Browsing by Subject "outcomes"

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  • Fotakopoulos, George; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Kivelev, Juri; Tjahjadi, Mardjono; Goehre, Felix; Hernesniemi, Juha (2022)
    Given the rareness of available data, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on therapeutic strategy microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) and assessed mortality, permanent neurological deficits (PNDs), rebleeding rate, and patients who require reintervention to elucidate the benefits of each treatment modality. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) were used for protocol development and manuscript preparation. After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, six remaining articles were included in the final manuscript pool. In total, this meta-analysis included 396 patients, among them 168 patients underwent microsurgical treatment and 228 underwent SRS. Findings of the present meta-analysis suggest that regarding the total group of patients, in terms of mortality, late rebleeding rate, and PNDs, there was no superiority of the one method over the other. Applying the leave-one-out method to our study suggests that with low robust of the results for the bleeding rate and patients who require reintervention outcome factor, there was no statistical difference among the surgical and SRS treatment. Microsurgical treatment of BSCMs immediately eliminates the risk of rehemorrhage; however, it requires complete excision of the lesion and it is associated with a similar rate of PNDs compared with SRS management. Apparently, SRS of BSCMs causes a marked reduction in the risk of rebleeding 2 years after treatment, but when compared with the surgical treatment, there was not any remarkable difference.
  • Willberg, Tytti; Sivonen, Ville; Linder, Pia; Dietz, Aarno (2021)
    Background: A large number of different speech-in-noise (SIN) tests are available for testing cochlear implant (CI) recipients, but few studies have compared the different tests in the same patient population to assess how well their results correlate. Methods: A clinically representative group of 80 CI users conducted the Finnish versions of the matrix sentence test, the simplified matrix sentence test, and the digit triplet test. The results were analyzed for correlations between the different tests and for differences among the participants, including age and device modality. Results: Strong and statistically significant correlations were observed between all of the tests. No floor or ceiling effects were observed with any of the tests when using the adaptive test procedure. Age or the length of device use showed no correlation to SIN perception, but bilateral CI users showed slightly better results in comparison to unilateral or bimodal users. Conclusions: Three SIN tests that differ in length and complexity of the test material provided comparable results in a diverse CI user group.
  • Braun, Oscar Ö.; Nilsson, Johan; Gustafsson, Finn; Dellgren, Göran; Fiane, Arnt E.; Lemström, Karl; Hubbert, Laila; Hellgren, Laila; Lund, Lars H. (2019)
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess complications and mortality and its predictors, with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) in the Nordic Countries. Design: This was a retrospective, international, multicenter cohort study. Results: Between 1993 and 2013, 442 surgically implanted long-term mechanical assist devices were used among 8 centers in the Nordic countries. Of those, 238 were CF-LVADs (HVAD or HeartMate II) implanted in patients >18 years with complete data. Postoperative complications and survival were compared and Cox proportion hazard regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 75% at 1 year, 69% at 2 years and 63% at 3 years. A planned strategy of destination therapy had poorer survival compared to a strategy of bridge to transplantation or decision (2-year survival of 41% vs. 76%, p <.001). The most common complications were non-driveline infections (excluding sepsis) (44%), driveline infection (27%), need for continuous renal replacement therapy (25%) and right heart failure (24%). In a multivariate model age and left ventricular diastolic dimension was left as independent risk factors for mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.01-1.80], p = .046) per 10 years and 0.88 (95% CI [0.72-0.99], p = .044) per 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Outcome with CF LVAD in the Nordic countries was comparable to other cohorts. Higher age and destination therapy require particularly stringent selection.
  • CTR-TBI Participants; Mikolic, Ana; van Klaveren, David; Oude Groeniger, Joost; Polinder, Suzanne; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability, but little is known about sex and gender differences after TBI. We aimed to analyze the association between sex/gender, and the broad range of care pathways, treatment characteristics, and outcomes following mild and moderate/severe TBI. We performed mixed-effects regression analyses in the prospective multi-center Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, stratified for injury severity and age, and adjusted for baseline characteristics. Outcomes were various care pathway and treatment variables, and 6-month measures of functional outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), post-concussion symptoms (PCS), and mental health symptoms. The study included 2862 adults (36% women) with mild (mTBI; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13-15), and 1333 adults (26% women) with moderate/severe TBI (GCS score 3-12). Women were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; odds ratios [OR] 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8) following mTBI. Following moderate/severe TBI, women had a shorter median hospital stay (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). Following mTBI, women had poorer outcomes; lower Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE; OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), lower generic and disease-specific HRQoL, and more severe PCS, depression, and anxiety. Among them, women under age 45 and above age 65 years showed worse 6-month outcomes compared with men of the same age. Following moderate/severe TBI, there was no difference in GOSE (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.2), but women reported more severe PCS (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Men and women differ in care pathways and outcomes following TBI. Women generally report worse 6-month outcomes, but the size of differences depend on TBI severity and age. Future studies should examine factors that explain these differences.
  • Malmberg, Markus; Palomäki, Antti; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Rautava, Päivi; Gunn, Jarmo; Kytö, Ville (2021)
    Objective To investigate the long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA (n = 378) were retrospectively compared to patients without RA (n = 7560), all treated with CABG in a multicentre, population-based cohort register study in Finland. The outcomes were studied with propensity score-matching adjustment for baseline features. The median follow-up was 9.7 years. Results Diagnosis of RA was associated with an increased risk of mortality after CABG compared to patients without RA (HR 1.50; CI 1.28-1.77; p < .0001). In addition, patients with RA were in higher risk of myocardial infarction during the follow-up period (HR 1.61; CI 1.28-2.04; p < .0001). Cumulative rate of repeated revascularization after CABG was 14.4% in RA patients and 12.0% in control patients (p = .060). Duration of RA before CABG (p = .011) and preoperative corticosteroid usage in RA (p = .041) were independently associated with higher mortality after CABG. There were no differences between the study groups in 30-d mortality or in the post-operative usage of cardiovascular medications. Conclusions RA is independently associated with worse prognosis in coronary artery disease treated with CABG. Preoperative corticosteroid use and longer RA disease duration are additional risk factors for mortality. Key messages Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have impaired long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Glucocorticoid use before CABG and duration of RA are associated with higher mortality. Special attention should be paid in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in RA patients after CABG.
  • Malmberg, Markus; Palomäki, Antti; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Rautava, Päivi; Gunn, Jarmo; Kytö, Ville (2021)
    Background: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and events. Little is, however, known about the influence of RA to the outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Methods: In a retrospective, nationwide, multicenter cohort study, RA patients (n = 109) were compared to patients without RA (n = 1090) treated with isolated SAVR for aortic valve stenosis. Propensity score-matching adjustment for baseline features was used to study the outcome differences in a median follow-up of 5.6 years. Results: Patients with RA had higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.76; CI 1.21-2.57; p = 0.003), higher incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (HR 1.63; CI 1.06-2.49; p = 0.025), and they needed more often coronary artery revascularization for coronary artery disease (HR 3.96; CI 1.21-12.90; p = 0.027) in long-term follow-up after SAVR. As well, cardiovascular mortality rate was higher in patients with RA (35.7% vs. 23.4%, p = 0.023). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (2.8% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.518) or in the need for aortic valve reoperations (3.7% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.532). Conclusions: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had impaired long-term results and increased cardiovascular mortality after SAVR for aortic valve stenosis. Special attention is needed to improve outcomes of aortic valve stenosis patients with RA after SAVR.
  • OBSERVANT II Res Grp; Costa, Giuliano; D'Errigo, Paola; Rosato, Stefano; Biancari, Fausto; Juvonen, Tatu; Tamburino, Corrado (2022)
    Background: Data reflecting the benefit of procedural improvements in real-world transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) practice are sparse. Aims: To compare outcomes and trends of two TAVI eras from real Italian practice. Methods: A total of 1811 and 2939 TAVI patients enrolled in the national, prospective OBSERVANT and OBSERVANT II studies in 2010-2012 and 2016-2018, respectively, were compared in a cohort study. Outcomes were adjusted using inverse propensity of treatment weighting and propensity score matching. Results: The median age (83.0 (79.0-86.0) vs. 83.0 (79.0-86.0)) and EuroSCORE II (5.2 (3.2-7.7) vs. 5.1 (3.1-8.1)) of OBSERVANT and OBSERVANT II patients were similar. At 1 year, patients of the OBSERVANT II study had a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (10.6% vs. 16.3%, Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.63 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.52-0.76)) and rehospitalization for heart failure (HF) (14.3% vs. 19.5%, Sub-distribution HR 0.71 (95%CI 0.60-0.84)), whereas rates of stroke (3.1% vs. 3.6%) and permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) (16.6% vs. 18.0%) were comparable between study groups. Conclusions: Age and risk profile among patients undergoing TAVI in Italy remained substantially unchanged between the 2010-2012 and 2016-2018 time periods. After adjustment, patients undergoing TAVI in the most recent era had lower risk of all-cause death and rehospitalization for HF at 1 year, whereas rates of stroke and PPI did not differ significantly.
  • European Congenital Heart Surg (2018)
    Background: The optimal management and prognostic factors of postsurgical pulmonary vein stenosis remain controversial. We sought to determine current postsurgical pulmonary vein stenosis outcomes and prognostic factors in a multicentric study in the current era. Methods: Seventy-five patients with postsurgical pulmonary vein stenosis who underwent 103 procedures in 14 European/North American centers (2000-2012) were included retrospectively. A specific pulmonary vein stenosis severity score was developed on the basis of the assessment of each pulmonary vein. End points were death, pulmonary vein reintervention, and restenosis. A univariate and multivariate risk analysis was performed. Results: Some 76% of postsurgical pulmonary vein stenosis occurred after repair of a total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Sutureless repair was used in 42 of 103 procedures (41%), patch veinoplasty was used in 28 procedures (27%), and endarterectomy was used in 16 procedures (16%). Overall pulmonary vein restenosis, reintervention, and mortality occurred in 56%(n=58/103), 49%(n=50/103), and 27%(n=20/75), respectively. Sutureless repair was associated with less restenosis (40% vs 67%; P=.007) and less reintervention (31% vs 61%; P=.003). Mortality after sutureless repair (20%; 7/35) tends to be lower than after nonsutureless repair (33%; 13/40) (P=.22). A high postoperative residual pulmonary vein stenosis score at the time of hospital discharge was an independent risk factor for restenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; P Conclusions: Postsurgical pulmonary vein stenosis still has a guarded prognosis in the current era. The sutureless technique is an independent protective factor against restenosis. The severity of the residual disease evaluated by a new severity score is an independent risk factor for poor outcomes regardless of surgical technique.
  • Palomäki, Antti; Kerola, Anne M.; Malmberg, Markus; Rautava, Päivi; Kyto, Ville (2021)
    Objective. To investigate the long-term outcomes of patients with RA after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. All-comer, real-life MI patients with RA (n = 1614, mean age 74 years) were retrospectively compared with propensity score (1,5) matched MI patients without RA (n = 8070) in a multicentre, nationwide, cohort register study in Finland. The impact of RA duration and the usage of corticosteroids and antirheumatic drugs on RA patients' outcomes were also studied. The median follow-up was 7.3 years. Results. RA was associated with an increased 14-year mortality risk after MI compared with patients without RA [80.4% vs 72.3%; hazard ratio (HR) 1.25; CI, 1.16, 1.35; P Conclusion. RA is independently associated with poorer prognosis after MI. RA duration and corticosteroid usage and dosage were independent predictors of mortality after MI in RA. Special attention is needed for improvement of outcomes after MI in this vulnerable population.
  • Af Björkesten, C. -G.; Jussila, A.; Kemppainen, H.; Hallinen, T.; Soini, E.; Mankinen, P.; Valgardsson, S.; Veckman, V.; Nissinen, R.; Naessens, D.; Molander, P. (2019)
    Background and Aims: A retrospective non-interventional, multi-centre patient chart review study was conducted to investigate the association of faecal calprotectin (FC) 1 year (+/- 2 months) after biological therapy initiation with composite event-free survival (CEFS) consisting of surgical procedures, corticosteroid initiation, treatment failure or dose increase in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In addition, the correlations of FC and other tests of disease activity were assessed. Materials and methods: Data on Finnish CD patients initiating a biological therapy between 2010 and 2016, were collected. The association of FC and CEFS was analysed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modelling. The correlations were tested with Pearson's test. Results: Biological therapy was initiated in 186 patients, of which 87 (46.8%) had FC results available at 1 year and 80 had follow-up exceeding 14 months. The characteristics of patients with and without FC results were similar. Patients with elevated FC (>250 mu g/g) had a significantly increased risk of experiencing composite event (HR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3-8.9; p = .013) when compared to patients with normal FC (FC
  • Kerola, Anne M.; Palomäki, Antti; Rautava, Päivi; Nuotio, Maria; Kytö, Ville (2021)
    Background Evidence on the impact of sex on prognoses after myocardial infarction (MI) among older adults is limited. We evaluated sex differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes after MI in older adults. Methods and Results All patients with MI >= 70 years admitted to 20 Finnish hospitals during a 10-year period and discharged alive were studied retrospectively using a combination of national registries (n=31 578, 51% men, mean age 79). The primary outcome was combined major adverse cardiovascular event within 10-year follow-up. Sex differences in baseline features were equalized using inverse probability weighting adjustment. Women were older, with different comorbidity profiles and rarer ST-segment-elevation MI and revascularization, compared with men. Adenosine diphosphate inhibitors, anticoagulation, statins, and high-dose statins were more frequently used by men, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors and beta blockers by women. After balancing these differences by inverse probability weighting, the cumulative 10-year incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was 67.7% in men, 62.0% in women (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; CI, 1.13-1.21; P= 80 years. Conclusions Older men had higher long-term risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after MI, compared with older women with similar baseline features and evidence-based medications. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for confounding factors when studying sex differences in cardiovascular outcomes.
  • Saarikoski, Heli; Mustajoki, Jyri (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Economics 183 (2021), 106955
    Deliberative valuation of ecosystem services is expected to capture the diversity of values related to ecosystem services and to facilitate learning and reconsideration of previously held preferences and positions. This paper reports on a study of a deliberative non-monetary valuation process that was designed to address the value of peatland ecosystem services in Southern Finland. Three parallel citizen panels were organised in order to consider the relative merits of energy peat extraction and peatland protection and to assign value to peatland ecosystem services. The results suggest that increased understanding of peatlands' role in carbon storage, together with reflection on the underlying value positions, led the panellists to adopt a more critical view of energy peat use. All three panels came independently to the same conclusion that peat extraction should be gradually phased out and replaced with renewable energy production. The results also sustain the hypothesis that deliberative settings evoke citizen preferences as the arguments used in the discussions were predominantly public spirited, referring to the common good instead of individual interests. We discuss the outcomes and factors that influenced the deliberations and make recommendations for effective deliberative designs.
  • Bong, Indah Waty; Moeliono, Moira; Wong, Grace Yee; Brockhaus, Maria (2019)
    Despite the growing interest in social forestry, how much do we understand the social, economic and environmental outcomes and the conditions that enable SF to perform? In this article, we use a content analysis of literature on existing traditional SF practiced throughout Indonesia. It examines the outcomes of these systems and the conditions that enabled or hindered these outcomes to understand possible causal relations and changing dynamics between these conditions and SF performance. We discuss the gaps in how SF is assessed and understood in the literature to understand the important aspects of traditional SF that are not captured or that are lost when the diverse traditional systems are converted into other land uses. It aims to understand the potential trade-offs in the State’s push for formalizing SF if these aspects continue to be ignored.