Browsing by Subject "otsoni"

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  • Mortensen, Lisbeth; Weisberg, Knud V. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Syri, Sanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 19
    This study presents the development and applications of regional and local scale models for use in integrated assessment of air pollution effects in conjunction with large-scale models. A regional deposition model called DAIQUIRI (Deposition, AIr QUality and Integrated Regional Information) for integrated assessment purposes in Finland was constructed, and regional matrices for nitrogen oxides and ammonia were developed from the results of the regional air quality model of the FMI. DAIQUIRI produced similar estimates of deposition from Finnish sources as the original model, and long-term trends and the average level of deposition estimated with DAIQUIRI were found comparable with the monitored deposition levels and trends. For the mid-nineties situation, the regional nitrogen modeling resulted in 9% to 19% (depending on the region compared) larger estimates of areas with acidity critical load exceedances than when using European scale nitrogen deposition modeling.In this work, also a method for estimating the impacts of local NOx emissions on urban and sub-urban ozone levels was developed and tested. The study concentrated on representing the destruction of ozone by fresh NO emissions in urban areas for future use in integrated assessment modeling of ozone control strategies. Correlation coefficients between measured daytime ozone values in the study area were found to improve from 0.64 (correlation between urban and surrounding rural measurements) to 0.85, on the average. The average correlation between daytime large-scale model estimates and urban site measurements was found to improve from 0.37 to 0.58.In the study, also integrated assessment model applications were carried out at European, national and local levels. The synergies between control strategies for CO2 and acidification and ozone formation in the case of the UN/FCCC Kyoto protocol and the air quality targets of the EU were assessed with the help of coupled models. With two alternative energy scenarios reflecting the Kyoto targets for CO2, reductions of sulfur and NOx emissions between 12% and 22% and 8% to 12%, respectively, were estimated by 2010 in the EU-15 with the present emission control legislation. Due to the lower activity levels generating less emissions and the cleaner energy forms used, 35-43% cost savings in further technical emission controls required for achieving the EU air quality targets would be achieved with the scenarios studied. Case studies for Finland indicated that there has been a decrease of 60% in the area at risk of acidification from 1990 to 1995, and that the declining trend is expected to continue due to the recent international emission reduction agreements within the UN/ECE and the EU. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland and in the whole of EU-15 (with the present emission legislation) could bring up to 8% more reduction of ecosystems at risk of acidification in Finland by 2010 than the recent UN/ECE protocol.An uncertainty analysis of acidification integrated assessment modeling in Finland indicated that critical loads dominate the uncertainty. Estimates are becoming more robust, as the general level of deposition is decreasing. In Finland, further efforts to reduce the overall uncertainty should be mainly directed to more accurate description of critical thresholds. In areas affected by major nearby emission sources, also uncertainties in emissions and deposition are significant. The models and their applications presented in this study contributed to identifying the problem characteristics and have supported environmental policy development at international, national and regional levels.
  • Hari, Pertti.; Kulmala, Markku.; Pohja, Toivo; Lahti, Tapani.; Siivola, Erkki.; Palva, Lauri; Aalto, Pasi; Hämeri, Kaarle; Vesala, Timo; Luoma, Sari.; Pulliainen, Erkki. (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1994)
    The Värriö environmental measurement station has been designed and constructed during 1991 and 1992. The measurement system consists of measurement units for gases (sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon dioxide), particles, photosynthesis and irradiation. A meteorological station is also included. The preliminary measurement period was started on August, 1991. During the first year (1991–1992) some parts of the system were redeveloped and rebuilt. Full, continuous measurements started in August 1992. The system has been working quite reliably, with good accuracy. The preliminary results show that pollution episodes are observed when the wind direction is from Monchegorsk or Nikel, the main emission sources in Kola Peninsula.
  • Pääkkönen, Elina (University of Helsinki, 1991)
  • Skyttä, Aurora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Ilmakehän aerosolihiukkasilla on vaikutuksia maapallon säähän ja ilmastoon ja siksi niiden syntyä ja toimintaa pyritään tuntemaan yhä paremmin. Jos niiden rakenneosaset tunnetaan hyvin, voidaan myöskin aerosolihiukkasten ominaisuudet oppia tuntemaan paremmin. Mallinnusten ohella kokeelliset mittaukset ovat yksi keino saada lisää tietoa ilmakehän pienten rakenneosasten toiminnasta. Tässä työssä tutkin voidaanko differentiaalisella liikkuvuusanalysaattorilla (differential mobility analyzer, DMA) mitata α-pineenin hapetustuotteiden eri rakenteita. α-pineeni ja otsoni reagoivat virtausputkessa ja reaktioissa muodostuneet hapetustuotteet varattiin klusteroimalla ne elektrospraylla tuotettujen varattujen reagenssi-ionien kanssa. Näin syntyneiden varattujen klustereiden liikkuvuus ja massa-varaus-suhde mitattiin. Analysointiprosessissa käytin Matlab-pohjaista ToFTools-ohjelmaa ja INAR:in postdoc Lauri Ahosen tekemää Flat-DMA-analysointiohjelmaa. Tunnistin ToFToolsilla α-pineenin hapetustuotteista ja reagenssi-ionista koostuvien klustereiden kemiallisen koostumuksen niiden massan perusteella ja sovitin niiden liikkuvuusspektrin piikkien sisään Flat-DMA-analysointiohjelmalla piikkejä DMA:n maksimiresoluutiolla. Sovitettujen piikkien määrä kertoo siitä, kuinka monta rakennetta kullakin klusterilla mahdollisesti voisi olla. Mittauksissa havaittiin useita yhdisteitä, joita voitiin teorian perusteella olettaa syntyvän. Kuitenkin tunnistettiin myös sellaisia yhdisteitä, joita ei odotettu muodostuvan α-pineenin ja otsonin välisissä reaktioissa. On mahdollista, että yhdisteet on tunnistettu väärin tai mittauksiin on päässyt epäpuhtauksia. Näiden mittausten perusteella ei voida vielä varsinaisesti tehdä johtopäätöksiä siitä, miten monta isomeeria α-pineenin hapetustuotteilla on. Tulosten perusteella käytetty reagenssi-ioni vaikuttaa merkittävästi mitattujen rakenteiden määrään, joten jotta α-pineenin hapetustuotteiden rakenteita voitaisiin tutkia, täytyisi kunkin reagenssi-ionin vaikutus tuntea paremmin. Myöskin jotta rakenteiden määrää voitaisiin tutkia luotettavammin, täytyisi DMA:n resoluution olla huomattavasti nykyistä parempi. Nykyisellä resoluutiolla isomeerien määrän arviointi oli hankalaa eikä lopputuloksista voida olla varmoja.