavan osteoblastien erilaistumiseen. Sen mutaatiot aiheuttavat pään alueella erityisesti keskiviivadefektejä kuten holoprosenkefaliaa ja siihen liittyvää fenotyyppiä. Kuitenkin Gli2:n merkityksestä kallon luiden kehittymiseen ja muodon määräytymiseen tiedetään varsin vähän. Tutkielma koostuu kirjallisuuskatsauksesta sekä pilottitutkimuksesta, jossa kuvataan Gli2-poistogeenisten hiirten alizarin red -värjättyjen kallojen ja kasvojen luiden morfologiaa, ja täten pyritään selvittämään Gli2:n merkitystä näiden luiden kehityksessä. Hiirillä havaitaan muun muassa luukudoksen kehityksen viivästymistä sekä etenkin kuonon ja otsan alueella synostoottisia luusaumoja sekä suulakihalkioita. Kallon ja kasvojen luuston kehityksen ymmärtäminen on välttämätöntä suulakihalkioiden ja kraniosynostoosien tutkimuksen ja hoitojen kehittämisen kannalta.
  • Tolkachov, Alexander; Fischer, Cornelius; Ambrosi, Thomas H.; Bothe, Melissa; Han, Chung-Ting; Muenzner, Matthias; Mathia, Susanne; Salminen, Marjo; Seifert, Georg; Thiele, Mario; Duda, Georg N.; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H.; Sauer, Sascha; Schulz, Tim J.; Schupp, Michael (2018)
    The transcription factor GATA2 is required for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), GATA2 blocks adipogenesis, but its biological relevance and underlying genomic events are unknown. We report a dual function of GATA2 in bone homeostasis. GATA2 in MSCs binds near genes involved in skeletal system development and colocalizes with motifs for FOX and HOX transcription factors, known regulators of skeletal development. Ectopic GATA2 blocks osteoblastogenesis by interfering with SMAD1/5/8 activation. MSC-specific deletion of GATA2 in mice increases the numbers and differentiation capacity of bone-derived precursors, resulting in elevated bone formation. Surprisingly, MSC-specific GATA2 deficiency impairs the trabecularization and mechanical strength of bone, involving reduced MSC expression of the osteoclast inhibitor osteoprotegerin and increased osteoclast numbers. Thus, GATA2 affects bone turnover via MSC-autonomous and indirect effects. By regulating bone trabecularization, GATA2 expression in the osteogenic lineage may contribute to the anatomical and cellular microenvironment of the HSC niche required for hematopoiesis.
  • Kylmaoja, Elina; Holopainen, Jani; Abushahba, Faleh; Ritala, Mikko; Tuukkanen, Juha (2022)
    Background: The increasing demand for bone implants with improved osseointegration properties has prompted researchers to develop various coating types for metal implants. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a method for producing nanoscale coatings conformally on complex three-dimensional surfaces. We have prepared hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium (Ti) substrate with the ALD method and analyzed the biocompatibility of this coating in terms of cell adhesion and viability. Methods: HA coatings were prepared on Ti substrates by depositing CaCO3 films by ALD and converting them to HA by wet treatment in dilute phosphate solution. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were cultured on ALD-HA, glass slides and bovine bone slices. ALD-HA and glass slides were either coated or non-coated with fibronectin. After 48h culture, cells were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by vinculin antibody staining for focal adhesion localization. An 344,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was performed to study cell viability. Results: Vinculin staining revealed similar focal adhesion-like structures on ALD-HA as on glass slides and bone, albeit on ALD-HA and bone the structures were thinner compared to glass slides. This might be due to thin and broad focal adhesions on complex three-dimensional surfaces of ALD-HA and bone. The MTT test showed comparable cell viability on ALD-HA, glass slides and bone. Conclusion: ALD-HA coating was shown to be biocompatible in regard to cell adhesion and viability. This leads to new opportunities in developing improved implant coatings for better osseointegration and implant survival.
  • Veistinen, Lotta K.; Mustonen, Tuija; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Takatalo, Maarit; Kobayashi, Yukiho; Kesper, Dorthe A.; Vortkamp, Andrea; Rice, David P. (2017)
    Loss-of-function mutations in GLI3 and IHH cause craniosynostois and reduced osteogeneiss, respectively. In this study, we show that ihh ligand, the receptor Ptch1 and Gli transcription factors are differentialyy expressed in embryonic mouse calvaria osteogenic condenstions. We show that in both ihh(-/-) and Gli3(Xt-J/Xt-J) embroyonic mice, the normal gene expression architecture is lost and this results in disorganized calvarial bone developement. RUNX2 is a master regulatory transciption factor controlling osteogenesis. In the absence of Gli3, RUNX2 isoform II and IHH are upregulated, and RUNX2 isoform I downregulated. This is consistent with the expandeed and aberant osteogenesis observed in Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J mice, and consistent RunX2-t expression by relatively immature osteoprogenitors. ihh-/- mice exhibited small calvarial bones HH target genes, Ptch1 and Gli1, were absent. This indicates that IHH is the functional HH ligand, and that it is not compensated by another HH ligand. To decipher the roles and potential interaction of Gli3 and ihh. we generated ihh-/-; gli3Xt-J/Xt-J compound mutant mice. Even in the absence of ihh, Gli3 deletion was sufficient to induce aberrant precocious ossification across the developing suture, indicating that the carniosyostosis pehnotype of Gli3Xt-J/Xt-J mice is not dependent on IHH ligand. Also we found that ihh was not required for Runx2 expression as the expression of RUNX2 target genes was unaffected by deletion of Ihh. To test whether RUNX2 has a role upstream of IHH we performed RUNX2 siRNA knock down experiements in WT calvarial osteoblasts and explants and found that Ihh expression is suppressed. Our results show that IHH is the functional HH ligand in the embroynic mouse calvaria osteogenic condensations, where it regulates the progression of osteoblastic differentation. As GLI3 represses the expression of Runx2-II abd Ihh, and also elevats the Runx2-I expression, and as IHH may be regulated by RUNX2 these results raise the possibility of a regualtory feedback circuit to control calvarial osteogenesis and suture patency. Taken together RUNX2-controlled osteoblastic cell fate is regulated by IHH through concomitant inhibition of GLI3-repressor formation and activation of downstreams targets.