Browsing by Subject "paikallisilmasto"

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  • Vilmi, A.; Zhao, W.; Picazo, F.; Li, M.; Heino, J.; Soininen, J.; Wang, J. (2019)
    Science of the Total Environment 702: 134974
    Understanding the role of climatic variation on biodiversity is of chief importance due to the ongoing biodiversity loss and climate change. Freshwaters, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, offer a valuable context to study biodiversity patterns of distinct organism groups in relation to climatic variation. In the Tibetan Plateau biodiversity hotspot - Hengduan Mountain region, we studied the effects of climate and local physico-chemical factors on stream microorganisms (i.e. bacteria) and macroorganisms (i.e. macroinvertebrates) in two parallel catchments with contrasting precipitation and temperature, that is, the Nujiang and Lancang Rivers. Diversities and community structures were better explained by climatic and local environmental variables in the drier and colder catchment and at higher elevations, than in the warmer and wetter conditions and at lower elevations. This suggests that communities may be more strongly assembled by deterministic processes in the former, comparatively harsher conditions, compared to the latter, more benign conditions. Macroinvertebrates were more strongly affected by climatic and local environmental factors compared to bacteria, but the diversities and community structures of the two groups showed spatially similar responses to overall abiotic variation, being especially evident with their community structures' responses to climate. Furthermore, bacterial and macroinvertebrate diversities were positively correlated in the drier and colder catchment, implying that these biologically and ecologically distinct organism groups are likely to be driven by similar processes in areas with such climatic conditions. We conclude that changes in climatic and local environmental conditions may affect the diversity of macroorganisms more strongly than that of microorganisms, at least in subtropical mountainous stream ecosystems studied here, but simultaneous responses of both groups to environmental changes can also be expected.
  • Fourcade, Yoan; WallisDeVries, Michiel F.; Kuussaari, Mikko; Swaay, Chris A. M.; Heliölä, Janne; Öckinger, Erik (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2021)
    Ecology Letters 24: 5, 950-957
    Habitat fragmentation may present a major impediment to species range shifts caused by climate change, but how it affects local community dynamics in a changing climate has so far not been adequately investigated empirically. Using long-term monitoring data of butterfly assemblages, we tested the effects of the amount and distribution of semi-natural habitat (SNH), moderated by species traits, on climate-driven species turnover. We found that spatially dispersed SNH favoured the colonisation of warm-adapted and mobile species. In contrast, extinction risk of cold-adapted species increased in dispersed (as opposed to aggregated) habitats and when the amount of SNH was low. Strengthening habitat networks by maintaining or creating stepping-stone patches could thus allow warm-adapted species to expand their range, while increasing the area of natural habitat and its spatial cohesion may be important to aid the local persistence of species threatened by a warming climate.
  • Päivänen, Juhani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1973)
  • Karhinen, Santtu; Peltomaa, Juha; Riekkinen, Venla; Saikku, Laura (Elsevier, 2021)
    Global Environmental Change 67 (2021), 102225
    Local governments have set highly ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets on a strategic level, in some cases influenced by intermediary networks. Yet, the quantitative impacts of climate strategies or the sharing of best practices on emissions still remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an intermediary network on municipal greenhouse gas emissions. This was done through an econometric analysis of the emissions of municipalities that are members of the Finnish Hinku (Towards Carbon Neutral Municipalities) network, and through comprehensive qualitative interviews conducted in 40 of those municipalities. Our quantitative results show that Hinku network membership has successfully led to the lowering of greenhouse gas emission levels in participating municipalities. The qualitative interviews suggest that this is due to systematic local level climate work, enhanced by network membership. The network functions as an intermediary in two ways: by providing expertise and enabling peer-support. In addition, it has also succeeded in legitimising local level climate action. Ambitious local level climate action can also affect the ambition of national climate policy, which in turn may reflect on the amount resources allocated to local climate action.
  • Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Amosov, Pavel; Aseyeva, Elena; Atkins, Cliff; Baklanov, Alexander; Baldo, Clarissa; Barr, Sarah L.; Barzycka, Barbara; Benning, Liane G.; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Enchilik, Polina; Frolov, Denis; Gassó, Santiago; Kandler, Konrad; Kasimov, Nikolay; Kavan, Jan; King, James; Koroleva, Tatyana; Krupskaya, Viktoria; Kulmala, Markku; Kusiak, Monika; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Laska, Michał; Lasne, Jerome; Lewandowski, Marek; Luks, Bartłomiej; McQuaid, James B.; Moroni, Beatrice; Murray, Benjamin; Möhler, Ottmar; Nawrot, Adam; Nickovic, Slobodan; O’Neill, Norman T.; Pejanovic, Goran; Popovicheva, Olga; Ranjbar, Keyvan; Romanias, Manolis; Samonova, Olga; Sanchez-Marroquin, Alberto; Schepanski, Kerstin; Semenkov, Ivan; Sharapova, Anna; Shevnina, Elena; Shi, Zongbo; Sofiev, Mikhail; Thevenet, Frédéric; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Timofeev, Mikhail; Umo, Nsikanabasi Silas; Uppstu, Andreas; Urupina, Darya; Varga, György; Werner, Tomasz; Arnalds, Olafur; Vukovic Vimic, Ana (Copernicus Publ., 2022)
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Dust particles from high latitudes have a potentially large local, regional, and global significance to climate and the environment as short-lived climate forcers, air pollutants, and nutrient sources. Identifying the locations of local dust sources and their emission, transport, and deposition processes is important for understanding the multiple impacts of high-latitude dust (HLD) on the Earth's systems. Here, we identify, describe, and quantify the source intensity (SI) values, which show the potential of soil surfaces for dust emission scaled to values 0 to 1 concerning globally best productive sources, using the Global Sand and Dust Storms Source Base Map (G-SDS-SBM). This includes 64 HLD sources in our collection for the northern (Alaska, Canada, Denmark, Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, Sweden, and Russia) and southern (Antarctica and Patagonia) high latitudes. Activity from most of these HLD sources shows seasonal character. It is estimated that high-latitude land areas with higher (SI ≥0.5), very high (SI ≥0.7), and the highest potential (SI ≥0.9) for dust emission cover >1 670 000 km2, >560 000 km2, and >240 000 km2, respectively. In the Arctic HLD region (≥60∘ N), land area with SI ≥0.5 is 5.5 % (1 035 059 km2), area with SI ≥0.7 is 2.3 % (440 804 km2), and area with SI ≥0.9 is 1.1 % (208 701 km2). Minimum SI values in the northern HLD region are about 3 orders of magnitude smaller, indicating that the dust sources of this region greatly depend on weather conditions. Our spatial dust source distribution analysis modeling results showed evidence supporting a northern HLD belt, defined as the area north of 50∘ N, with a “transitional HLD-source area” extending at latitudes 50–58∘ N in Eurasia and 50–55∘ N in Canada and a “cold HLD-source area” including areas north of 60∘ N in Eurasia and north of 58∘ N in Canada, with currently “no dust source” area between the HLD and low-latitude dust (LLD) dust belt, except for British Columbia. Using the global atmospheric transport model SILAM, we estimated that 1.0 % of the global dust emission originated from the high-latitude regions. About 57 % of the dust deposition in snow- and ice-covered Arctic regions was from HLD sources. In the southern HLD region, soil surface conditions are favorable for dust emission during the whole year. Climate change can cause a decrease in the duration of snow cover, retreat of glaciers, and an increase in drought, heatwave intensity, and frequency, leading to the increasing frequency of topsoil conditions favorable for dust emission, which increases the probability of dust storms. Our study provides a step forward to improve the representation of HLD in models and to monitor, quantify, and assess the environmental and climate significance of HLD.