Browsing by Subject "out-of-hospital cardiac arrest"

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  • REAPPROPRIATE Study Grp; Druwe, Patrick; Benoit, Dominique D.; Nurmi, Jouni; Piers, Ruth; Hallikainen, Juhana; Suonsyrja, Timo; Kaartinen, Johanna (2020)
    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of clinician perception of inappropriate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) regarding the last out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) encountered in an adult 80 years or older and its relationship to patient outcome. DESIGN Subanalysis of an international multicenter cross-sectional survey (REAPPROPRIATE). SETTING Out-of-hospital CPR attempts registered in Europe, Israel, Japan, and the United States in adults 80 years or older. PARTICIPANTS A total of 611 clinicians of whom 176 (28.8%) were doctors, 123 (20.1%) were nurses, and 312 (51.1%) were emergency medical technicians/paramedics. RESULTS AND MEASUREMENTS The last CPR attempt among patients 80 years or older was perceived as appropriate by 320 (52.4%) of the clinicians; 178 (29.1%) were uncertain about the appropriateness, and 113 (18.5%) perceived the CPR attempt as inappropriate. The survival to hospital discharge for the "appropriate" subgroup was 8 of 265 (3.0%), 1 of 164 (.6%) in the "uncertain" subgroup, and 2 of 107 (1.9%) in the "inappropriate" subgroup (P = .23); 503 of 564 (89.2%) CPR attempts involved non-shockable rhythms. CPR attempts in nursing homes accounted for 124 of 590 (21.0%) of the patients and were perceived as appropriate by 44 (35.5%) of the clinicians; 45 (36.3%) were uncertain about the appropriateness; and 35 (28.2%) perceived the CPR attempt as inappropriate. The survival to hospital discharge for the nursing home patients was 0 of 107 (0%); 104 of 111 (93.7%) CPR attempts involved non-shockable rhythms. Overall, 36 of 543 (6.6%) CPR attempts were undertaken despite a known written do not attempt resuscitation decision; 14 of 36 (38.9%) clinicians considered this appropriate, 9 of 36 (25.0%) were uncertain about its appropriateness, and 13 of 36 (36.1%) considered this inappropriate. CONCLUSION Our findings show that despite generally poor outcomes for older patients undergoing CPR, many emergency clinicians do not consider these attempts at resuscitation to be inappropriate. A professional and societal debate is urgently needed to ensure that first we do not harm older patients by futile CPR attempts.
  • Humaloja, Jaana; Vento, Maximo; Kuligowski, Julia; Andersson, Sture; Pineiro-Ramos, Jose David; Sanchez-Illana, Angel; Litonius, Erik; Jakkula, Pekka; Hästbacka, Johanna; Bendel, Stepani; Tiainen, Marjaana; Reinikainen, Matti; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    The products of polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation are considered reliable biomarkers of oxidative injury in vivo. We investigated ischemia-reperfusion-related oxidative injury by determining the levels of lipid peroxidation biomarkers (isoprostane, isofuran, neuroprostane, and neurofuran) after cardiac arrest and tested the associations between the biomarkers and different arterial oxygen tensions (PaO2). We utilized blood samples collected during the COMACARE trial (NCT02698917). In the trial, 123 patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were treated with a 10-15 kPa or 20-25 kPa PaO2 target during the initial 36 h in the intensive care unit. We measured the biomarker levels at admission, and 24, 48, and 72 h thereafter. We compared biomarker levels in the intervention groups and in groups that differed in oxygen exposure prior to randomization. Blood samples for biomarker determination were available for 112 patients. All four biomarker levels peaked at 24 h; the increase appeared greater in younger patients and in patients without bystander-initiated life support. No association between the lipid peroxidation biomarkers and oxygen exposure either before or after randomization was found. Increases in the biomarker levels during the first 24 h in intensive care suggest continuing oxidative stress, but the clinical relevance of this remains unresolved.
  • Arola, Olli; Saraste, Antti; Laitio, Ruut; Airaksinen, Juhani; Hynninen, Marja; Bäcklund, Minna; Ylikoski, Emmi; Wennervirta, Johanna; Pietila, Mikko; Roine, Risto O.; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Niiranen, Jussi; Korpi, Kirsi; Varpula, Marjut; Scheinin, Harry; Maze, Mervyn; Vahlberg, Tero; Laitio, Timo; Xe-HYPOTHECA Study Grp (2017)
    BACKGROUND The authors previously reported that inhaled xenon combined with hypothermia attenuates brain white matter injury in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). OBJECTIVES A pre-defined secondary objective was to assess the effect of inhaled xenon on myocardial ischemic damage in the same study population. METHODS A total of 110 comatose patients who had experienced OHCA from a cardiac cause were randomized to receive either inhaled xenon (40% end-tidal concentration) combined with hypothermia (33 degrees C) for 24 h (n = 55; xenon group) or hypothermia treatment alone (n = 55; control group). Troponin-T levels were measured at hospital admission, and at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-cardiac arrest. All available cases were analyzed for troponin-T release. RESULTS Troponin-T measurements were available from 54 xenon patients and 54 control patients. The baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjustments for age, sex, study site, primary coronary percutaneous intervention (PCI), and norepinephrine dose, the mean +/- SD post-arrival incremental change of the ln-transformed troponin-T at 72 h was 0.79 +/- 1.54 in the xenon group and 1.56 +/- 1.38 in the control group (adjusted mean difference -0.66; 95% confidence interval: -1.16 to -0.16; p = 0.01). The effect of xenon on the change in the troponin-T values did not differ in patients with or without PCI or in those with a diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (group by PCI or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction interaction effect; p = 0.86 and p = 0.71, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Among comatose survivors of OHCA, in comparison with hypothermia alone, inhaled xenon combined with hypothermia suggested a less severe myocardial injury as demonstrated by the significantly reduced release of troponin-T. (C) 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Holmström, Ester; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Pekkarinen, Pirkka; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outcome, mortality and healthcare-associated costs for patients aged over 75 years treated for CA in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital. Methods: This single-centre retrospective study included adult CA patients treated in a Finnish tertiary hospital’s ICU between 2005 and 2013. We stratified the study population into two age groups: <75 and ≥75 years. We compared interventions defined by the median daily therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS-76) between the age groups to find differences in treatment intensity. We calculated cost-effectiveness by dividing the total one-year healthcare-associated costs of all patients by the number of survivors with a favourable neurological outcome. Favourable outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1–2 at 12 months after cardiac arrest. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent association between age group, mortality and neurological outcome. Results: This study included a total of 1,285 patients, of which 212 (16%) were ≥75 years of age. Treatment intensity was lower for the elderly compared to the younger group, with median TISS scores of 116 and 147, respectively (p < 0.001). The effective cost in euros for patients with a good one-year neurological outcome was €168,000 for the elderly and €120,000 for the younger group. At 12 months after CA 24% of the patients in the elderly group and 47% of the patients in the younger group had a CPC of 1-2 (p < 0.001). Age was an independent predictor of mortality (multivariate OR = 3.36, 95% CI:2.21-5.11, p < 0.001) and neurological outcome (multivariate OR = 3.27, 95% CI:2.12-5.03, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The elderly ICU-treated CA patients in this study had worse neurological outcomes, higher mortality and lower cost-effectiveness than younger patients. Further efforts are needed to recognize the tools for assessing which elderly patients benefit from a more aggressive treatment approach in order to improve the cost-effectiveness of post-CA management.